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Sociology, Anthropology, & Criminal Justice Studies

Brian D. Bates, Chair
Beverly Speas, Secretary

The Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Criminal Justice Studies offers undergraduate majors and minors in sociology, anthropology, and criminology and criminal justice. Additionally, students may pursue a minor in Computer Security, Forensics, and Law. Students pursuing this interdisciplinary minor will take courses in Computer Information Management Systems, Computer Science, and Criminology and Criminal Justice. Students majoring in sociology or in anthropology may earn either the BA or BS degree. Students majoring in criminology and criminal justice will earn a BS degree.

Students with a GPA below 2.0 will not be accepted as majors. Students may reapply after their GPA has increased to 2.0.

The departmental curriculum is designed to provide knowledge, skills and abilities to students who plan to (1) seek employment in business, industry, criminal justice, human service, human services, or related fields, (2) pursue advanced studies in law, public policy, urban planning, or related fields, or (3) engage in graduate work in sociology, anthropology, criminology, criminal justice, or related fields.

The sociology major may specialize in concentrations in Family Studies or Pre-Law. The anthropology major will be exposed to the four fields of anthropology: archaeology, physical anthropology, cultural anthropology, and linguistics. Of particular interest to Criminology and Criminal Justice majors are unique agreements with the Central Virginia Criminal Justice Academy and Richmond Police Academy whereby students can spend one semester of their senior year at the Academy earning academic credit and becoming certified to work as law enforcement officers in the Commonwealth of Virginia upon graduation.

Internships or field experiences are required for all three majors offered in the department. In the past, students have interned in a variety of settings including probation and parole offices, community colleges, local government branches, planning and research agencies, physical and mental health care facilities, and museums. A popular offering in the department is the Archaeology Field School, which can be used by anthropology majors to fulfill their internship requirement. In the Field School students learn about historic and prehistoric civilizations through supervised excavations of actual settlements. The Field School is offered in Summer Sessions. For more information, contact Dr. Brian D. Bates.

Through a variety of activities, the department attempts to provide students with a program of breadth and depth characteristic of the Longwood educational experience. Students have the opportunity to join several clubs in the department, including a Sociology, Anthropology, and Criminal Justice Club; Lambda Alpha Epsilon-a criminal justice fraternity; and Primtech-an archaeology club designed to teach primitive technology. Additionally, the department sponsors honor societies for all three majors: Alpha Kappa Delta, International Sociology Honor Society; Lambda Alpha, National Collegiate Honors Society for Anthropology; and Alpha Phi Sigma, National Criminal Justice Honor Society. Each academic year the departmental faculty chooses outstanding students to receive the Kathleen Goodwin Cover Sociology Scholarship, the Diane M. Sheffield Memorial Scholarship, and the Outstanding Graduating Senior in the Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Criminal Justice Studies Award.

General education requirements for the student majoring in sociology, anthropology, and criminology and criminal justice can be found under "General Education Requirements" in this catalog. It is the responsibility of all students to consult with their academic advisor prior to each registration to ensure the proper fulfillment of general education and departmental requirements for graduation. Students minoring in sociology, anthropology, or criminology and criminal justice must satisfy the course requirements of the department of their major subject. Majors and minors are required to participate in yearly curriculum assessment, which may consist of comprehensive examinations.

The department occupies offices and classrooms in Main and West Ruffner. The administrative office of the department is located in Main Ruffner Room 202 on the west side of the Rotunda.

SOCIOLOGY PROGRAM

Faculty

  • Lee D. Millar Bidwell, PhD, Professor of Sociology
  • William Burger, PhD, Associate Professor of Sociology and Criminal Justice
  • Debra S. Kelley, PhD, Associate Professor of Sociology and Criminal Justice
  • Jason S. Milne, PhD, Assistant Professor of Sociology
  • Kenneth B. Perkins, PhD, Professor of Sociology
  • Michael P. Phelan, PhD, Assistant Professor of Sociology and Criminal Justice
  • Carl M. Riden, PhD, Assistant Professor of Sociology
  • Michael Ryan, PhD, Visiting Assistant Professor of Sociology

The objective of the sociology major is to prepare students for occupations in business, industry, government, and human service. The major is appropriate preparation for graduate study in the social sciences and law. The focus of sociology is on social forces, institutions, organizations, and how individuals interface with society. The student's personal growth can be achieved through understanding of the rich diversity of the modern world. Skills can be developed in oral and written communication, critical thinking, scientific research methods, statistics and computerized data analysis.

SOCIOLOGY MAJOR, BA or BS DEGREE

A. General Education Core Requirement/41 credits
Sociology majors may NOT use SOCL 101 or 102 for Goal 8
Sociology majors must take PHIL 308, 315 or 316 to satisfy Goal 13
Sociology majors must take SOCL 490, 492 or 498 to satisfy Goal 15

B. Additional Degree Requirements, BA/6 credits
Additional Degree Requirements, BS/7 credits

C. Major Requirements/41 credits (plus 1 credit in General Education)
SOCL 101 Principles of Sociology/3 credits
SOCL 102 Contemporary Social Problems/3 credits
SOCL 233 Race, Class, and Gender/3 credits
SOCL 345 Social Research/3 credits
SOCL 346 Basic Statistics/3 credits
SOCL 389 Sociological Theory/3 credits
SOCL 461 Senior Seminar in Sociology/3 credits
Sociology electives/18 credits
Choose three credits from the following (one credit of these three credits fulfills General Education Goal 15):
SOCL 490 Directed Independent Study/3 credits
SOCL 492 Internship in Sociology/3 credits
SOCL 498 Honors Research in Sociology/3 credits

D. No grade below C- is accepted for graduation in major course work.

E. General Electives BA Degree/32 credits
General Electives BS Degree: 31 credits

F. Total Credits Required for BA or BS in Sociology/120

SOCIOLOGY MAJOR, BA or BS DEGREE

Family Studies Concentration

A. General Education Core Requirement/41 credits
Sociology majors may NOT use SOCL 101 or 102 for Goal 8
Sociology majors must take PHIL 308, 315 or 316 to satisfy Goal 13
Sociology majors must take SOCL 490, 492 or 498 to satisfy Goal 15

B. Additional Degree Requirements, BA/6 credits
Additional Degree Requirements, BS/7 credits

C. Major Requirements/41 credits (plus 1 credit in General Education)
SOCL 101 Principles of Sociology/3 credits
SOCL 102 Contemporary Social Problems/3 credits
SOCL 222 Socialization: Sociology of Child Development/3 credits
SOCL 233 Race, Class, and Gender/3 credits
SOCL 241 Sociology of Marriage and the Family/ 3 credits
SOCL 345 Social Research/3 credits
SOCL 346 Basic Statistics/3 credits
SOCL 389 Sociological Theory/3 credits
SOCL 461 Senior Seminar in Sociology/3 credits
PSYC 373 Adolescent Development/3 credits
SOWK 337 Family and Children's Services/3 credits
Choose three credits from the following:
SOCL 331 Social Gerontology/3 credits
PSYC 375 Psychology of Adulthood and Aging/3 credits
RECR 304 Leisure and Aging/3 credits
Choose three credits from the following:
SOCL 325 Women and Society/3 credits
SOCL 332 Dying and Death/3 credits
CRIM 335 Juvenile Delinquency/3 credits
SOCL 351 Sociology of Family Violence/3 credits
Choose three credits from the following (one credit of these three credits fulfills General Education Goal 15):
SOCL 490 Directed Independent Study/3 credits
SOCL 492 Internship in Sociology/3 credits
SOCL 498 Honors Research in Sociology/3 credits

D. No grade below C- is accepted for graduation in major course work

E. General Electives BA Degree/32 credits
General Electives BS Degree/31 credits

F. Total Credits Required for BA or BS in Sociology with a Concentration in Family Studies/120

SOCIOLOGY MAJOR, BA or BS DEGREE

Pre-Law Concentration

A. General Education Core Requirement/41 credits
Sociology majors may not use SOCL 101 or 102 for Goal 8
Sociology majors must take PHIL 308, 315 or 316 to satisfy Goal 13
Sociology majors must take SOCL 490, 492 or 498 to satisfy Goal

B. Additional Degree Requirements, BA/6 credits
Additional Degree Requirements, BS/7 credits

C. Major Requirements/41 credits (plus 1 credit included in General Education)
SOCL 101 Principles of Sociology/3 credits
SOCL 102 Contemporary Social Problems/3 credits
SOCL 233 Race, Class, and Gender/3 credits
SOCL 345 Social Research/3 credits
SOCL 346 Basic Statistics/3 credits
CRIM 375 Criminology/3 credits
SOCL 376 Sociology of Law/3 credits
SOCL 389 Sociological Theory/3 credits
SOCL 461 Senior Seminar in Sociology/3 credits
Sociology electives*/12 credits
Choose three credits from the following (one credit of these three credits fulfills General Education Goal 15):
SOCL 490 Directed Independent Study/3 credits
SOCL 492 Internship in Sociology/3 credits
SOCL 498 Honors Research in Sociology/3 credits

*Recommended sociology electives:
SOCL 205 Deviance/3 credits
SOCL 241 Marriage and the Family/3 credits
CRIM 200 Introduction to Corrections/3 credits
CRIM 335 Juvenile Delinquency/3 credits
SOCL 350 Power and Privilege: Social Stratification/3 credits
SOCL 355 The Community/3 credits
SOCL 360 Urban Sociology/3 credits

Courses Highly Recommended as General Electives for the Pre-Law Concentration:
POSC 230 Administration of Criminal Justice/3 credits
POSC 355 Constitutional Rights and Liberties/3 credits
POSC 356 Constitutional Rights and Liberties/3 credits
ACCT 240 Principles of Accounting I/4 credits
ACCT 242 Principles of Accounting II/4 credits
ECON 218 Principles of Economics (Macro Emphasis)/3 credits
PHIL 200 Introduction to Philosophy/3 credits
PHIL 300 Logic/3 credits
COMM 200 Fundamentals of Communication/3 credits

D. No grade below C- is accepted for graduation in major course work

E. General Electives BA Degree/32 credits
General Electives BS Degree/31 credits

F. Total Credits Required for BA or BS in Sociology with a Concentration in Pre-Law/120

MINOR IN SOCIOLOGY

Minor Requirements/18 credits
SOCL 101 Principles of Sociology/3 credits
SOCL 102 Contemporary Social Problems/3 credits
SOCL 345 Social Research/3 credits
SOCL 389 Sociological Theory/3 credits
Sociology electives/6 credits

SOCIOLOGY COURSE DESCRIPTIONS (SOCL)

General Education Courses *
Writing Intensive Courses **
Speaking Intensive Course ***

Sociology 101. Principles of Sociology. Principles of Sociology seeks to impart an analytical framework with which the student can better understand the relationship between individual and social structure. Theories of functionalism, conflict, symbolic interactionism, and socialization will be discussed. The concepts of normative culture, technology, demography, ethnocentrism, values, norms, institutions, status, role, bureaucracy, and stratification will be developed and applied to social institutions. These institutions will include: the formal organization, courtship, marriage and family, religion, health care service delivery, media, politics, military, and criminal justice. 3 credits. *

Sociology 102. Contemporary Social Problems. Contemporary Social Problems examines problems confronted by humans as both creators and objects of society. Problems of family instability, health and disease, war, distribution of resources, substance abuse, gender role definition, prejudice, discrimination and institutional response to deviance will be addressed. Particular emphasis is given to how groups define, experience, and attempt to solve these social problems. Attention will also be given to a global perspective and how the concepts of fact, truth, right and wrong are socially constructed. 3 credits. *

Sociology 205. Deviance. This course is an in-depth examination of deviant behavior, its social forms and functions. Societal response to deviance is examined to highlight norms, values and control mechanisms. Emphasis is placed on sociological theories that explain deviant behavior. 3 credits. **

Sociology 220. Self in Society. The interplay of societal forces and self are examined in this course. Attention is given to such topics as: self in society and society in self; collective behavior; mass movements, public opinion, propaganda and the mass media; group processes; socialization and social psychological aspects of social structure. 3 credits.

Sociology 222. Socialization: Sociology of Child Development. This course is designed to give students an understanding of the foundations and functions of the socialization process. Socialization is examined from infancy through adolescence. Topics that will be explored include socialization theory, language acquisition, identity formation, agencies of socialization, and how socialization experiences differ by gender, race, and socioeconomic status. 3 credits.

Sociology 233. Race, Class, and Gender. This course focuses on the causes, consequences and justifications of the inequalities associated with race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender in the United States and in other societies. Current social policies are critically examined and alternative routes to social change are explored. Race, class and gender are significant variables by which human societies make distinctions among their members. Such distinctions often lead to an inequitable distribution of political power, social well-being, and the resources available to individual members of the society. In this course we seek to increase students' awareness and understanding of the inequities in society and the consequences of those inequities for different communities and individuals within society.

Sociology 241. Marriage and the Family. The history of American families and contemporary family issues are analyzed using sociological theory and research. Topics that are covered include marriage, cohabitation, divorce, single parent families, blended families, the impact of race and gender norms, and socioeconomic status on family structure. 3 credits. **

Sociology 295. Special Topics. Selected topics in Sociology. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. 3 credits.

Sociology 301. Sociology of Religion. This course will acquaint students with the broad range of concepts, theories, and issues that have shaped the sociological study of religion. The course begins with a consideration of the sociological perspective on religion. Students will examine various sociological definitions of religion and be introduced to the methods used in the sociological analysis of religion. Finally, religious diversity, elements of religion, religious experiences, and the functions and dysfunctions of religion will be addressed. While the course will focus on religion in the contemporary United States, students will also consider religion as a key element in all human societies. Prerequisite: SOCL 101 or SOCL 102 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

Sociology 302.  Sociology of Popular Culture.  This course will present a variety of sociological perspectives on popular culture.  During the course students will examine the nature and forms of popular culture, its role in our lives, and its broad effects on American society and culture.  More specifically, students will critically examine how popular culture is produced, disseminated, consumed, interpreted, and experienced in the United States.  Prerequisite:  SOCL 101 or SOCL 102 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

Sociology 305. Society and Technology: Identity, Community, and Ethics. This course provides an analysis of the relationship between science, technology, and society. The focus is on information-based technology that is rapidly restructuring the nature of human interaction and contemporary reality personally, ethically, and institutionally. Topics will include identity, social interaction, community, work, family, inequality, deviance, and social control. Prerequisite: SOCL 101 or SOCL 102 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

Sociology 310. Complex Organizations. In this course students engage in a study of complex organizations such as private enterprises, voluntary associations, and governmental bureaucracies in terms of political-economic environment, formal and informal structure, technology, management ideologies, control and commitment of personnel, and impact on lives of individuals. Classical and recent theory and research are examined. Prerequisite: SOCL 101 or SOCL 102 or permission of instructor. 3 credits. **

Sociology 311, 312. Studies Abroad. These courses are primarily intended for transfer of credit earned abroad in courses on sociology. 1-18 credits.

Sociology 320. Sociology of Education. Sociology of Education examines the structure and process of education in contemporary society. The primary focus is on U.S. public education. Topics include the contribution of sociology to understanding education and teaching; the relationship of education to other institutions such as the family, government, religion, and the economy; demographic changes that effect education; the effect of social class on student achievement and teaching; formal and informal positions, roles and processes in schools; and consideration of current issues such as school funding, compensatory and special education programs, race and gender issues, and educational reform movements. Open to Juniors and Seniors only. 3 credits.

Sociology 321 (Anthropology 321). Supernatural Belief Systems. This course provides an investigation of the social aspects of religion, its forms of organization, and its relationships to other institutions. 3 credits.

Sociology 325 (Anthropology 325). Gender and Society. This course provides an examination of the social construction of gender and the social organization of gender inequality, as well as an analysis of gender identity in socialization, interpersonal behavior, the family, the media, and the economy. 3 credits.

Sociology 326. The Sociology of the Civil Rights Movement. This course examines the social and intellectual presuppositions that led to the Civil Rights Movement. Included in the course is an examination of the different approaches to equality that have developed by noted black and white intellectuals including Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Malcolm X. The impact of technological changes and the consequences of various Supreme Court decisions on the Civil Rights Movement also are discussed. Prerequisite: SOCL 101 or SOCL 102 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

Sociology 331. Social Gerontology. This course provides a comprehensive examination of social gerontology, with particular emphasis on the historical changes in the role of the elderly in society, future social and demographic trends, the contribution of sociological theories to understanding this group, and public policy implications. Also addressed are specific social problems associated with aging (poverty, loneliness, suicide). Prerequisite: SOCL 101 or SOCL 102 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

Sociology 332. Sociology of Dying and Death. The course explores social processes attendant to dying and death, including those that define the role processes of dying and the status of being dead. The effects of disruption in dyads, families, and larger social organizations will be studied. The thesis that emotions are socially and culturally mediated will be examined. Other topics include cross-cultural causes of death, demography of death, care systems which attend dying, the concept and treatment of pain, funeral and body dispositions, and medical and legal ethics. Prerequisite: SOCL 101 or SOCL 102 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

Sociology 345. Social Research. In this course students learn the logical basis for conceptualization and research in sociology. Research design, concept formation, data collection, data reduction, data analysis, and data interpretation are studied. Emphasis is placed on the application of methods to various aspects of research projects undertaken by members of the class. Offered fall semester. Open to Juniors and Seniors only. 3 credits. **

Sociology 346. Basic Statistics. Computer application of quantitative and statistical techniques to sociological data. Emphasis on questionnaire construction, coding, sampling, building and maintaining data sets, probability, statistical distributions, hypothesis testing, and theoretical modeling. Students are required to become proficient in the use of a statistical software package. Offered spring semester. Open to Juniors and Seniors only. Prerequisite: SOCL 345. 3 credits. **

Sociology 350. Power and Privilege: Social Stratification. This course is a study of how power, wealth, and prestige are built into the structure of society. The consequences of social ranking, class identification, and opportunities for social mobility are also explored. Prerequisite: SOCL 101 or SOCL 102 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

Sociology 351. Sociology of Family Violence. This course is designed to familiarize students with the sociological literature on family violence. Topics which will be explored include the social causes and consequences of spouse abuse, marital rape, child maltreatment (physical abuse, neglect, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse) and parent abuse, as well as the response of the criminal justice system to and the societal perceptions of such violence. Emphasis will be on synthesizing and critiquing family violence theories and research. Prerequisite: SOCL 101 or SOCL 102 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

Sociology 355 (Anthropology 355). The Community. Students review theories of community and analyze representative community studies. 3 credits.

Sociology 360. Urban Sociology. This course provides an examination of city life, its problems and prospects. The nature of organization, bureaucratization, and massification including social, economic, and political features of metropolitan areas are studied. Urban lifestyles and dilemmas are also discussed. Prerequisite: SOCL 101 or SOCL 102 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

Sociology 370. Medical Sociology. Students study sociocultural factors that influence health, health care and illness in addition to an analysis of health care services, hospital organization, roles and role relationships in the health care setting and the processes of socialization of health care personnel and patients. Prerequisite: SOCL 101or SOCL 102 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

Sociology 376. Sociology of Law. In this course students learn the relationship between law and social structure. They further study the processes of law creation, interpretation, enforcement and modification, and examine police, judicial and jury behavior as well as analyze the legal profession itself. 3 credits.

Sociology 381, 382. Topical Seminars. These courses are advanced seminars for sociology majors and non-majors interested in sociology. These seminars are designed to permit small groups of qualified students to pursue specialized topics in sociology, as listed below. Prerequisite: SOCL 101, SOCL 102 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

Collective Behavior and Social Movements. In this course, students study social behavior that is guided by nontraditional norms and is less structured than more traditional behaviors. The topics of crowds, cults, riots, rebellions, social change movements, and revolutions are explored.

Small Groups. In this course, students gain a sociological appreciation of units consisting of two or more members engaged in meaningful contact such as families, work groups, therapeutic associations, athletic teams, and peer groupings.

Sociology of Mass Communication. This course is an exploration of the structure of media industries (press, radio, television, and advertising), their impact on audiences, mass culture, and specific public issues such as violence and politics.

Sociology of Sport and Leisure. This course provides an analysis of sport and leisure as changing social institutions emphasizing sex and ethnic status, collegiate sport, professionalization, law and shifting social values.

Sociology 389. Sociological Theory. This course is an examination of the major theoretical positions in classical and current sociology. Offered fall semester. Open to Juniors and Seniors only. 3 credits.

Sociology 455 (Anthropology 455). Social Change. In this course students study significant alterations in the organization of society and in patterns of values, norms, and behavior over time. The social and economic development associated with modernization and industrialization and various sources of change found in technology, social structure, population, the environment, and cultural innovation are explored. Prerequisite: SOCL 101 or ANTH 101 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

Sociology 461. Senior Seminar in Sociology. This course is a seminar for the senior sociology major, designed to integrate knowledge of specific subfields into a comprehensive view of sociology and its role in relation to other sciences. Open only to senior sociology majors. 3 credits. * and ** and ***

Sociology 490. Directed Independent Study. Individualized study. Must be approved by the head of the department. 1-18 credits.

Sociology 492. Internship in Sociology. This course provides direct student learning in applied settings that permits a practiced supervised experience. Students learn through performance in meaningful tasks in a variety of social environments. Prerequisite: 18 hours of sociology at Longwood. Students' cumulative GPA must be 2.0 or above to be eligible for internship. Must be arranged at least one semester in advance with chair of department. May be repeated in subsequent semesters. Variable credit; no more than 15 total credits may be earned. Only six credit hours of Internship will earn quality points (A, B, C, and D grades); all credits earned beyond six credits will be assigned Pass/Fail grades.1-15 credits. ***

Sociology 495. Special Topics. These courses are recommended when the student desires to pursue a specialized topic in depth. Students must have permission of department chair and instructor directing the course. Students' cumulative GPA must be 2.50 or higher to be eligible. 3 credits.

Sociology 498. Honors Research in Sociology. Students conduct research in sociology under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits.

ANTHROPOLOGY PROGRAM

Faculty

  • Brian D. Bates, PhD, Associate Professor of Anthropology
  • Douglas M. Dalton, PhD, Professor of Anthropology
  • James W. Jordan, PhD, Professor of Sociology and Anthropology
  • Walter R. T. Witschey, PhD, Professor of Anthropology and Science Education

Anthropology focuses on the cultural, social, and biological diversity of human groups in the present, historic, and prehistoric past. This great diversity is examined through the study of patterns of culture, social behavior, language structure, archaeological artifacts, and evolution.

The objective of the anthropology major is to prepare students for careers in business and industry, government, and human service. Additionally, the major is appropriate preparation for graduate study in anthropology or other social sciences.

The objective of the minor in anthropology is to acquaint the student with the discipline and to survey the techniques of research used in physical anthropology, linguistics, archaeology, and social cultural anthropology. Research methods, critical thinking, oral and written communication are emphasized. The minor is intended to enhance career possibilities.

Students with a GPA below 2.0 will not be accepted as majors. Students may reapply after their GPA has increased to 2.0.

ANTHROPOLOGY MAJOR, BA or BS DEGREE

A. General Education Core Requirement/41 credits

Anthropology majors may NOT use ANTH 101 for Goal 9
Anthropology majors must take PHIL 308, 315 or 316 to satisfy Goal 13
Anthropology majors must take ANTH 296, 490, 492 or 498 to satisfy Goal 15

B. Additional Degree Requirements, BA/6 credits
Additional Degree Requirements, BS/7 credits

C. Major Requirements/41 credits (plus 1 credit included in General Education)
ANTH 101 Introduction to Anthropology/3 credits
ANTH 202 Archaeology/3 credits
ANTH 203 Physical Anthropology/3 credits
ANTH 204 Language and Culture/3 credits
ANTH 410 Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology/3 credits
ANTH 460 Anthropological Theory/3 credits
ANTH 461 Senior Seminar in Anthropology/3 credits
Choose six credits from the following:
ANTH 314 Indians of North America/3 credits
ANTH 315 South American Indians/3 credits
ANTH 316 People of Africa/3 credits
ANTH 317 Peoples of the Pacific/3 credits
Choose six credits from the following:
ANTH 320 Folklore/3 credits
ANTH 321 Supernatural Belief Systems/3 credits
ANTH 325 Women and Society/3 credits
ANTH 355 The Community/3 credits
Anthropology electives/6 credits
Choose three credits from the following (one credit of these three credits fulfills General Education Goal 15):
ANTH 296 Field Methods in Archaeology/3 to 6 credits
ANTH 490 Directed Independent Study/3 credits
ANTH 492 Internship in Anthropology/3 credits
ANTH 498 Honors Research in Anthropology/3 credits

D. No grade below C- is accepted for graduation in major course work

E. General Electives BA Degree/32 credits
General Electives BS Degree/31 credits

F. Total Credits Required for BA or BS in Anthropology/120

NOTE: Three hours of Archaeology Field School may count as Anthropology 202.

MINOR IN ANTHROPOLOGY

Minor Requirements/18 credits
ANTH 101 Introduction to Anthropology/3 credits
Choose one of the following:
ANTH 202 Archaeology/3 credits
ANTH 203 Physical Anthropology/3 credits
Choose one of the following:
ANTH 314 Indians of North America/3 credits
ANTH 315 South American Indians/3 credits
ANTH 316 People of Africa/3 credits
ANTH 317 Peoples of the Pacific/3 credits
Choose one of the following:
ANTH 320 Folklore/3 credits
ANTH 321 Supernatural Believe Systems/3 credits
ANTH 325 Women and Society/3 credits
ANTH 355 The Community/3 credits
Anthropology electives/6 credit

ANTHROPOLOGY COURSE DESCRIPTIONS (ANTH)

General Education Course *
Writing Intensive Course **

Speaking Intensive Course ***

Anthropology 101. Introduction to Anthropology. The origins, evolution, and present biological and cultural diversity of the human species using data from the fossil record, archaeological artifacts, the structure of languages, and behavior and world-view of people living in other cultures. 3 credits. *

Anthropology 106/Women's and Gender Studies 106. Introduction to Women's Studies. The course will introduce students to literature in the social sciences by and about women. We will explore key roles which women play in society, how they have questioned these roles, and contributions which women make in different societies. We will read about women in our own and other societies as a way to explore these questions. 3 credits. * and **

Anthropology 202. Archaeology. A survey course of the techniques used to locate, survey, sample and excavate prehistoric and historic archaeological sites. The analysis of artifacts and features, typing of collection of stone tools and pottery, and case studies of well known archaeological sites from various culture areas of the world. 3 credits. ** and ***

Anthropology 203. Physical Anthropology. An analysis of prehistoric and contemporary humans as physical organisms. The study of human origins and evolution from 5 million years ago to the present. The study of variation in human populations in characteristics such as skin color, blood type, susceptibility to diseases, and adaptations to extremes of cold, heat, and altitude. 3 credits.

Anthropology 204. Language and Culture. The analysis of language with stress on the dependence of language upon its sociological context. A survey of linguistic variability, social dialectology, language change, and ethnolinguistic analysis. 3 credits.

Anthropology 205. Human Life in the Prehistoric World. An examination of the behavior and values likely to have been central to human groups in prehistoric times. The seminar approach will be employed with continual student dialog based on readings. Collections of stone tools and pottery shards will be analyzed in class. 3 credits.

Anthropology 280. Archaeological Laboratory Methods. This course provides a basic introduction to archaeological laboratory methods as well as illustration. Instruction in the essential elements of any archaeological lab will provide the student with the necessary knowledge to undertake the basic organization and analysis of data recovered from an archaeological site. 3 credits.

Anthropology 295. Special Topics. Selected topics in Anthropology. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. 3 credits. ***

Anthropology 296. Field Methods in Archaeology. The skills necessary to excavate historic and prehistoric sites and to recognize and recover archaeological artifacts. The site work consists of learning the techniques of excavation, mapping, soil analysis, the recovery, washing and analysis of prehistoric stone tools and historic artifacts, and the interpretation of stratigraphy. Offered during summer session. 6 credits.

Anthropology 311, 312. Studies Abroad. Primarily intended for transfer of credit earned abroad in courses on anthropology. 1-18 credits.

Anthropology 314. Indians of North America. Descriptions, comparisons, and analysis of past and present Indian cultures. Possible origins of the various North American Indian tribes will also be discussed and will be supported by the use of archaeological and linguistic data. 3 credits. **

Anthropology 315. South American Indians. A survey course of archaeological and ethnographic focusing on hunter-gatherer and horticulturalist Indian groups. The effects of social-cultural change in contemporary Indian life will be a major component of the course. 3 credits.

Anthropology 316. People of Africa. An analysis of the human cultures of pre-historic and contemporary Africa. Archaeological and linguistic data will be used to trace the biological and cultural relationships among contemporary African societies. 3 credits. **

Anthropology 317. Peoples of the Pacific. Historical and contemporary descriptions of the varieties of peoples and cultures in Polynesia, Micronesia, and Melanesia. 3 credits. **

Anthropology 320. Folklore. The oral techniques used in literate and non-literate cultures to pass traditions from generation to generation. The forms and functions of folktales, proverbs, curses, folk-songs, riddles, ceremonies, folk art, and games in Western and non-Western culture. 3 credits.

Anthropology 321 (Sociology 321). Supernatural Belief Systems. An investigation of the social aspects of religion, its forms of organization, and its relationships to other institutions. 3 credits.

Anthropology 325 (Sociology 325). Gender and Society. This course provides an examination of the social construction of gender and the social organization of gender inequality, as well as an analysis of gender identity in socialization, interpersonal behavior, the family, the media, and the economy. 3 credits.

Anthropology 350. Advanced Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management This course provides students with in-depth exposure to advanced archaeological practices such as the development of research proposals, pre-excavation planning, excavation management, surveying methods involving a transit or theodolite, mapping, photography, and computer applications in archaeology. Students will also be involved in preparations for upcoming projects to be conducted by the Longwood Archaeology Field School.  All of the techniques and methods will be considered within the framework of Cultural Resource Management laws and practices at the local, state, and federal level. Prerequisite: ANTH 202. **

Anthropology 355 (Sociology 355). The Community. Review of theories of community and analysis of representative community studies. 3 credits.

Anthropology 410. Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology. The methods employed by anthropologists in their gathering and analysis of material of the behavior of people living in other cultures. Methods surveyed include participant observation, analysis of speech patterns, collection of genealogies, mapping, collection of oral histories, semantic analysis and the eliciting of symbol systems. 3 credits.

Anthropology 450. Archaeological Theory. This course provides students with detailed knowledge of both the theoretical and practical issues facing archaeologists today. By participating in seminar-style discussions students will explore a wide range of topics from the history of archaeology and the beginnings of "archaeological theory" to the most current cultural resource management practices. The course offers students the opportunity to delve into topics such as theoretical archaeology including competing schools of thought and various proponents of important ideas and concepts within the discipline Prerequisite: ANTH 202 or ANTH 296. ** and *** 

Anthropology 455 (Sociology 455). Social Change. The study of significant alterations in the organization of society and in patterns of values, norms, and behavior over time. Explores the social and economic development associated with modernization and industrialization and various sources of change found in technology, social structure, population, the environment, and cultural innovation. Prerequisite: SOCL 101 or ANTH 101 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

Anthropology 460. Anthropological Theory. The history of theory and models in anthropology. An overview of the intellectual "schools" which have affected research in the past and a survey of present models in anthropological thinking. 3 credits. **

Anthropology 461. Senior Seminar in Anthropology. A seminar for senior anthropology majors, designed to integrate knowledge of specific subfields into a comprehensive view of anthropology and its role in relation to other sciences. Open only to senior anthropology majors. 3 credits. ** and ***

Anthropology 490. Directed Independent Study. Individualized study. Must be approved by the head of the department. 1-18 credits.

Anthropology 492. Internship in Anthropology. Directed student learning in applied settings, that permits a practiced, supervised experience. Students learn through performance in meaningful tasks in a variety of social environments. May be repeated. Prerequisite: 18 hours of anthropology. Student's cumulative GPA must be 2.0 or above to be eligible for internship. Must be arranged in advance with program director or department chair. Variable credit: 1-15 hours per semester. ***

Anthropology 495. Special Topics. Selected topics in Anthropology. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. 3 credits.

Anthropology 496. The Organization and Execution of Archaeological Fieldwork. Advanced students with experience in basic field methods in archaeology learn the skills necessary to organize and supervise the execution of archaeological excavations. Students will serve as assistants to the Director of an ongoing excavation and will aid in the design of the field strategy, intra-site sampling techniques, site mapping, and artifact and feature plotting and recording. Offered during summer session. 6 credits.

Anthropology 497. Fieldwork in South American Archaeology. This course is designed to expose students to the skills and methods needed to excavate prehistoric sites and to recover and analyze artifacts and features. Students will have the opportunity to work in laboratory as well as field settings. Prerequisite: Permission of Instructor. 6 credits.

Anthropology 498. Honors Research in Anthropology. Students conduct research in anthropology under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits. **

CRIMINOLOGY AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE

Faculty

  • Lee D. Millar Bidwell, PhD, Professor of Sociology
  • William Burger, PhD, Associate Professor of Sociology and Criminal Justice
  • Debra S. Kelley, PhD, Associate Professor of Sociology and Criminal Justice
  • Jason S. Milne, PhD, Assistant Professor of Sociology
  • Kenneth B. Perkins, PhD, Professor of Sociology
  • Michael P. Phelan, PhD, Assistant Professor of Sociology and Criminal Justice
  • Carl M. Riden, PhD, Assistant Professor of Sociology

The objective of the criminology and criminal justice major is to prepare students for work in the criminal justice system, including jobs in local, state, and federal law enforcement, corrections, and probation and parole. The major also is appropriate preparation for graduate study in the social sciences and law. The major gives students a strong foundation in criminology and sociology while simultaneously emphasizing how academic knowledge can be applied in occupational settings. Skills can be developed in oral and written communication, critical thinking, scientific research methods, statistics and computerized data analysis.

Students with a GPA below 2.0 will not be accepted as majors. Students may reapply after their GPA has increased to 2.0.

CRIMINOLOGY AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE MAJOR, BS DEGREE

A. General Education Core Requirement/41 credits
SOCL 102 is highly recommended for Criminology/Criminal Justice majors for Goal 8
Criminology/Criminal Justice majors must take PHIL 308, 315 or 316 to satisfy Goal 13
Criminology/Criminal Justice majors must take CRIM 490, 492 or 496 to satisfy Goal 15

B. Additional Degree Requirements, BS/7 credits

C. Major Requirements/41 credits (plus 1 credit included in General Education)
CRIM 100 Survey of Criminal Justice/3 credits
CRIM 200 Introduction to Corrections/3 credits
CRIM 205 Introduction to the U.S. Court System/3 credits
CRIM 210 Introduction to Policing/3 credits
CRIM 375 Criminological Theory/3 credits
CRIM 455 Constitutional Law for Criminal Justice Professionals
CRIM 461 Senior Seminar in Criminology and Criminal Justice/3 credits
SOCL 345 Social Research/3 credits
SOCL 346 Basic Statistics/3 credits
Choose 12 credits from the following:
SOCL 205 Deviance/3 credits
CRIM 220, Homicide/3 credits
SOCL 232 Minority Groups/3 credits
SOCL 233 Race, Class, and Gender/3 credits
SOCL 241 Sociology of Marriage and the Family/3 credits
CRIM 300 Probation, Parole, and Community Corrections/3 credits
SOCL 326 Sociology of Civil Rights Movement/3 credits
CRIM 330, Violent Offending/3 credits
SOCL 350 Power and Privilege: Social Stratification/3 credits
SOCL 351 Sociology of Family Violence/3 credits
SOCL 360 Urban Sociology/3 credits
SOCL 376 Sociology of Law/3 credits
POSC 230 Administration of Justice/3 credits
POSC 356 Constitutional Rights and Liberties II/3 credits
Choose three credits from the following (one credit of these three credits fulfills General Education Goal 15):
CRIM 490 Directed Independent Study/3 credits
CRIM 492 Internship in Criminology and Criminal Justice/3 credits
CRIM 496 Professional Study in Criminal Justice/3 credits

D. No grade below C- is accepted for graduation in major course work

E. General Electives BS Degree/30 credits

F. Total Credits Required for BS in Criminology and Criminal Justice/120

MINOR IN CRIMINOLOGY AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE

Minor Requirements/18 credits
CRIM 100 Survey of Criminal Justice/3 credits
CRIM 375 Criminology/3 credits
SOCL 345 Social Research/3 credits
Criminology/Criminal Justice electives/9 credits

Minor in Computer Security, Forensics, and Law
(Please refer to requirements listed in College of Business & Economics)

CRIMINOLOGY AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE COURSE DESCRIPTIONS (CRIM)

General Education Courses *
Writing Intensive Courses **
Speaking Intensive Course ***

Criminology/Criminal Justice 100. Survey of Criminal Justice. This course is an introduction to the study of the criminal justice system in the United States. The history, theory and practice of the various subsystems within the criminal justice system will be explored. Additionally, the various indices that provide measures of crime in the United States, the role of the police, the courts and corrections in addressing the "crime problem," and selected Supreme Court decisions will be critically examined. 3 credits.

Criminology/Criminal Justice 200. Introduction to Corrections. The theory and practice of prison management and criminal rehabilitation are examined in this course. The overarching concepts of this course are: the functions of punishment and rehabilitation; historical and cross-cultural approaches to punishment, deterrence, and rehabilitation; current theories and practices; and future possibilities. The course is intended for those interested in the general study of sociology and criminal justice, prison administration, and complex organizations. 3 credits.

Criminology/Criminal Justice 205. Introduction to the U.S. Court System. This course is an introduction to the study of the United States Judicial System.  The history, theory, and practice of the courts systems within the criminal justice system and its impact on the citizens of the United States will be explored.  Additionally, the uniqueness of the dual courts system in the United States will be examined. 3 credits.

Criminology/Criminal Justice 210. Introduction to Policing. This course is designed to provide students with an opportunity to conduct a critical analysis of the institutions of policing and the social actors therein. Topics that will be covered include: sociological notions of policing; social research and policing; historical developments and evolution of policing institutions; police roles and functions; police authority; control of the police; police deviance; and the emergent police occupational subculture. 3 credits.

Criminology/Criminal Justice 220. Homicide.This course analyzes the impact of homicide on social order by examining prevalence and incidence data on homicide as well as the different types and patterns of this crime.  The relevant theoretical debates surrounding homicide causation and formation, both classic and current, will be presented along with supporting empirical material.  Situational factors connecting homicide to other major crimes and the response of the criminal justice system will be examined for both typical cases and rare forms, such as serial murder.  Emphasis is on how laws and crime control strategies are developed, implemented, and evaluated by the system to address homicide.  3 credits.  **

Criminology/Criminal Justice 295. Special Topics. Selected topics in criminology and criminal justice. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. 3 credits.

Criminology/Criminal Justice 300.  Probation, Parole, and Community Corrections.  This course is designed to provide an in-depth study of the theoretical and practical aspects of probation, parole, and other aspects of community corrections beyond the introductory level.  This course will utilize a variety of practitioners working in the field and we will be reading and analyzing the most current research in community corrections. Prerequisite:  Criminology/Criminal Justice 100.  3 credits.

Criminology/Criminal Justice 305. White Collar Crime. This course examines white-collar crime from a broad theoretical perspective and with a focus on the methodological issues involved in research on the causes of such crimes. Issues surrounding the origin and conceptual definitions of white-collar crime are studied and critically assessed. The costs associated with white-collar crime, especially corporate crime are investigated and analyzed. Computer crime is given particular emphasis. Other topics that are examined include: occupational crime, governmental crime, and state-corporate crime. The course gives particular emphasis to how the criminal justice system and the public respond to white-collar crimes. Prerequisite: CRIM 100 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

Criminology/Criminal Justice 310. Administrative Issues in Criminal Justice. This course examines the structure and process of criminal justice administration in contemporary American society. Topics include the police, courts, and corrections. Special attention will be given to administration and leadership practices and challenges in these criminal justice organizations, inter-organizational relations, and public relations issues. 3 credits.

Criminology/Criminal Justice 311, 312. Studies Abroad. These courses are primarily intended for transfer of credit earned abroad in courses on sociology. 1-18 credits.

Criminology/Criminal Justice 323. Gender and Crime. This course will integrate theoretical and empirical information on a wide variety of issues related to justice and women and issues surrounding women as criminal justice practitioners. Issues related to social control and gender, theoretical perspectives and empirical research on criminal offenders, the place of women, and the victimization of women will be examined. 3 credits. **

Criminology/Criminal Justice 335. Juvenile Delinquency. In this course students explore the diversity of delinquent behavior, the process of becoming delinquent, the importance of legislation, the law enforcement apparatus, the courts, and juvenile correctional facilities in the development of delinquent identities. 3 credits.

Criminology/Criminal Justice 375. Criminological Theory. An historical analysis of the theories that have been developed to explain crime.  Beginning with Cesare Beccaria's An Essay on Crimes and Punishment published in 1764, other writers to be considered include but are not be limited to Lombroso, Durkheim, Marx, Weber, Merton, The Chicago School scholars and Chesney-Lind.  The discussion will focus on both the causes of "street" and white collar crimes.  Prerequisite: Sociology 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

Criminology/Criminal Justice 401. Issues in Criminal Justice. This course invites students to participate in a critical analysis of the American Criminal Justice System. The administration of "justice" as a selective process and the social and political contexts and contests within which social control is articulated will be explored in this course. Particular attention is given to the front line criminal judicial agencies and actors that serve to reproduce order. Inherent in the examination of the criminal justice processes are specific inquiries into social, political and economic struggles that characteristically reflect fundamental issues of social inequality. Institutional structures and their attendant networks are explained in relationship to the state and its differential networks. The nature of the criminal justice agencies and actors, degrees of enforcement and interrelationships with coercive agencies will be investigated. 3 credits.

Criminology/Criminal Justice 410.  Crime and Communities.  This course is designed to provide an in-depth study of the theoretical and practical aspects concerning the criminology of place.  Topics that will be covered include the ecology of crime; routine activities; social disorganization; human ecology; geographic profiling; and crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED).  Prerequisite:  Criminology/Criminal Justice 100.  3 credits.

Criminology/Criminal Justice 455Constitutional Law for Criminal Justice Professionals.  This course will focus heavily on Supreme Court decisions that directly impact the criminal justice profession.  Specific attention will be devoted to the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments.  The Patriot Act and Terrorism Bill will also be discussed at length. Prerequisites: CRIM 100, 200, and 210. 3 credits.

Criminology/Criminal Justice 461. Senior Seminar in Criminology and Criminal Justice. This course is a seminar for the senior criminology & criminal justice major, designed to integrate knowledge of specific sub-fields into a comprehensive view of the discipline and its role in relation to other sciences. Open only to senior criminology and criminal justice majors. 3 credits. ** and ***

Criminology/Criminal Justice 490. Directed Independent Study. Individualized study. Must be approved by head of department. 1-18 credits.

Criminology/Criminal Justice 492. Internship in Criminology and Criminal Justice. This course provides direct student learning in applied settings that permits a practiced supervised experience. Students learn through performance in meaningful tasks in a variety of social environments. Prerequisite: 18 hours of Criminology/Criminal Justice and Sociology credits taken at Longwood combined. Students' cumulative GPA must be 2.0 or above to be eligible for internship. Must be arranged at least one semester in advance with chair of department. May be repeated in subsequent semesters. Variable credit; no more than 15 total credits may be earned. Only six credit hours of Internship will earn quality points (A, B, C, and D grades); all credits earned beyond six credits will be assigned Pass/Fail grades.1-15 credits. ***

Criminology/Criminal Justice 495. Special Topics. Selected topics in criminology and criminal justice. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. 3 credits 

Criminology/Criminal Justice 496. Professional Study in Criminal Justice. This course provides students with the opportunity to apply rigorous theoretical and methodological considerations and analysis to the practical training and experience gained in acquiring professional accreditation within the criminal justice profession. Accumulated GPA 2.50 or above and permission of the department chair, arranged at least one semester in advance. Only six credit hours of CRIM 496 will earn quality points (A, B, C, and D grades); all credits earned beyond six credits will be assigned Pass/Fail grades.  Prerequisites: 18 hours of sociology courses. Sociology seniors only. 3-15 credits. ***

Criminology/Criminal Justice 498. Honors Research in Sociology. Students conduct research in criminology and/or criminal justice under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits.