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History, Political Science and Philosophy

James R. Munson, Chair
Pearl W. Agee, Secretary

The Department of History, Political Science and Philosophy offers major programs culminating in the Bachelor of Arts for History majors and either the Bachelor of Arts or the Bachelor of Science for Political Science majors. History majors may elect the optional concentration in public history, and majors in both fields who are interested in careers in the law may choose the optional pre-law concentrations. Political Science majors may also pursue the optional global politics concentration. Minor programs in history, political science, philosophy, and leadership studies are open to all students.

For students who wish to teach at the secondary school level, the Department offers major concentrations in Teacher Preparation in History and the Social Sciences, History, and Political Science. Our program meets all Collegiate Professional licensure requirements for teaching in Virginia. Additional requirements for admission to the Teacher Education Program are cited elsewhere in this catalog.

The Department requires Internships or Directed Research for all History and Political Science majors. Qualified majors may avail themselves of Congressional District Office Internships around the state, internships with the Washington Center and Institute for Experiential Learning in Washington, D.C., and internships with national and state historical associations, museums, and historical parks. The Department also sponsors internships with businesses in addition to a wide variety of state and local government offices.

Qualified students have the chance to participate in the Honors Program and the International Studies Program and prestigious student research opportunities such as the Senior Honors Research Program and the Marshall Scholars Program are available. Students may also participate in the study abroad courses offered by Department faculty. Recently, students have traveled to Africa, Greece, France and China.

The Department is committed to full participation in the Longwood program for the assessment of student outcomes. History and political science majors are required to complete a comprehensive departmental examination demonstrating academic proficiency in major subjects. Accordingly, majors in both history and political science are required to complete all assessment requirements used in the program.

The Department also houses a minor in Leadership Studies for those students who are interested in exploring the theoretical foundations of leadership.

HISTORY PROGRAM

Faculty

David J. Coles, PhD, Associate Professor of History
James W. Crowl, PhD, Associate Professor of History
David A. Geraghty, MA, Lecturer in History
Steven W. Isaac, PhD, Associate Professor of History
Mark Davis Morris, PhD, Visiting Assistant Professor of History
James R. Munson, PhD, Associate Professor of History
Corey W. Reigel, PhD, Visiting Professor of History
Larissa M. Smith, PhD, Associate Professor of History
Deborah Welch, PhD, Professor of History

The major in history requires completion of HIST 100 or 110 (whichever is not selected for General Education), HIST 221 and 222, at least one credit of an internship or directed research, and 31 credits in additional history courses selected in consultation with a departmental advisor. Students must take HIST 461 (Senior Seminar), and, of the remaining 30 credits required, a minimum of six credits each in American, European, and Non-Western history. Qualified students find internships with national and state historical associations, museums, historical parks, and a wide range of state and local government offices.

Majors in history seeking an endorsement for secondary teaching in Virginia should be thoroughly familiar with the professional education requirements listed elsewhere in this catalog. Majors may choose to undertake teacher preparation in history and social science or teacher preparation in history or teacher preparation in political science. Those interested in a secondary education endorsement must complete coursework in history, political science, geography, economics, psychology, and sociology. To qualify for the secondary student teaching practicum, majors must complete HIST 100 or 110 and HIST 221 and 222 with no less than a grade of C in each course. Majors seeking secondary endorsement in history and social science or in history are required to have a cumulative grade point average and departmental major average of at least 2.5 before student teaching. Students must also complete HIST 300: Teaching History and the Social Sciences in the Secondary School in the spring semester before the year they will complete their student teaching. Students must complete PRAXIS I exam during their sophomore year and PRAXIS II exam during their senior year.

The optional public history concentration requires completion of HIST 100 or 110 (whichever is not selected for General Education), HIST 221 and 222, and 45 credits in upper-level courses, including 30 hours in history, 9 in archeology/anthropology, and 6 in political science. Successful completion of an internship is required of all public history majors. It is recommended that students add electives in anthropology, art history, or political science.

The optional pre-law concentration requires completion of HIST 100 or 110 (whichever is not selected for General Education) and HIST 221 and 222, and designated courses in political science, accounting, psychology, economics, and philosophy.

Major programs in history require completion of a modern foreign language at the 202 level or higher.

History majors with the pre-law concentration are required to take POSC 331 to fulfill General Education Goal 13. Other History majors are encouraged to take POSC 331 OR 332 to fulfill General Education Goal 13, but may take any approved Ethics course listed under Goal 13.

No grade below "C" in major course work is accepted for graduation.

MINOR IN HISTORY

Students seeking a minor in history are required to complete 18 credits of work, including History 100 or 110 (whichever is not selected for General Education), HIST 221 and 222, and 9 elective credits in upper-level history courses chosen in consultation with a departmental advisor.

HISTORY MAJOR, BA DEGREE

A. General Education Core Requirements/41 credits

B. Additional Degree Requirements/6 credits

C. Major Requirements/40 credits (plus 4 hours included in General Education)
HIST 100 Foundations of Western Civilization/3 credits (satisfies General Education Goal 7)
HIST 110 Modern Western Civilization/3 credits
HIST 221 United States History/3 credits
HIST 222 United States History/3 credits
American History Electives/6 credits
European History Electives/6 credits
Non-Western History Electives/6 credits
(Credits earned in HIST 490 or HIST 492 may not count in the previous 18 credits of area electives)
Additional History Electives/12 credits
(Only three credits of HIST 490 or HIST 492 may count as History Electives)
HIST 461 Senior Seminar/1 credit
One credit from the following three courses (satisfies General Education Goal 15):
HIST 490 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
HIST 492 Internships in History/1-18 credits
HIST 498 Honors Research in History/3 credits (must be approved by the Senior Honors Committee)

D. General Electives/33 credits

E. Total credits required for BA in History/120

HISTORY MAJOR, BA DEGREE

Public History Concentration

A. General Education Core Requirements/41 credits

B. Additional Degree Requirements/6 credits

C. Major Requirements/54 credits (plus 4 hours included in General Education)
HIST 100 Foundations of Western Civilization/3 credits (satisfies General Education Goal 7)
HIST 110 Modern Western Civilization/3 credits
HIST 221 United States History/3 credits
HIST 222 United States History/3 credits
HIST 316 Public History/3 credits
HIST 318 Museum Studies/3 credits
HIST 319 Archival Management/3 credits
HIST 405 Virginia History/3 credits
ANTH 296 Field Methods in Archaeology/6 credits
ANTH 320 Folklore/3 credits
POSC 150 American Government/3 credits
POSC 370 Public Administration/3 credits
American History Electives/9 credits at 300 level or above
Non-American History Electives/6 credits at 200 level or above
HIST 461 Senior Seminar/1 credit
HIST 492 Internship in Public History/3 credits
(one credit satisfies General Education Goal 15)

D. General Electives/19 credits
It is recommended that students take electives in a field related to their major, such as Anthropology, Political Science, or Art History.

E. Total credits required for BA in History with concentration in Public History/120

HISTORY MAJOR, BA DEGREE

Pre-Law Concentration

A. General Education Core Requirements/41 credits
Students must take POSC 331 to satisfy Goal 13.

B. Additional Degree Requirements/6 credits

C. Major Requirements/43 credits (plus 4 hours included in General Education)
HIST 100 Foundations of Western Civilization/3 credits (satisfies General Education Goal 7)
HIST 110 Modern Western Civilization/3 credits
HIST 221 United States History/3 credits
HIST 222 United States History/3 credits
HIST 455 Constitutional History of the United States/3 credits
HIST 461 Senior Seminar/1 credit
POSC 150 American Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 216 American State and Local Government/3 credits
POSC 230 Administration of Criminal Justice/3 credits
POSC 332 Political Philosophy/3 credits
PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology/3 credits
ACCT 240 Principles of Accounting I/3 credits
PHIL 300 Logic/3 credits
Choose one of the following two courses:
POSC 355 Constitutional Rights and Liberties/3 credits
or POSC 356 Constitutional Rights and Liberties/3 credits
Choose 3 credits from the following courses:
ECON 111 Contemporary Economic Issues and Social Policy/3 credits
ECON 217 Principles of Economics (Micro Emphasis)/3 credits
ECON 218 Principles of Economics (Macro Emphasis)/3 credits
Choose one of the following two courses:
HIST 305 Modern America, 1914 -1945/3 credits
HIST 306 Modern America, 1945-present/3 credits
One credit from the following two courses (satisfies General Education Goal 15):
HIST 490 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
HIST 492 Internships in History/1-18 credits

D. General Electives/30 credits
Pre-law students are advised that they should present at least a 3.0 GPA (as well as a good LSAT score) to the law school admissions committee in order to be competitive law school applicants.

E. Total credits required for BA in History with concentration in Pre-Law/120

TEACHER PREPARATION IN HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE, BA DEGREE

A. General Education Core Requirements/41 credits
Students are required to take either POSC 331 or 332 for General Education Goal 13.

B. Additional Degree Requirements/6 credits

C. Major Requirements/64 credits
Core Requirements/13 credits
HIST 100 Foundations of Western Civilization/3 credits (satisfies General Education Goal 7)
HIST 110 Modern Western Civilization/3 credits
HIST 221 United States History/3 credits
HIST 222 United States History/3 credits
HIST 365 History and Philosophy of Science/3 credits
HIST/POSC 461 Senior Seminar/1 credit
1. United States History/9 credits
Choose three credits from the following US History courses:
HIST 320 African American History/3 credits
HIST 324 American Indian History/3 credits
Choose six credits from the following US History courses:
HIST 301 American Colonial History/3 credits
HIST 302 The Early National Period of the United States/3 credits
HIST 303 Civil War and Reconstruction/3 credits
HIST 304 The Emergence of Modern America/3 credits
HIST 305 Modern America, 1914-1945/3 credits
HIST 306 Modern America, 1945-present/3 credits
HIST 308 United States Diplomatic History
HIST 321 The History of Women in America/3 credits
HIST 322 The American West/3 credits
HIST 363 World War II/3 credits
HIST 364 The American Revolutionary Era/3 credits
HIST 405 Virginia History/3 credits
HIST 406 The Old South/3 credits
HIST 410 Virginia in the Civil War/3 credits
HIST 455 Constitutional History of the United States/3 credits
2. European History/6 credits
Choose six credits from the following European History courses:
HIST 351 Medieval Europe/3 credits
HIST 352 Renaissance and Reformation/3 credits
HIST 354 The French Revolution and Napoleon/3 credits
HIST 355 Europe in the 19th Century, 1815-1914/3 credits
HIST 356 Europe in the 20th Century, 1900-present/3 credits
HIST 358 France Since 1815/3 credits
HIST 359 Russian History to 1894/3 credits
HIST 360 Russian History Since 1894/3 credits
HIST 440 History of Ancient Greece/3 credits
HIST 465 Tudor/Stuart England, 1485-1714/3 credits
HIST 468 European Intellectual History from the Enlightenment/3 credits
3. Non-Western History and Politics/6 credits
HIST 210 World History/3 credits
Choose three credits from the following Non-Western History and Politics courses:
HIST 200 History of China/3 credits
HIST 202 History of Islamic Civilizations/3 credits
HIST 314 Political History of Africa/3 credits
HIST 325 History of Latin America/3 credits
HIST 362 The Vietnam War/3 credits
POSC 314 Political History of Africa/3 credits
POSC 338 Politics of the Middle East/3 credits
POSC 375 Latin American Politics and Government/3 credits
4. Political Science/6 credits
Choose six credits from the following Political Science courses:
POSC 343 American Foreign Policy/3 credits
POSC 350 The American Presidency/3 credits
POSC 355 Constitutional Rights and Liberties/3 credits
POSC 356 Constitutional Rights and Liberties/3 credits
POSC 455 Constitutional History of the United States/3 credits
5. Social Sciences State Licensure Requirements/24 credits (plus 3 credits included in General Education)
ECON 111 Contemporary Economic Issues and Social Policy/3 credits
ECON 217 Principles of Economics (Micro Emphasis)/3 credits
GEOG 201 Introduction to Geography/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)
GEOG 241 Cultural Geography/3 credits
GEOG 352 World Geography/3 credits
POSC 150 American Government and Politics/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)
POSC 216 American State and Local Government/3 credits
PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)
SOCL 101 Principles of Sociology/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)

D. Secondary Education Licensure Grades 6-12/38 credits (plus 1 credit included in General Education)
(One credit of the 11-hour directed teaching experience satisfies General Education Goal 15)
HIST 300/POSC 300 Teaching History and the Social Sciences in the Secondary School/3 credits (offered only in the Spring semester each year)

E. Total credits required for BA in History/Social Science with Secondary Education Endorsement/149

Teacher Preparation in History, BA DEGREE

A. General Education Core Requirements/41 credits
Students are required to take either POSC 331 or 332 for General Education Goal 13.

B. Additional Degree Requirements/6 credits

C. Major Requirements/55 credits

Core Requirements/13 credits
HIST 100 Foundations of Western Civilization/3 credits (satisfies General Education Goal 7)
HIST 110 Modern Western Civilization/3 credits
HIST 221 United States History/3 credits
HIST 222 United States History/3 credits
HIST 365 History and Philosophy of Science/3 credits
HIST/POSC 461 Senior Seminar/1 credit

1. United States History/6 credits
Choose three credits from the following US History courses:
HIST 320 African American History/3 credits
HIST 324 American Indian History/3 credits
Choose three credits from the following US History courses:
HIST 301 American Colonial History/3 credits
HIST 302 The Early National Period of the United States/3 credits
HIST 303 Civil War and Reconstruction/3 credits
HIST 304 The Emergence of Modern America/3 credits
HIST 305 Modern America, 1914-1945/3 credits
HIST 306 Modern America, 1945-present/3 credits
HIST 308 United States Diplomatic History
HIST 321 The History of Women in America/3 credits
HIST 322 The American West/3 credits
HIST 363 World War II/3 credits
HIST 364 The American Revolutionary Era/3 credits
HIST 405 Virginia History/3 credits
HIST 406 The Old South/3 credits
HIST 410 Virginia in the Civil War/3 credits
HIST 455 Constitutional History of the United States/3 credits

2. European History/6 credits
Choose six credits from the following European History courses:
HIST 351 Medieval Europe/3 credits
HIST 352 Renaissance and Reformation/3 credits
HIST 354 The French Revolution and Napoleon/3 credits
HIST 355 Europe in the 19th Century, 1815-1914/3 credits
HIST 356 Europe in the 20th Century, 1900-present/3 credits
HIST 358 France Since 1815/3 credits
HIST 359 Russian History to 1894/3 credits
HIST 360 Russian History Since 1894/3 credits
HIST 440 History of Ancient Greece/3 credits
HIST 465 Tudor/Stuart England, 1485-1714/3 credits
HIST 468 European Intellectual History from the Enlightenment/3 credits

3. Non-Western History and Politics/6 credits
HIST 210 World History/3 credits
Choose three credits from the following Non-Western History courses:
HIST 200 History of China/3 credits
HIST 202 History of Islamic Civilizations/3 credits
HIST 314 Political History of Africa/3 credits
HIST 325 History of Latin America/3 credits
HIST 362 The Vietnam War/3 credits
POSC 314 Political History of Africa/3 credits
POSC 338 Politics of the Middle East/3 credits
POSC 375 Latin American Politics and Government/3 credits

4. Social Sciences State Licensure Requirements/24 credits (plus 3 credits included in General Education)
ECON 111 Contemporary Economic Issues and Social Policy/3 credits
ECON 217 Principles of Economics (Micro Emphasis)/3 credits
GEOG 201 Introduction to Geography/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)
GEOG 241 Cultural Geography/3 credits
GEOG 352 World Geography/3 credits
POSC 150 American Government and Politics/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)
POSC 216 American State and Local Government/3 credits
PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)
SOCL 101 Principles of Sociology/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)

D. Secondary Education Licensure Grades 6-12/38 credits
(One credit of the 11-hour directed teaching experience satisfies General Education Goal 15.)
HIST 300/POSC 300 Teaching History and the Social Sciences in the Secondary School/3 credits (offered only in the Spring semester each year)

E. Total credits required for BA in History with Secondary Education Endorsement/140

HISTORY COURSE DESCRIPTIONS (HIST)

General Education Course *
Writing Intensive Course **
Speaking Intensive Courses ***

History 100. Foundations of Western Civilization. An introduction to the foundations of Western Civilization from the Dawn of Man through the Reformation, with an emphasis on the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural attributes that made this civilization unique. In the context of this course, students will come to understand the historical development of western civilization, relate the development of Western civilization to that of other regions of the world, and discuss how historical developments influence the present day. 3 credits. *

History 110. Modern Western Civilization. A survey of the development of Modern Western Civilization from the Age of Absolutism to the present, with emphasis upon the political, economic, social, cultural, and intellectual attributes that have marked its rise to world-wide influence in the twentieth century. 3 credits. *

History 200. History of China. Chinese political, social, and cultural history from earliest times to the present, with an emphasis on the modern period. The course is divided into segments. The first is a fairly rapid survey of Chinese history to the early nineteenth century. The emphasis in this is on the dynasties and the culture of China. The second portion of the course covers modern China and deals with the arts and philosophy and more with the break-up of the Qing (Ching) dynasty, the domination of China by the Western powers, and the emergence of the communist state. 3 credits.

History 202. History of Islamic Civilizations. This course surveys Islamic culture, from its origins in Arabia to its present role in the world today, including its diffusion to new regions such as Europe and North America.  Attention will focus on the interplay of theological assumptions, social pressures, and cultural trends. 3 credits. *

History 210. World History. A survey of world history from prehistory to the present. The course is a thematic and chronological introduction to events and developments in the history of states and major world regions, with an emphasis on comparative religion, human geography, and the spread of technologies and ideologies. Students will be introduced to the major concepts for understanding human diversity and cultural, social, and political change across various continents. 3 credits. *

History 221. United States History. A survey of American life from the Colonial Era to 1877, with emphasis upon the political, cultural, diplomatic, and societal forces which have shaped its development. 3 credits. *

History 222. United States History. A survey of American life from 1877 to modern times, with emphasis upon the political, cultural, diplomatic, and societal forces which have shaped its development. 3 credits. *

History 292. Internship in History. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of history. 1-18 credits.

History 295. Special Topics. Selected topics in history. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. 3 credits.

History 300 (Political Science 300). Teaching History and the Social Sciences in the Secondary School. A methods course designed to offer preparation for student teaching, this class focuses in depth on content required for the secondary school classroom in history, political science, and social studies. Other topics covered include instructional planning, assessment and evaluation, teaching techniques, classroom management, and school/community interaction. This course is open only to students seeking secondary school licensure. Prerequisites: EDUC 245 and 260. 3 credits ***

History 301. American Colonial History. The English North American colonies from 1607 to 1783, with emphasis upon fundamental aspects of colonial development, the causes of the American Revolution, and the interpretation of the period. Prerequisite: HIST 221 or permission of instructor. 3 credits. ***

History 302. The Early National Period of the United States. The United States from the adoption of the Constitution of 1787 through the Mexican War. Political institutions and practice, economic growth, reform movements, and westward expansion are emphasized. Prerequisite: HIST 221 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

History 303. Civil War and Reconstruction. The United States from the close of the Mexican War to the Compromise of 1877. The constitutional, political, economic, social, and military aspects of the period are emphasized. Prerequisite: HIST 221 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

History 304. The Emergence of Modern America. The United States from the Compromise of 1877 to the First World War. The Industrial Revolution and its consequences, the rise of the nation to world power, and the birth of modern reformism are emphasized. Prerequisite: HIST 222 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

History 305. Modern America, 1914-1945. The course offers a study of the United States in the pivotal eras of the First and Second World Wars and the Great Depression. Prerequisite: HIST 222. 3 credits.

History 306. Modern America, 1945-Present. The course offers a study of the United States from the end of World War II to the present. The main emphasis is on domestic affairs, such as the economy, social conditions, religion, politics, and intellectual life. Prerequisite: HIST 222. 3 credits.

History 308. United States Diplomatic History. American foreign relations from the Revolutionary Era to the present with emphasis on the Twentieth Century. Prerequisite: HIST 221 or 222 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

History 309. American Social and Intellectual History. The major developments in American thought and culture from the Colonial era through the Civil War. Puritanism, the Enlightenment, and the Romantic Movement are emphasized. Prerequisite: HIST 221 or permission of instructor. 3 credits. **

History 310. American Social and Intellectual History. The major developments in American thought and culture since the Civil War. Social Darwinism, liberal reform and conservative reaction, the affluent society, and the counter-culture are emphasized. Prerequisite: HIST 221 or permission of instructor. 3 credits. **

History 311,312. Studies Abroad. Students conduct research in history under the direction of a faculty member. 3 credits.

History 314 (Political Science 314). Political History of Africa. A survey of the political landscape of African history. A major portion of the course examines the significance of precolonial kingdoms, assesses the growth of the "slave trade," analyzes African intellectual history, and explores the "eve of colonialism" in Africa. 3 credits. **

History 316. Public History. This course provides students with an upper-division introduction to career opportunities in history outside of classroom teaching. The class provides students with necessary skills in genealogical research, historic preservation and the national register nomination process, the treatment of historic sites, grant writing techniques, and knowledge of national, state, and local historical professional associations. The development of computer skills in web page design and power point presentation is emphasized. Prerequisites: HIST 221 and 222 or permission of instructor. 3 credits

History 317. Historic Editing and Preservation. This course focuses on the evolution of architectural styles in the United States from the Colonial Era to present with emphasis on principal periods of development in American architecture, furniture, and interior design. Hands-on field work in preservation/restoration methods is included. This course also teaches the tools and techniques of historical editing. Emphasis is placed on operation of the latest computer equipment necessary to document editing and public presentation. Prerequisites: HIST 221 and 222 or permission of instructor. 3 credits

History 318. Introduction to Museum Studies. An introduction to the field of museology, covering the history, philosophy, and ethics of the profession; various types of museums and different aspects of museum work; the museum's role in the community; and the effects of philanthropy and government on museums. Designed primarily for those concentrating in public history. Prerequisites: HIST 221 and 222 or permission of the instructor. 3 credits. **

History 319. Archival Management. An introduction to the archival profession, including the acquisition, accessioning, arrangement and description, preservation, and referencing of archival records. 3 credits.

History 320. African-American History. A survey of the black experience in America from the Colonial Era to the present. Prerequisite: HIST 221 or permission of instructor. 3 credits. **

History 321. The History of Women in America. The changing role of women in American life from the Colonial era to the present, contrasting the ideology of women's place in society with the reality of their lives. The Victorians, the fight for women's suffrage, and the 20th-century liberation movement are emphasized. Prerequisite: HIST 222 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

History 322. The American West. This course examines the American West as symbol and reality with emphasis placed on the historiography of study from the early frontier theories of Frederick Jackson Turner to the scholarship of the "New West." 3 credits.

History 323. American Military History. This course examines American Military History from the colonial era through the present-day, with an emphasis on the development of military institutions during the twentieth century. In addition to analyzing the major events and examining the major figures relating to the American military, it also emphasizes the evolution of military doctrine and theory, and examines the changing role of the military in American society. 3 credits.

History 324. American Indian History. A survey of American Indian peoples from pre-contact to present with emphasis on issues of sovereignty, land and politics. 3 credits. ***

History 325. History of Latin America. A survey of Latin American history from its pre-Columbian roots to the present. 3 credits. **

History 351. Medieval Europe. A study of the political, economic, and social institutions, and the religious and intellectual developments in Medieval Europe. 3 credits. **

History 352. Renaissance and Reformation. The social, cultural, religious, economic, and political forces that shaped Western Civilization from the High Middle Ages through the era of the religious wars (ca. 1300-1648). 3 credits. **

History 354. The French Revolution and Napoleon. A study of the origins and course of the French revolutionary era, with emphasis upon its profound political, economic, social, institutional, and intellectual significance. 3 credits. **

History 355. Europe in the Nineteenth Century, 1815-1914. The political, economic, social, and cultural development of Europe from the Congress of Vienna to the eve of World War I. 3 credits. **

History 356. Europe in the Twentieth Century, 1900 to the Present. The political, economic, social, and intellectual development of Europe in its world setting since the turn of the century. 3 credits. **

History 358. France Since 1815. The history of major developments in French politics, culture, and society in the modern era. 3 credits. **

History 359. Russian History to 1894. Russia from the Kievan period to Alexander III, with emphasis upon the modernization efforts of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great, the reforms of Alexander II, and the nineteenth-century revolutionary movement. 3 credits. **

History 360. Russian History Since 1894. Russia from the reign of Nicholas II to the present, with emphasis upon the factors leading to the collapse of the monarchy and the revolutions of 1905 and 1917, and upon the subsequent construction and evolution of the Soviet system. Little emphasis upon diplomacy or foreign policy. 3 credits. **

History 361. How Great Generals Win. An examination of how great commanders from Hannibal to Douglas MacArthur have applied fundamental principles of strategy to achieve victory in war, and how these principles have remained constant despite changing historical circumstances. 3 credits.

History 362. The Vietnam War. The course examines the origins of French colonialism in Indochina, the rise of nationalism in Vietnam, and the First Indochina War. The course then focuses on the role of the United States in Vietnam from World War II through the 1970s and the impact of the war on American society. 3 credits.

History 363. World War II. An examination of the causes, major events, and consequences of World War II, including the rise and fall of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Imperial Japan, as well as the role of the United States and its allies in the conflict. 3 credits.

History 364. The American Revolutionary Era. The course examines the era of the American Revolution from the end of the French and Indian War through the ratification of the Constitution. It emphasizes the constitutional, political, economic, social, and military aspects of the period, with particular focus on the background and immediate causes of the Revolution, the conduct and consequences of the war, the Confederation period, and the adoption and ratification of the Constitution. 3 credits.

History 365 (Philosophy 365). History and Philosophy of Science. An examination of such issues as the logic of scientific reasoning and method, the distinction between science and pseudoscience, the analysis of central concepts in science, especially causality, law and explanation, and finally, the relation of science and values in our culture. Attention will be given to the development of a consistent point of view on these issues. Examples will be drawn from a broad range of sciences, both natural and social. 3 credits.

History 390. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as 391. 1-18 credits.

History 392. Internship in History. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of history. 1-18 credits.

History 402. American Historiography. The writing and interpretation of American history. Recommended for history majors. Prerequisites: HIST 221 and 222. 3 credits. **

History 405. Virginia History. A survey of Virginia history from colonial times to present. Prerequisite: History 221 and 222 or permission of instructor. 3 credits. ** and ***

History 406. The Old South. The basic political, economic, social, and intellectual institutions, forces, and problems that collectively shaped the antebellum South. Prerequisite: HIST 221 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

History 410 (History 510). Virginia in the Civil War. The course examines the role of Virginia in the American Civil War, 1861-1865. It emphasizes the political, economic, social, and military aspects of the period, with particular focus on the causes of the war, on military operations in Virginia and the role of Virginia troops and leaders, on the impact of the war on Virginia's civilian population, and on the results and consequences of the war in the state. It will consist of lectures as well as visits to various Virginia battlefields. 3 credits.

History 440. History of Ancient Greece. The evolution of Greek culture and political history from c. 2000 to 300 BCE.  Emphasis will be on how written documents and material artifacts testify to the dynamics that both spurred on this culture and eventually brought about its collapse.  3 credits.

History 455 (Political Science 455). Constitutional History of the United States. Intensive case-study examination of the continuing development of the Constitution. Emphasis on judiciary, presidency, federalism, commerce, and due process problems. 3 credits.

History 460. History Seminar. Offered on demand; open to junior and senior history majors. 1-3 credits.

History 461. Senior Seminar. Capstone course in history. Research, writing, and assessment of student outcomes. Required of majors in history. 1 credit. ** and ***

History 463. European Historiography. The writing and interpretation of history in Europe since the Renaissance. Prerequisite: HIST 110, or permission of instructor. 3 credits. **

History 465. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714. The social, political, economic, and religious forces of one of England's most dynamic periods examined in the context of the sixteenth-century Renaissance and Reformation and the seventeenth-century Intellectual Revolution. Research paper or critical book analyses required. Background in Western Civilization recommended. 3 credits. **

History 468 (Philosophy 468). European Intellectual History from the Enlightenment. A survey of the major trends in European thought after the Enlightenment, and the relationship of these trends to their social, cultural, and political context. Prerequisite: HIST 110 or permission of instructor. 3 credits. ** and ***

History 470. Women in World History. Examination of the history of women for the last several centuries, exploring women's participation in economic, political, and social/cultural life as they both created and were affected by historical processes such as colonization, revolution, state formation, and industrialization. This course compares women in first-, second-, and third-world nations in terms of their participation in political, economic, and cultural aspects of society. 3 credits.

History 481. International Study in Africa. This course will provide a short-term immersion in a contemporary culture that will complement historical study and analysis.  Offered during intersession or during the summer.  May be repeated for credit when course topic changes.  May count as an elective but cannot fulfill core requirements of the major.  3 credits.

History 482. International Study in Europe. This course will provide a short-term immersion in a contemporary culture that will complement historical study and analysis.  Offered during intersession or during the summer.  May be repeated for credit when course topic changes.  May count as an elective but cannot fulfill core requirements of the major.  3 credits.

History 490. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated. 1-18 credits.

History 492. Internships in History. This program of work and study must be approved by the advising departmental instructor, with the credit assigned being tied to the nature of the project. 1-18 credits.

History 495. Special Topics in History. Selected topics in history. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. 3 credits.

History 498. Honors Research in History. Students conduct research in history under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits. **

POLITICAL SCIENCE PROGRAM

Faculty

David S. Calihan, PhD, Associate Professor of Political Science
N. Scott Cole, PhD, Assistant Professor of Political Science
William R. Harbour, PhD, Associate Professor of Political Science

The major in political science requires completion of HIST 100 or 110 (whichever is not selected for General Education), HIST 222, and POSC 150 and 216, at least one credit of an internship or directed research, and 31 credits in additional work in political science. Qualified majors may avail themselves of Congressional District Office Internships around the state, internships with the Washington Center and Institute for Experiential Learning in Washington, D.C., law offices, businesses, and a wide variety of state and local government offices.

Majors in political science seeking an endorsement for secondary teaching in Virginia should be thoroughly familiar with the professional education requirements listed elsewhere in this catalog. These majors may pursue teacher preparation in political science or teacher preparation in history and social science. To qualify for the secondary student teaching practicum, majors must complete POSC 150 with no less than a grade of B. For Teacher Preparation in History and Social Science, please see the description for the History major above.

The optional pre-law concentration requires completion of HIST 222, POSC 150 and 216, and 37 credits in additional courses, including 22 credits in political science, 3 in history, 3 in psychology, 3 in accounting, 3 in philosophy, and 3 in economics. It is also strongly recommended that students add an elective in writing skills (ENGL 470).

The optional global politics concentration requires 18 credits of core political science courses, 15 credits of courses focusing on regional area studies, and 9 credits of courses focusing on transitional communities and related issues.

Political science majors may earn either the Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Arts degree.

MINOR IN POLITICAL SCIENCE

The minor in Political Science requires completion of POSC 150 and 216 and of 12 credits of additional coursework in political science chosen in consultation with a departmental advisor.


POLITICAL SCIENCE MAJOR, BA or BS DEGREE

A. General Education Core Requirements/41 credits
Students must take POSC 331 to satisfy Goal 13.

B. Additional Degree Requirements, BA degree/6 credits
Additional Degree Requirements, BS degree/7 credits

C. Major Requirements/40 credits (plus 4 credits included in General Education)
HIST 100 Foundations of Western Civilization/3 credits (satisfies General Ed Goal 7)
HIST 110 Modern Western Civilization/3 credits
HIST 222 United States History/3 credits
POSC 150 American Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 216 American State and Local Government/3 credits
POSC 332 Political Philosophy/3 credits
POSC 370 Public Administration/3 credits
POSC 455 Constitutional History of the United States/3 credits
Political Science Electives/9 credits
POSC 461 Senior Seminar/1 credit
Choose one of the following:
POSC 230 Administration of Criminal Justice/3 credits
POSC 355 Constitutional Rights and Liberties/3 credits
POSC 356 Constitutional Rights and Liberties/3 credits
Choose one of the following:
POSC 343 American Foreign Policy/3 credits
POSC 441 International Relations/3 credits
POSC 442 International Law and Organizations/3 credits
Choose one of the following:
POSC 314 Political History of Africa/3 credits
POSC 335 Western European Politics and Government/3 credits
POSC 336 Russian and Eastern European Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 337 Asian Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 338 Politics of the Middle East/3 credits
POSC 375 Latin American Politics and Government/3 credits
POSC 395 African Politics and Government/3 credits
One credit from one of the following three courses (satisfies General Education Goal 15):
POSC 490 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
POSC 492 Internships in Political Science/1-18 credits
POSC 498 Honors Research in History/3 credits (must be approved by the Senior Honors Committee)

D. General Electives BA Degree/33 credits
General Electives BS Degree/32 credits

E. Total credits required for BA or BS in Political Science/120 

POLITICAL SCIENCE MAJOR, BA or BS DEGREE
Pre-Law Concentration

A. General Education Core Requirements/41 credits
Students must take POSC 331 to satisfy General Education Goal 13.

B. Additional Degree Requirements, BA Degree/6 credits
Additional Degree Requirements, BS Degree/7 credits

C. Major Requirements/46 credits (plus 1 credit included in General Education)
HIST 222 United States History/3 credits
POSC 150 American Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 216 American State and Local Government/3 credits
POSC 230 Administration of Criminal Justice/3 credits
POSC 332 Political Philosophy/3 credits
POSC 355 Constitutional Rights and Liberties/3 credits
or POSC 356 Constitutional Rights and Liberties/3 credits
POSC 455 Constitutional History of the United States/3 credits
PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology/3 credits
ACCT 240 Principles of Accounting I/3 credits
PHIL 300 Logic/3 credits
Political Science Electives/9 credits
POSC 461 Senior Seminar/1 credit
Choose 3 credits from the following courses:
ECON 111 Contemporary Economic Issues and Social Policy/3 credits
ECON 217 Principles of Economics (Micro Emphasis)/3 credits
ECON 218 Principles of Economics (Macro Emphasis)/3 credits
Choose 3 credits from the following courses:
HIST 305 Modern America, 1914-1945/3 credits
HIST 306 Modern America, 1945-present/3 credits
One credit from the following two courses (satisfies General Education Goal 15):
POSC 490 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
POSC 492 Internships in Political Science/1-18 credits

D. General Electives for BA Degree/27 credits
General Electives for BS/26 credits
Pre-law students are advised that they should present at least a 3.0 GPA (as well as a good LSAT score) to the law school admissions committees in order to be competitive law school applicants.

E. Total credits required for BA or BS in Political Science with a concentration in Pre-Law/120

POLITICAL SCIENCE MAJOR, BA DEGREE
Global Politics Concentration

A. General Education Core Requirements/41 credits
Students must take POSC 331 to satisfy Goal 13

B. Additional Degree Requirements, BA degree/6 credits

C. Major Requirements/43 credits (plus 1 credit included in General Education)

1. Core Political Science Courses/18 credits
POSC 150 American Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 255 Introduction to Comparative Politics/3 credits
POSC 332 Political Philosophy/3 credits
POSC 343 American Foreign Policy/3 credits
POSC 441 International Relations/3 credits
HIST 308 United States Diplomatic History/3 credits
2. Regional and Area Studies/15 credits
Choose 15 credits from the following:
POSC 314 Political History of Africa/3 credits
POSC 335 Western European Politics and Government/3 credits
POSC 336 Russian and Eastern European Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 337 Asian Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 338 Politics of the Middle East/3 credits
POSC 375 Latin American Politics and Government/3 credits
POSC 395 African Politics and Government/3 credits
HIST 200 History of China/3 credits
HIST 325 Latin American History/3 credits
HIST 356 Europe in the Twentieth Century, 1900 to the Present/3 credits
3. Transnational Community and Issues/9 credits
Choose nine credits from the following:
POSC 245 Gender and Politics/3 credits
POSC 360 Comparative Political Participation/3 credits
POSC 420 Democracy and Democratization/3 credits
ECON 111 Contemporary Economic Issues and Social Policy/3 credits
ECON 218 Principles of Economics/3 credits
GEOG 352 World Regional Geography/3 credits
HIST 202 History of Islamic Civilizations/3 credits
4. Senior Seminar /1 credit
POSC 461 Senior Seminar/1 credit
One credit from the following two courses (satisfies General Education Goal 15):
POSC 490 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
POSC 492 Internships in Political Science/1-18 credits

D. General Electives/30 credits.

E. Total credits required for BA in Political Science with a Concentration in Global Politics/120

Teacher Preparation in Political Science (Government), BA DEGREE

A. General Education Core Requirements/41 credits
Majors must take POSC 331 to satisfy General Education Goal 13.

B. Additional Degree Requirements/6 credits

C. Major Requirements/52 credits

HIST 100 Foundations of Western Civilization/3 credits (satisfies General Education Goal 7)
HIST 110 Modern Western Civilization/3 credits
HIST 222 United States History/3 credits
POSC 150 American Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 216 American State and Local Government/3 credits
POSC 332 Political Philosophy/3 credits
POSC 370 Public Administration/3 credits
POSC 455 Constitutional History of the United States/3 credits
POSC 461 Senior Seminar/ 1 credit
Choose twelve credits from the following:
POSC 314 Political History of Africa/3 credits
POSC 335 Western European Politics and Government/3 credits
POSC 336 Russian and Eastern European Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 337 Asian Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 343 American Foreign Policy/3 credits
POSC 350 The American Presidency/3 credits
POSC 375 Latin American Politics and Government/3 credits
POSC 395 African Politics and Government/3 credits
POSC 441 International Relations/3 credits
POSC 442 International Law and Organizations/3 credits

Politial Science State Licensure Requirements/18 credits (plus 3 credits included in General Education)
ECON 111 Contemporary Economic Issues and Social Policy/3 credits
ECON 217 Principles of Economics (Micro Emphasis)/3 credits
GEOG 201 Introduction to Geography/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)
GEOG 241 Cultural Geography/3 credits
GEOG 352 World Geography/3 credits
PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)
SOCL 101 Principles of Sociology/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)

D. Secondary Education Licensure Grades 6-12/38 credits (plus 1 credit included in General Education)
(One credit of the 11-hour directed teaching experience satisfies General Education Goal 15.)
POSC 300 Teaching History and the Social Sciences in the Secondary School/3 credits

E. Total credits required for BA in Political Science with Secondary Education Endorsement/ 137

POLITICAL SCIENCE COURSE DESCRIPTIONS (POSC)

General Education Courses *
Writing Intensive Courses **
Speaking Intensive Courses ***

Political Science 150. American Government and Politics. An introduction to the American political system, with an emphasis upon the national political institutions, processes, groups, public behavior, and issues that shape contemporary society. 3 credits. *

Political Science 216. American State and Local Government. A study of American state and local political institutions and processes, and of related current issues and problems. 3 credits. **

Political Science 230. Administration of Criminal Justice. Survey of the operations of institutions that compose our system for administering criminal justice, including police administration, premises and politics of court procedures and management, and corrections. 3 credits.

Political Science 245. Gender and Politics. The course examines gender as a socio-political construct within a global context. It surveys both feminist and masculinist theories of politics, which provide the foundation for the course. Attention is then paid to the gendered who, what and how of world politics. Within this discussion, the course carefully explores the gendered divisions of power and of the global economy. 3 credits. *

Political Science 255. Introduction to Comparative Politics. The course surveys political systems and considers the meaning of concepts and themes such as political ideologies, states, nationalism, ethnicity, racial politics, democracy, development, and political change. A goal of this course, therefore, is to familiarize students with mainstream and alternative approaches to comparing and contrasting political systems. Examples from Africa, Asia, Latin America, Europe, and the United States will provide the context. 3 credits. *

Political Science 292. Internship in Political Science. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of political science. 1-18 credits.

Political Science 295. Special Topics in Political Science. Selected topics in political science. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. 3 credits.

Political Science 300 (History 300). Teaching History and the Social Sciences in the Secondary School. A methods course designed to offer preparation for student teaching, this class focuses in depth on content required for the secondary school classroom in history, political science, and social studies. Other topics covered include instructional planning, assessment and evaluation, teaching techniques, classroom management, and school/community interaction. This course is open only to students seeking secondary school certification. Prerequisites: EDUC 245 and 260. 3 credits ***

Political Science 311, 312. Studies Abroad. Primarily intended for transfer of credit earned abroad in courses in political science. 1-18 credits.

Political Science 314 (History 314). Political History of Africa. A survey of the political landscape of African history. A major portion of the course examines the significance of precolonial kingdoms, assesses the growth of the "slave trade", analyzes African intellectual history, and explores the "eve of colonialism" in Africa. 3 credits. **

Political Science 331 (Philosophy 331). Ancient and Medieval Political Philosophy. Survey of the principal political theories and philosophies from ancient Greece through the Middle Ages, including the contributions of Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, St. Augustine, and St. Thomas Aquinas. 3 credits.*

Political Science 332 (Philosophy 332). Modern Political Philosophy. Survey of modern political theories and philosophies, including the contributions of Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Burke, and Marx. 3 credits. *

Political Science 335. Western European Politics and Government. An examination of the political systems of Western Europe, with in-depth analyses of Great Britain, France, and Germany. Issues like social democracy, gendered politics, right-wing extremism, and the European Union are explored as causes of political change and continuity in Europe. 3 credits. ** and ***

Political Science 336. Russian and Eastern European Government and Politics. Study of the governments and politics of Russia and Eastern Europe. Special attention is given to the rise and fall of Communism and to the challenges of building democratic institutions and market oriented economic systems. 3 credits. **

Political Science 337. Asian Governments and Politics. A study of the political systems and foreign policies of the major Asian powers, with emphasis on China and Japan. 3 credits. **

Political Science 338. Politics of the Middle East. A survey of the political systems of the Middle East, focusing on Israel, Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Turkey.  Democratization, religion, gender, conflict, terrorism, and economic development are explored in this course. 3 credits. 

Political Science 341. American Political Thought to the Civil War. An introduction to the principal thinkers and the central themes in American political thought. 3 credits. **and ***

Political Science 342. American Political Thought 1860 to the Present. An introduction to the principal thinkers and the central themes in American political thought. 3 credits. **and ***

Political Science 343. American Foreign Policy. A study of U.S. foreign policy with special attention to the policy-making process, current problems in foreign affairs, and the development of long-range foreign policy. 3 credits. **

Political Science 350. The American Presidency. The modern presidency and its role in contemporary politics, emphasizing the constitutional background of the office, the evolution of presidential powers, relationships between the presidency and the Congress and bureaucracy, the presidential election process, and the role of the presidency in policy making. 3 credits. **

Political Science 355. Constitutional Rights and Liberties. Study of prominent Constitutional principles, issues, and practices pertaining to persons accused or convicted of crime. Particular focus on the ideas of the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments. Extensive use of Supreme Court decisions. 3 credits.

Political Science 356. Constitutional Rights and Liberties. Study of prominent Constitutional principles, issues, and practices concerning government-private individual relations, with particular emphasis upon freedoms of speech, press, religion; privacy; and social and economic discrimination. Extensive use of Supreme Court decisions. 3 credits.

Political Science 360. Comparative Political Participation. Examination of political participation from a comparative perspective, focusing mainly on cases from the United States and Western Europe. Political parties, voting, elections, and social movements are highlighted. 3 credits. ***

Political Science 370. Public Administration. Survey of the premises and issues of public bureaucracies, and of principal activities of policy administrators, including personnel management, budgeting, decision-making, intergovernmental relations, and relations with courts, elected officials, and private organizations. 3 credits.

Political Science 375. Latin American Politics and Government. A study of Latin American politics, government, and development. The course considers the importance of political institutions and social and economic forces in the processes of democratization and economic development. 3 credits. **

Political Science 390. Directed or Independent Study in Political Science. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as 391. 1-18 credits.

Political Science 392. Internship in Political Science. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of political science. 1-18 credits.

Political Science 394. Political Leadership. The course investigates the diverse nature of leadership and the place of leadership in modern society. While the main emphasis is on political leadership, a strong interdisciplinary approach is employed. Students are required to think about various needs, origins, moral dilemmas, requirements, and techniques of leadership in a wide variety of differing circumstances. 3 credits. ** and ***

Political Science 395. African Politics and Government. The course offers various intellectual perspectives on contemporary African politics. Attention is devoted to an examination of the state, political institutions, social forces and movements, gender, democratization, and regional economic development. 3 credits. **

Political Science 420. Democracy and Democratization.  This class explores the development of democracy, focusing on the theories, definitions, history, and pre-conditions of democratic development.  Democratic transitions and consolidations are also considered. 3 credits.

Political Science 441. International Relations. Study of the factors conditioning international politics, with emphasis upon the foreign policies of major powers. 3 credits. **

Political Science 442. International Law and Organizations. A study of international law and organizations, with emphasis upon the principles of international law. Additional consideration of the policies of the United Nations. 3 credits.

Political Science 443. United States Foreign Policy and National Security: 1990-Present. This course represents an endeavor to identify and analyze major US foreign policy and national security issues and threats likely facing the United States both externally and internally. Major attention is devoted to the continuing dynamics in Russo-American relations and to problems of a politico-economic nature posed by nations of the developing or Third World. Additionally, discussions focus on various response options potentially applicable to the resolution of current issues. 3 credits.

Political Science 455 (History 455). Constitutional History of the United States. Intensive case-study examination of the continuing development of the Constitution. Emphasis on judiciary, presidency, federalism, commerce, and due process problems. 3 credits.

Political Science 460. Political Science Seminar. Open to juniors and seniors; offered on demand. 1-3 credits.

Political Science 461. Senior Seminar. Capstone course in Political Science. Research, writing, and assessment of student outcomes. Required of majors in Political Science. 1 credit. **and ***

Political Science 465. The Role of US National Intelligence in Foreign Policy. This course provides a basic overview of the history, current organization, and missions of the US Foreign intelligence establishment ("the Intelligence Community") and its various programs and activities in support of US foreign policy and national security objectives. 3 credits.

Political Science 490. Directed or Independent Study in Political Science. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as. 1-18 credits.

Political Science 492. Internship in Political Science. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of political science. 1-18 credits.

Political Science 495. Special Topics in Political Science. Selected topics in political science. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. 3 credits.

Political Science 498. Honors Research in Political Science. Students conduct research in political science under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits. **

Minor in Leadership Studies

Directors

N. Scott Cole, PhD, Assistant Professor of Political Science
Kerstin Soderlund, PhD, Director of Leadership and New Student Programs

Longwood University's stated mission is to create citizen leaders. The Leadership Studies Program is intended for students who want to explore further the theoretical foundations of leadership. This is an interdisciplinary minor that draws on different conceptions of leadership from across the curriculum. Students from a variety of academic areas are encouraged to participate in this educational experience. Courses for this program are designed to inform students about the concepts, theories, and issues related to leadership.

Requirements for the 19-Credit Minor in Leadership Studies:

In order to complete a minor in Leadership Studies, students must:
1. File a form of intention to pursue the Minor at the Office of Registration.
2. Earn a grade point average of 2.0 in those courses chosen to meet the minor requirements.
3. Complete the following course requirements/19 credits

LDST 120 Foundations of Leadership Studies/3 credits
LDST 220 Leadership and Service/3 credits
LDST 320 Leaders and Leadership/3 credits
POSC 394 Political Leadership/3 credits
LDST 420 Practicum in Leadership /1 credit
Choose 6 credit hours from the following:
COMM 330 Small Group Communication/3 credits
EDUC 375 Intro to Residence Life/1 credit
HONS 202 Fundamentals of Citizen Leadership/1 credit (open to non-Honors students with a GPA of 3.25 or higher)
MISC 101 Foundations of Officership/1 credit
MISC 102 Basic Leadership/1 credit
MISC 201 Military Leadership I: Individual Leadership Studies/2 credits
MISC 202 Military Leadership II: Leadership and Teamwork/2 credits
POSC 360 Comparative Political Participation/3 credits
PSYC 331 Social Psychology/3 credits
RECR 350 Ropes Course and Initiative Dynamics/2 credits
RECR 375 Leadership Development through Wilderness Pursuits/3 credits

LEADERSHIP STUDIES COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

 

Department of History, Political Science and Philosophy

James R. Munson, Chair
Pearl W. Agee, Secretary

The Department of History, Political Science and Philosophy offers major programs culminating in the Bachelor of Arts for History majors and either the Bachelor of Arts or the Bachelor of Science for Political Science majors. History majors may elect the optional concentration in public history, and majors in both fields who are interested in careers in the law may choose the optional pre-law concentrations. Political Science majors may also pursue the optional global politics concentration. Minor programs in history, political science, philosophy, and leadership studies are open to all students.

For students who wish to teach at the secondary school level, the Department offers major concentrations in Teacher Preparation in History and the Social Sciences, History, and Political Science. Our program meets all Collegiate Professional licensure requirements for teaching in Virginia. Additional requirements for admission to the Teacher Education Program are cited elsewhere in this catalog.

The Department requires Internships or Directed Research for all History and Political Science majors. Qualified majors may avail themselves of Congressional District Office Internships around the state, internships with the Washington Center and Institute for Experiential Learning in Washington, D.C., and internships with national and state historical associations, museums, and historical parks. The Department also sponsors internships with businesses in addition to a wide variety of state and local government offices.

Qualified students have the chance to participate in the Honors Program and the International Studies Program and prestigious student research opportunities such as the Senior Honors Research Program and the Marshall Scholars Program are available.  Students may also participate in the study abroad courses offered by Department faculty.  Recently, students have traveled to Africa, Greece, France and China.     

The Department is committed to full participation in the Longwood program for the assessment of student outcomes. History and political science majors are required to complete a comprehensive departmental examination demonstrating academic proficiency in major subjects. Accordingly, majors in both history and political science are required to complete all assessment requirements used in the program.

The Department also houses a minor in Leadership Studies for those students who are interested in exploring the theoretical foundations of leadership.

HISTORY PROGRAM

Faculty
David J. Coles, PhD, Associate Professor of History
James W. Crowl, PhD, Associate Professor of History
David A. Geraghty, MA, Lecturer in History
Steven W. Isaac, PhD, Associate Professor of History
Mark Davis Morris, PhD, Visiting Assistant Professor of History
James R. Munson, PhD, Associate Professor of History
Corey W. Reigel, PhD, Visiting Professor of History
Larissa M. Smith, PhD, Associate Professor of History
Deborah Welch, PhD, Professor of History

The major in history requires completion of HIST 100 or 110 (whichever is not selected for General Education), HIST 221 and 222, at least one credit of an internship or directed research, and 31 credits in additional history courses selected in consultation with a departmental advisor. Students must take HIST 461 (Senior Seminar), and, of the remaining 30 credits required, a minimum of six credits each in American, European, and Non-Western history. Qualified students find internships with national and state historical associations, museums, historical parks, and a wide range of state and local government offices.

Majors in history seeking an endorsement for secondary teaching in Virginia should be thoroughly familiar with the professional education requirements listed elsewhere in this catalog. Majors may choose to undertake teacher preparation in history and social science or teacher preparation in history or teacher preparation in political science. Those interested in a secondary education endorsement must complete coursework in history, political science, geography, economics, psychology, and sociology. To qualify for the secondary student teaching practicum, majors must complete HIST 100 or 110 and HIST 221 and 222 with no less than a grade of C in each course. Majors seeking secondary endorsement in history and social science or in history are required to have a cumulative grade point average and departmental major average of at least 2.5 before student teaching. Students must also complete HIST 300: Teaching History and the Social Sciences in the Secondary School in the spring semester before the year they will complete their student teaching.  Students must complete PRAXIS I exam during their sophomore year and PRAXIS II exam during their senior year. 

The optional public history concentration requires completion of HIST 100 or 110 (whichever is not selected for General Education), HIST 221 and 222, and 45 credits in upper-level courses, including 30 hours in history, 9 in archeology/anthropology, and 6 in political science. Successful completion of an internship is required of all public history majors. It is recommended that students add electives in anthropology, art history, or political science.

The optional pre-law concentration requires completion of HIST 100 or 110 (whichever is not selected for General Education) and HIST 221 and 222, and designated courses in political science, accounting, psychology, economics, and philosophy.

Major programs in history require completion of a modern foreign language at the 202 level or higher.

History majors with the pre-law concentration are required to take POSC 331 to fulfill General Education Goal 13.  Other History majors are encouraged to take POSC 331 OR 332 to fulfill General Education Goal 13, but may take any approved Ethics course listed under Goal 13.

No grade below "C" in major course work is accepted for graduation.

MINOR IN HISTORY

Students seeking a minor in history are required to complete 18 credits of work, including History 100 or 110 (whichever is not selected for General Education), HIST 221 and 222, and 9 elective credits in upper-level history courses chosen in consultation with a departmental advisor.

HISTORY MAJOR, BA DEGREE

A. General Education Core Requirements/41 credits

B. Additional Degree Requirements/6 credits

C. Major Requirements/40 credits (plus 4 hours included in General Education)
HIST 100 Foundations of Western Civilization/3 credits (satisfies General Education Goal 7)
HIST 110 Modern Western Civilization/3 credits
HIST 221 United States History/3 credits
HIST 222 United States History/3 credits
American History Electives/6 credits

European History Electives/6 credits
Non-Western History Electives/6 credits
(Credits earned in HIST 490 or HIST 492 may not count in the previous 18 credits of area electives)
Additional History Electives/12 credits 

(Only three credits of HIST 490 or HIST 492 may count as History Electives)
HIST 461 Senior Seminar/1 credit
One credit from the following three courses (satisfies General Education Goal 15):
HIST 490 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
HIST 492 Internships in History/1-18 credits
HIST 498 Honors Research in History/3 credits (must be approved by the Senior Honors Committee)

D. General Electives/33 credits

E. Total credits required for BA in History/120

 
HISTORY MAJOR, BA DEGREE
Public History Concentration

A. General Education Core Requirements/41 credits

B. Additional Degree Requirements/6 credits

C. Major Requirements/54 credits (plus 4 hours included in General Education)
HIST 100 Foundations of Western Civilization/3 credits (satisfies General Education Goal 7)
HIST 110 Modern Western Civilization/3 credits
HIST 221 United States History/3 credits
HIST 222 United States History/3 credits
HIST 316 Public History/3 credits
HIST 318 Museum Studies/3 credits
HIST 319 Archival Management/3 credits
HIST 405 Virginia History/3 credits
ANTH 296 Field Methods in Archaeology/6 credits
ANTH 320 Folklore/3 credits
POSC 150 American Government/3 credits
POSC 370 Public Administration/3 credits
American History Electives/9 credits at 300 level or above
Non-American History Electives/6 credits at 200 level or above
HIST 461 Senior Seminar/1 credit
HIST 492 Internship in Public History/3 credits
(one credit satisfies General Education Goal 15)

D. General Electives/19 credits
It is recommended that students take electives in a field related to their major, such as Anthropology, Political Science, or Art History.

E. Total credits required for BA in History with concentration in Public History/120


HISTORY MAJOR, BA DEGREE
Pre-Law Concentration

A. General Education Core Requirements/41 credits
Students must take POSC 331 to satisfy Goal 13.

B. Additional Degree Requirements/6 credits

C. Major Requirements/43 credits (plus 4 hours included in General Education)
HIST 100 Foundations of Western Civilization/3 credits (satisfies General Education Goal 7)
HIST 110 Modern Western Civilization/3 credits
HIST 221 United States History/3 credits
HIST 222 United States History/3 credits
HIST 455 Constitutional History of the United States/3 credits
HIST 461 Senior Seminar/1 credit
POSC 150 American Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 216 American State and Local Government/3 credits
POSC 230 Administration of Criminal Justice/3 credits
POSC 332 Political Philosophy/3 credits
PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology/3 credits
ACCT 240 Principles of Accounting I/3 credits
PHIL 300 Logic/3 credits
Choose one of the following two courses:
POSC 355 Constitutional Rights and Liberties/3 credits
or POSC 356 Constitutional Rights and Liberties/3 credits
Choose 3 credits from the following courses:
ECON 111 Contemporary Economic Issues and Social Policy/3 credits
ECON 217 Principles of Economics (Micro Emphasis)/3 credits
ECON 218 Principles of Economics (Macro Emphasis)/3 credits
Choose one of the following two courses:
HIST 305 Modern America, 1914 -1945/3 credits
HIST 306 Modern America, 1945-present/3 credits
One credit from the following two courses (satisfies General Education Goal 15):
HIST 490 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
HIST 492 Internships in History/1-18 credits

D. General Electives/30 credits
Pre-law students are advised that they should present at least a 3.0 GPA (as well as a good LSAT score) to the law school admissions committee in order to be competitive law school applicants.

E. Total credits required for BA in History with concentration in Pre-Law/120

 

TEACHER PREPARATION IN HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE, BA DEGREE

A. General Education Core Requirements/41 credits
Students are required to take either POSC 331 or 332 for General Education Goal 13.

B. Additional Degree Requirements/6 credits

C. Major Requirements/64 credits

Core Requirements/13 credits
HIST 100 Foundations of Western Civilization/3 credits (satisfies General Education Goal 7)
HIST 110 Modern Western Civilization/3 credits
HIST 221 United States History/3 credits
HIST 222 United States History/3 credits
HIST 365 History and Philosophy of Science/3 credits
HIST/POSC 461 Senior Seminar/1 credit
1. United States H
istory/9 credits
Choose three credits from the following US History courses:
HIST 320 African American History/3 credits
HIST 324 American Indian History/3 credits
Choose six credits from the following US History courses:
HIST 301 American Colonial History/3 credits
HIST 302 The Early National Period of the United States/3 credits
HIST 303 Civil War and Reconstruction/3 credits
HIST 304 The Emergence of Modern America/3 credits
HIST 305 Modern America, 1914-1945/3 credits
HIST 306 Modern America, 1945-present/3 credits
HIST 308 United States Diplomatic History
HIST 321 The History of Women in America/3 credits
HIST 322 The American West/3 credits
HIST 363 World War II/3 credits
HIST 364 The American Revolutionary Era/3 credits
HIST 405 Virginia History/3 credits
HIST 406 The Old South/3 credits
HIST 410 Virginia in the Civil War/3 credits
HIST 455 Constitutional History of the United States/3 credits
2. European H
istory/6 credits
Choose six credits from the following European History courses:
HIST 351 Medieval Europe/3 credits
HIST 352 Renaissance and Reformation/3 credits
HIST 354 The French Revolution and Napoleon/3 credits
HIST 355 Europe in the 19th Century, 1815-1914/3 credits
HIST 356 Europe in the 20th Century, 1900-present/3 credits
HIST 358 France Since 1815/3 credits
HIST 359 Russian History to 1894/3 credits
HIST 360 Russian History Since 1894/3 credits
HIST 440 History of Ancient Greece/3 credits
HIST 465 Tudor/Stuart England, 1485-1714/3 credits
HIST 468 European Intellectual History from the Enlightenment/3 credits
3. Non-Western History and Politics/6 credits
HIST 210 World History/3 credits
Choose three credits from the following Non-Western History and Politics courses:
HIST 200 History of China/3 credits
HIST 202 History of Islamic Civilizations/3 credits
HIST 314 Political History of Africa/3 credits
HIST 325 History of Latin America/3 credits
HIST 362 The Vietnam War/3 credits
POSC 314 Political History of Africa/3 credits
POSC 338 Politics of the Middle East/3 credits
POSC 375 Latin American Politics and Government/3 credits
4. Political Science/6 credits
Choose six credits from the following Political Science courses:
POSC 343 American Foreign Policy/3 credits
POSC 350 The American Presidency/3 credits
POSC 355 Constitutional Rights and Liberties/3 credits
POSC 356 Constitutional Rights and Liberties/3 credits
POSC 455 Constitutional History of the United States/3 credits
5. Social Sciences State Licensure Requirements/24 credits (plus 3 credits included in General Education)
ECON 111 Contemporary Economic Issues and Social Policy/3 credits
ECON 217 Principles of Economics (Micro Emphasis)/3 credits
GEOG 201 Introduction to Geography/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)
GEOG 241 Cultural Geography/3 credits
GEOG 352 World Geography/3 credits
POSC 150 American Government and Politics/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)
POSC 216 American State and Local Government/3 credits
PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)
SOCL 101 Principles of Sociology/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)

D. Secondary Education Licensure Grades 6-12/38 credits (plus 1 credit included in General Education)
(One credit of the 11-hour directed teaching experience satisfies General Education Goal 15)
HIST 300/POSC 300 Teaching History and the Social Sciences in the Secondary School/3 credits (offered only in the Spring semester each year)

E. Total credits required for BA in History/Social Science with Secondary Education Endorsement/149

 

Teacher Preparation in History, BA DEGREE

A. General Education Core Requirements/41 credits
Students are required to take either POSC 331 or 332 for General Education Goal 13.

B. Additional Degree Requirements/6 credits

C. Major Requirements/55 credits

Core Requirements/13 credits
HIST 100 Foundations of Western Civilization/3 credits (satisfies General Education Goal 7)
HIST 110 Modern Western Civilization/3 credits
HIST 221 United States History/3 credits
HIST 222 United States History/3 credits
HIST 365 History and Philosophy of Science/3 credits
HIST/POSC 461 Senior Seminar/1 credit

1. United States History/6 credits
Choose three credits from the following US History courses:

HIST 320 African American History/3 credits
HIST 324 American Indian History/3 credits
Choose three credits from the following US History courses:
HIST 301 American Colonial History/3 credits
HIST 302 The Early National Period of the United States/3 credits
HIST 303 Civil War and Reconstruction/3 credits
HIST 304 The Emergence of Modern America/3 credits
HIST 305 Modern America, 1914-1945/3 credits
HIST 306 Modern America, 1945-present/3 credits
HIST 308 United States Diplomatic History
HIST 321 The History of Women in America/3 credits
HIST 322 The American West/3 credits
HIST 363 World War II/3 credits
HIST 364 The American Revolutionary Era/3 credits
HIST 405 Virginia History/3 credits
HIST 406 The Old South/3 credits
HIST 410 Virginia in the Civil War/3 credits
HIST 455 Constitutional History of the United States/3 credits

2. European History/6 credits
Choose six credits from the following European History courses:
HIST 351 Medieval Europe/3 credits
HIST 352 Renaissance and Reformation/3 credits
HIST 354 The French Revolution and Napoleon/3 credits
HIST 355 Europe in the 19th Century, 1815-1914/3 credits
HIST 356 Europe in the 20th Century, 1900-present/3 credits
HIST 358 France Since 1815/3 credits
HIST 359 Russian History to 1894/3 credits
HIST 360 Russian History Since 1894/3 credits
HIST 440 History of Ancient Greece/3 credits
HIST 465 Tudor/Stuart England, 1485-1714/3 credits
HIST 468 European Intellectual History from the Enlightenment/3 credits

3. Non-Western History and Politics/6 credits
HIST 210 World History/3 credits
Choose three credits from the following Non-Western History courses:
HIST 200 History of China/3 credits
HIST 202 History of Islamic Civilizations/3 credits
HIST 314 Political History of Africa/3 credits
HIST 325 History of Latin America/3 credits
HIST 362 The Vietnam War/3 credits
POSC 314 Political History of Africa/3 credits
POSC 338 Politics of the Middle East/3 credits
POSC 375 Latin American Politics and Government/3 credits

4. Social Sciences State Licensure Requirements/24 credits (plus 3 credits included in General Education)
ECON 111 Contemporary Economic Issues and Social Policy/3 credits
ECON 217 Principles of Economics (Micro Emphasis)/3 credits
GEOG 201 Introduction to Geography/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)
GEOG 241 Cultural Geography/3 credits
GEOG 352 World Geography/3 credits
POSC 150 American Government and Politics/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)
POSC 216 American State and Local Government/3 credits
PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)
SOCL 101 Principles of Sociology/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)

D. Secondary Education Licensure Grades 6-12/38 credits
(One credit of the 11-hour directed teaching experience satisfies General Education Goal 15.)
HIST 300/POSC 300 Teaching History and the Social Sciences in the Secondary School/3 credits (offered only in the Spring semester each year)

E. Total credits required for BA in History with Secondary Education Endorsement/140
 

HISTORY COURSE DESCRIPTIONS (HIST)
General Education Course *
Writing Intensive Course **
Speaking Intensive Courses ***

History 100. Foundations of Western Civilization. An introduction to the foundations of Western Civilization from the Dawn of Man through the Reformation, with an emphasis on the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural attributes that made this civilization unique. In the context of this course, students will come to understand the historical development of western civilization, relate the development of Western civilization to that of other regions of the world, and discuss how historical developments influence the present day. 3 credits. *

History 110. Modern Western Civilization. A survey of the development of Modern Western Civilization from the Age of Absolutism to the present, with emphasis upon the political, economic, social, cultural, and intellectual attributes that have marked its rise to world-wide influence in the twentieth century. 3 credits. *

History 200. History of China. Chinese political, social, and cultural history from earliest times to the present, with an emphasis on the modern period. The course is divided into segments. The first is a fairly rapid survey of Chinese history to the early nineteenth century. The emphasis in this is on the dynasties and the culture of China. The second portion of the course covers modern China and deals with the arts and philosophy and more with the break-up of the Qing (Ching) dynasty, the domination of China by the Western powers, and the emergence of the communist state. 3 credits.

History 202. History of Islamic Civilizations. This course surveys Islamic culture, from its origins in Arabia to its present role in the world today, including its diffusion to new regions such as Europe and North America.  Attention will focus on the interplay of theological assumptions, social pressures, and cultural trends. 3 credits. *

History 210. World History. A survey of world history from prehistory to the present. The course is a thematic and chronological introduction to events and developments in the history of states and major world regions, with an emphasis on comparative religion, human geography, and the spread of technologies and ideologies. Students will be introduced to the major concepts for understanding human diversity and cultural, social, and political change across various continents. 3 credits. *

History 221. United States History. A survey of American life from the Colonial Era to 1877, with emphasis upon the political, cultural, diplomatic, and societal forces which have shaped its development. 3 credits. *

History 222. United States History. A survey of American life from 1877 to modern times, with emphasis upon the political, cultural, diplomatic, and societal forces which have shaped its development. 3 credits. *

History 292. Internship in History. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of history. 1-18 credits.

History 295. Special Topics. Selected topics in history. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. 3 credits.

History 300 (Political Science 300). Teaching History and the Social Sciences in the Secondary School. A methods course designed to offer preparation for student teaching, this class focuses in depth on content required for the secondary school classroom in history, political science, and social studies. Other topics covered include instructional planning, assessment and evaluation, teaching techniques, classroom management, and school/community interaction. This course is open only to students seeking secondary school licensure. Prerequisites: EDUC 245 and 260. 3 credits ***

History 301. American Colonial History. The English North American colonies from 1607 to 1783, with emphasis upon fundamental aspects of colonial development, the causes of the American Revolution, and the interpretation of the period. Prerequisite: HIST 221 or permission of instructor. 3 credits. ***

History 302. The Early National Period of the United States. The United States from the adoption of the Constitution of 1787 through the Mexican War. Political institutions and practice, economic growth, reform movements, and westward expansion are emphasized. Prerequisite: HIST 221 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

History 303. Civil War and Reconstruction. The United States from the close of the Mexican War to the Compromise of 1877. The constitutional, political, economic, social, and military aspects of the period are emphasized. Prerequisite: HIST 221 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

History 304. The Emergence of Modern America. The United States from the Compromise of 1877 to the First World War. The Industrial Revolution and its consequences, the rise of the nation to world power, and the birth of modern reformism are emphasized. Prerequisite: HIST 222 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

History 305. Modern America, 1914-1945. The course offers a study of the United States in the pivotal eras of the First and Second World Wars and the Great Depression. Prerequisite: HIST 222. 3 credits.

History 306. Modern America, 1945-Present. The course offers a study of the United States from the end of World War II to the present. The main emphasis is on domestic affairs, such as the economy, social conditions, religion, politics, and intellectual life. Prerequisite: HIST 222. 3 credits.

History 308. United States Diplomatic History. American foreign relations from the Revolutionary Era to the present with emphasis on the Twentieth Century. Prerequisite: HIST 221 or 222 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

History 309. American Social and Intellectual History. The major developments in American thought and culture from the Colonial era through the Civil War. Puritanism, the Enlightenment, and the Romantic Movement are emphasized. Prerequisite: HIST 221 or permission of instructor. 3 credits. **

History 310. American Social and Intellectual History. The major developments in American thought and culture since the Civil War. Social Darwinism, liberal reform and conservative reaction, the affluent society, and the counter-culture are emphasized. Prerequisite: HIST 221 or permission of instructor. 3 credits. **

History 311,312. Studies Abroad. Students conduct research in history under the direction of a faculty member. 3 credits.

History 314 (Political Science 314). Political History of Africa. A survey of the political landscape of African history. A major portion of the course examines the significance of precolonial kingdoms, assesses the growth of the "slave trade," analyzes African intellectual history, and explores the "eve of colonialism" in Africa. 3 credits. **

History 316. Public History. This course provides students with an upper-division introduction to career opportunities in history outside of classroom teaching. The class provides students with necessary skills in genealogical research, historic preservation and the national register nomination process, the treatment of historic sites, grant writing techniques, and knowledge of national, state, and local historical professional associations. The development of computer skills in web page design and power point presentation is emphasized. Prerequisites: HIST 221 and 222 or permission of instructor. 3 credits

History 317. Historic Editing and Preservation. This course focuses on the evolution of architectural styles in the United States from the Colonial Era to present with emphasis on principal periods of development in American architecture, furniture, and interior design. Hands-on field work in preservation/restoration methods is included. This course also teaches the tools and techniques of historical editing. Emphasis is placed on operation of the latest computer equipment necessary to document editing and public presentation. Prerequisites: HIST 221 and 222 or permission of instructor. 3 credits

History 318. Introduction to Museum Studies. An introduction to the field of museology, covering the history, philosophy, and ethics of the profession; various types of museums and different aspects of museum work; the museum's role in the community; and the effects of philanthropy and government on museums. Designed primarily for those concentrating in public history. Prerequisites: HIST 221 and 222 or permission of the instructor. 3 credits. **

History 319. Archival Management. An introduction to the archival profession, including the acquisition, accessioning, arrangement and description, preservation, and referencing of archival records. 3 credits.

History 320. African-American History. A survey of the black experience in America from the Colonial Era to the present. Prerequisite: HIST 221 or permission of instructor. 3 credits. **

History 321. The History of Women in America. The changing role of women in American life from the Colonial era to the present, contrasting the ideology of women's place in society with the reality of their lives. The Victorians, the fight for women's suffrage, and the 20th-century liberation movement are emphasized. Prerequisite: HIST 222 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

History 322. The American West. This course examines the American West as symbol and reality with emphasis placed on the historiography of study from the early frontier theories of Frederick Jackson Turner to the scholarship of the "New West." 3 credits.

History 323. American Military History. This course examines American Military History from the colonial era through the present-day, with an emphasis on the development of military institutions during the twentieth century. In addition to analyzing the major events and examining the major figures relating to the American military, it also emphasizes the evolution of military doctrine and theory, and examines the changing role of the military in American society. 3 credits.

History 324. American Indian History. A survey of American Indian peoples from pre-contact to present with emphasis on issues of sovereignty, land and politics. 3 credits. ***

History 325. History of Latin America. A survey of Latin American history from its pre-Columbian roots to the present. 3 credits. **

History 351. Medieval Europe. A study of the political, economic, and social institutions, and the religious and intellectual developments in Medieval Europe. 3 credits. **

History 352. Renaissance and Reformation. The social, cultural, religious, economic, and political forces that shaped Western Civilization from the High Middle Ages through the era of the religious wars (ca. 1300-1648). 3 credits. **

History 354. The French Revolution and Napoleon. A study of the origins and course of the French revolutionary era, with emphasis upon its profound political, economic, social, institutional, and intellectual significance. 3 credits. **

History 355. Europe in the Nineteenth Century, 1815-1914. The political, economic, social, and cultural development of Europe from the Congress of Vienna to the eve of World War I. 3 credits. **

History 356. Europe in the Twentieth Century, 1900 to the Present. The political, economic, social, and intellectual development of Europe in its world setting since the turn of the century. 3 credits. **

History 358. France Since 1815. The history of major developments in French politics, culture, and society in the modern era. 3 credits. **

History 359. Russian History to 1894. Russia from the Kievan period to Alexander III, with emphasis upon the modernization efforts of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great, the reforms of Alexander II, and the nineteenth-century revolutionary movement. 3 credits. **

History 360. Russian History Since 1894. Russia from the reign of Nicholas II to the present, with emphasis upon the factors leading to the collapse of the monarchy and the revolutions of 1905 and 1917, and upon the subsequent construction and evolution of the Soviet system. Little emphasis upon diplomacy or foreign policy. 3 credits. **

History 361. How Great Generals Win. An examination of how great commanders from Hannibal to Douglas MacArthur have applied fundamental principles of strategy to achieve victory in war, and how these principles have remained constant despite changing historical circumstances. 3 credits.

History 362. The Vietnam War. The course examines the origins of French colonialism in Indochina, the rise of nationalism in Vietnam, and the First Indochina War. The course then focuses on the role of the United States in Vietnam from World War II through the 1970s and the impact of the war on American society. 3 credits.

History 363. World War II. An examination of the causes, major events, and consequences of World War II, including the rise and fall of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Imperial Japan, as well as the role of the United States and its allies in the conflict. 3 credits.

History 364. The American Revolutionary Era. The course examines the era of the American Revolution from the end of the French and Indian War through the ratification of the Constitution. It emphasizes the constitutional, political, economic, social, and military aspects of the period, with particular focus on the background and immediate causes of the Revolution, the conduct and consequences of the war, the Confederation period, and the adoption and ratification of the Constitution. 3 credits.

History 365 (Philosophy 365). History and Philosophy of Science. An examination of such issues as the logic of scientific reasoning and method, the distinction between science and pseudoscience, the analysis of central concepts in science, especially causality, law and explanation, and finally, the relation of science and values in our culture. Attention will be given to the development of a consistent point of view on these issues. Examples will be drawn from a broad range of sciences, both natural and social. 3 credits.

History 390. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as 391. 1-18 credits.

History 392. Internship in History. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of history. 1-18 credits.

History 402. American Historiography. The writing and interpretation of American history. Recommended for history majors. Prerequisites: HIST 221 and 222. 3 credits. **

History 405. Virginia History. A survey of Virginia history from colonial times to present. Prerequisite: History 221 and 222 or permission of instructor. 3 credits. ** and ***

History 406. The Old South. The basic political, economic, social, and intellectual institutions, forces, and problems that collectively shaped the antebellum South. Prerequisite: HIST 221 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

History 410 (History 510). Virginia in the Civil War. The course examines the role of Virginia in the American Civil War, 1861-1865. It emphasizes the political, economic, social, and military aspects of the period, with particular focus on the causes of the war, on military operations in Virginia and the role of Virginia troops and leaders, on the impact of the war on Virginia's civilian population, and on the results and consequences of the war in the state. It will consist of lectures as well as visits to various Virginia battlefields. 3 credits.

History 440. History of Ancient Greece. The evolution of Greek culture and political history from c. 2000 to 300 BCE.  Emphasis will be on how written documents and material artifacts testify to the dynamics that both spurred on this culture and eventually brought about its collapse.  3 credits.

History 455 (Political Science 455). Constitutional History of the United States. Intensive case-study examination of the continuing development of the Constitution. Emphasis on judiciary, presidency, federalism, commerce, and due process problems. 3 credits.

History 460. History Seminar. Offered on demand; open to junior and senior history majors. 1-3 credits.

History 461. Senior Seminar. Capstone course in history. Research, writing, and assessment of student outcomes. Required of majors in history. 1 credit. ** and ***

History 463. European Historiography. The writing and interpretation of history in Europe since the Renaissance. Prerequisite: HIST 110, or permission of instructor. 3 credits. **

History 465. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714. The social, political, economic, and religious forces of one of England's most dynamic periods examined in the context of the sixteenth-century Renaissance and Reformation and the seventeenth-century Intellectual Revolution. Research paper or critical book analyses required. Background in Western Civilization recommended. 3 credits. **

History 468 (Philosophy 468). European Intellectual History from the Enlightenment. A survey of the major trends in European thought after the Enlightenment, and the relationship of these trends to their social, cultural, and political context. Prerequisite: HIST 110 or permission of instructor. 3 credits. ** and ***

History 470. Women in World History. Examination of the history of women for the last several centuries, exploring women's participation in economic, political, and social/cultural life as they both created and were affected by historical processes such as colonization, revolution, state formation, and industrialization. This course compares women in first-, second-, and third-world nations in terms of their participation in political, economic, and cultural aspects of society. 3 credits.

History 481. International Study in Africa. This course will provide a short-term immersion in a contemporary culture that will complement historical study and analysis.  Offered during intersession or during the summer.  May be repeated for credit when course topic changes.  May count as an elective but cannot fulfill core requirements of the major.  3 credits.

History 482. International Study in Europe. This course will provide a short-term immersion in a contemporary culture that will complement historical study and analysis.  Offered during intersession or during the summer.  May be repeated for credit when course topic changes.  May count as an elective but cannot fulfill core requirements of the major.  3 credits.

History 490. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated. 1-18 credits.

History 492. Internships in History. This program of work and study must be approved by the advising departmental instructor, with the credit assigned being tied to the nature of the project. 1-18 credits.

History 495. Special Topics in History. Selected topics in history. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. 3 credits.

History 498. Honors Research in History. Students conduct research in history under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits. **

 

POLITICAL SCIENCE PROGRAM

Faculty
David S. Calihan, PhD, Associate Professor of Political Science
N. Scott Cole, PhD, Assistant Professor of Political Science
William R. Harbour, PhD, Associate Professor of Political Science

The major in political science requires completion of HIST 100 or 110 (whichever is not selected for General Education), HIST 222, and POSC 150 and 216, at least one credit of an internship or directed research, and 31 credits in additional work in political science. Qualified majors may avail themselves of Congressional District Office Internships around the state, internships with the Washington Center and Institute for Experiential Learning in Washington, D.C., law offices, businesses, and a wide variety of state and local government offices.

Majors in political science seeking an endorsement for secondary teaching in Virginia should be thoroughly familiar with the professional education requirements listed elsewhere in this catalog. These majors may pursue teacher preparation in political science or teacher preparation in history and social science. To qualify for the secondary student teaching practicum, majors must complete POSC 150 with no less than a grade of B. For Teacher Preparation in History and Social Science, please see the description for the History major above.

The optional pre-law concentration requires completion of HIST 222, POSC 150 and 216, and 37 credits in additional courses, including 22 credits in political science, 3 in history, 3 in psychology, 3 in accounting, 3 in philosophy, and 3 in economics. It is also strongly recommended that students add an elective in writing skills (ENGL 470).

The optional global politics concentration requires 18 credits of core political science courses, 15 credits of courses focusing on regional area studies, and 9 credits of courses focusing on transitional communities and related issues.

Political science majors may earn either the Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Arts degree.

MINOR IN POLITICAL SCIENCE

The minor in Political Science requires completion of POSC 150 and 216 and of 12 credits of additional coursework in political science chosen in consultation with a departmental advisor.


POLITICAL SCIENCE MAJOR, BA or BS DEGREE

A. General Education Core Requirements/41 credits
Students must take POSC 331 to satisfy Goal 13.

B. Additional Degree Requirements, BA degree/6 credits
Additional Degree Requirements, BS degree/7 credits

C. Major Requirements/40 credits (plus 4 credits included in General Education)
HIST 100 Foundations of Western Civilization/3 credits (satisfies General Ed Goal 7)
HIST 110 Modern Western Civilization/3 credits
HIST 222 United States History/3 credits
POSC 150 American Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 216 American State and Local Government/3 credits
POSC 332 Political Philosophy/3 credits
POSC 370 Public Administration/3 credits
POSC 455 Constitutional History of the United States/3 credits
Political Science Electives/9 credits
POSC 461 Senior Seminar/1 credit
Choose one of the following:
POSC 230 Administration of Criminal Justice/3 credits
POSC 355 Constitutional Rights and Liberties/3 credits
POSC 356 Constitutional Rights and Liberties/3 credits
Choose one of the following:
POSC 343 American Foreign Policy/3 credits
POSC 441 International Relations/3 credits
POSC 442 International Law and Organizations/3 credits
Choose one of the following:
POSC 314 Political History of Africa/3 credits
POSC 335 Western European Politics and Government/3 credits
POSC 336 Russian and Eastern European Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 337 Asian Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 338 Politics of the Middle East/3 credits
POSC 375 Latin American Politics and Government/3 credits
POSC 395 African Politics and Government/3 credits
One credit from one of the following three courses (satisfies General Education Goal 15):
POSC 490 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
POSC 492 Internships in Political Science/1-18 credits
POSC 498 Honors Research in History/3 credits (must be approved by the Senior Honors Committee)

D. General Electives BA Degree/33 credits
General Electives BS Degree/32 credits

E. Total credits required for BA or BS in Political Science/120

 

POLITICAL SCIENCE MAJOR, BA or BS DEGREE
Pre-Law Concentration

A. General Education Core Requirements/41 credits
Students must take POSC 331 to satisfy General Education Goal 13.

B. Additional Degree Requirements, BA Degree/6 credits
Additional Degree Requirements, BS Degree/7 credits

C. Major Requirements/46 credits (plus 1 credit included in General Education)
HIST 222 United States History/3 credits
POSC 150 American Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 216 American State and Local Government/3 credits
POSC 230 Administration of Criminal Justice/3 credits
POSC 332 Political Philosophy/3 credits
POSC 355 Constitutional Rights and Liberties/3 credits
or POSC 356 Constitutional Rights and Liberties/3 credits
POSC 455 Constitutional History of the United States/3 credits
PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology/3 credits
ACCT 240 Principles of Accounting I/3 credits
PHIL 300 Logic/3 credits
Political Science Electives/9 credits
POSC 461 Senior Seminar/1 credit
Choose 3 credits from the following courses:
ECON 111 Contemporary Economic Issues and Social Policy/3 credits
ECON 217 Principles of Economics (Micro Emphasis)/3 credits
ECON 218 Principles of Economics (Macro Emphasis)/3 credits
Choose 3 credits from the following courses:
HIST 305 Modern America, 1914-1945/3 credits
HIST 306 Modern America, 1945-present/3 credits
One credit from the following two courses (satisfies General Education Goal 15):
POSC 490 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
POSC 492 Internships in Political Science/1-18 credits

D. General Electives for BA Degree/27 credits
General Electives for BS/26 credits
Pre-law students are advised that they should present at least a 3.0 GPA (as well as a good LSAT score) to the law school admissions committees in order to be competitive law school applicants.

E. Total credits required for BA or BS in Political Science with a concentration in Pre-Law/120

 

POLITICAL SCIENCE MAJOR, BA DEGREE
Global Politics Concentration

A. General Education Core Requirements/41 credits
Students must take POSC 331 to satisfy Goal 13

B. Additional Degree Requirements, BA degree/6 credits

C. Major Requirements/43 credits (plus 1 credit included in General Education)

1. Core Political Science Courses/18 credits
POSC 150 American Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 255 Introduction to Comparative Politics/3 credits
POSC 332 Political Philosophy/3 credits
POSC 343 American Foreign Policy/3 credits
POSC 441 International Relations/3 credits
HIST 308 United States Diplomatic History/3 credits
2. Regional and Area Studies
/15 credits
Choose 15 credits from the following:
POSC 314 Political History of Africa/3 credits
POSC 335 Western European Politics and Government/3 credits
POSC 336 Russian and Eastern European Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 337 Asian Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 338 Politics of the Middle East/3 credits
POSC 375 Latin American Politics and Government/3 credits
POSC 395 African Politics and Government/3 credits
HIST 200 History of China/3 credits
HIST 325 Latin American History/3 credits
HIST 356 Europe in the Twentieth Century, 1900 to the Present/3 credits
3. Transnational Community and Issues
/9 credits
Choose nine credits from the following:
POSC 245 Gender and Politics/3 credits
POSC 360 Comparative Political Participation/3 credits
POSC 420 Democracy and Democratization/3 credits
ECON 111 Contemporary Economic Issues and Social Policy/3 credits
ECON 218 Principles of Economics/3 credits
GEOG 352 World Regional Geography/3 credits
HIST 202 History of Islamic Civilizations/3 credits
4. Senior Seminar /1 credit
POSC 461 Senior Seminar/1 credit
One credit from the following two courses (satisfies General Education Goal 15):
POSC 490 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
POSC 492 Internships in Political Science/1-18 credits

D. General Electives/30 credits.

E. Total credits required for BA in Political Science with a Concentration in Global Politics/120


Teacher Preparation in Political Science (Government), BA DEGREE

A. General Education Core Requirements/41 credits
Majors must take POSC 331 to satisfy General Education Goal 13.

B. Additional Degree Requirements/6 credits

C. Major Requirements/52 credits

HIST 100 Foundations of Western Civilization/3 credits (satisfies General Education Goal 7)
HIST 110 Modern Western Civilization/3 credits
HIST 222 United States History/3 credits
POSC 150 American Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 216 American State and Local Government/3 credits
POSC 332 Political Philosophy/3 credits
POSC 370 Public Administration/3 credits
POSC 455 Constitutional History of the United States/3 credits
POSC 461 Senior Seminar/ 1 credit
Choose twelve credits from the following:
POSC 314 Political History of Africa/3 credits
POSC 335 Western European Politics and Government/3 credits
POSC 336 Russian and Eastern European Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 337 Asian Government and Politics/3 credits
POSC 343 American Foreign Policy/3 credits
POSC 350 The American Presidency/3 credits
POSC 375 Latin American Politics and Government/3 credits
POSC 395 African Politics and Government/3 credits
POSC 441 International Relations/3 credits
POSC 442 International Law and Organizations/3 credits

Politial Science State Licensure Requirements/18 credits (plus 3 credits included in General Education)
ECON 111 Contemporary Economic Issues and Social Policy/3 credits
ECON 217 Principles of Economics (Micro Emphasis)/3 credits
GEOG 201 Introduction to Geography/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)
GEOG 241 Cultural Geography/3 credits
GEOG 352 World Geography/3 credits
PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)
SOCL 101 Principles of Sociology/3 credits (may satisfy General Education Goal 8)

D. Secondary Education Licensure Grades 6-12/38 credits (plus 1 credit included in General Education)
(One credit of the 11-hour directed teaching experience satisfies General Education Goal 15.)
POSC 300 Teaching History and the Social Sciences in the Secondary School/3 credits

E. Total credits required for BA in Political Science with Secondary Education Endorsement/ 137


POLITICAL SCIENCE COURSE DESCRIPTIONS (POSC)
General Education Courses *
Writing Intensive Courses **
Speaking Intensive Courses ***

Political Science 150. American Government and Politics. An introduction to the American political system, with an emphasis upon the national political institutions, processes, groups, public behavior, and issues that shape contemporary society. 3 credits. *

Political Science 216. American State and Local Government. A study of American state and local political institutions and processes, and of related current issues and problems. 3 credits. **

Political Science 230. Administration of Criminal Justice. Survey of the operations of institutions that compose our system for administering criminal justice, including police administration, premises and politics of court procedures and management, and corrections. 3 credits.

Political Science 245. Gender and Politics. The course examines gender as a socio-political construct within a global context. It surveys both feminist and masculinist theories of politics, which provide the foundation for the course. Attention is then paid to the gendered who, what and how of world politics. Within this discussion, the course carefully explores the gendered divisions of power and of the global economy. 3 credits. *

Political Science 255. Introduction to Comparative Politics. The course surveys political systems and considers the meaning of concepts and themes such as political ideologies, states, nationalism, ethnicity, racial politics, democracy, development, and political change. A goal of this course, therefore, is to familiarize students with mainstream and alternative approaches to comparing and contrasting political systems. Examples from Africa, Asia, Latin America, Europe, and the United States will provide the context. 3 credits. *

Political Science 292. Internship in Political Science. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of political science. 1-18 credits.

Political Science 295. Special Topics in Political Science. Selected topics in political science. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. 3 credits.

Political Science 300 (History 300). Teaching History and the Social Sciences in the Secondary School. A methods course designed to offer preparation for student teaching, this class focuses in depth on content required for the secondary school classroom in history, political science, and social studies. Other topics covered include instructional planning, assessment and evaluation, teaching techniques, classroom management, and school/community interaction. This course is open only to students seeking secondary school certification. Prerequisites: EDUC 245 and 260. 3 credits ***

Political Science 311, 312. Studies Abroad. Primarily intended for transfer of credit earned abroad in courses in political science. 1-18 credits.

Political Science 314 (History 314). Political History of Africa. A survey of the political landscape of African history. A major portion of the course examines the significance of precolonial kingdoms, assesses the growth of the "slave trade", analyzes African intellectual history, and explores the "eve of colonialism" in Africa. 3 credits. **

Political Science 331 (Philosophy 331). Ancient and Medieval Political Philosophy. Survey of the principal political theories and philosophies from ancient Greece through the Middle Ages, including the contributions of Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, St. Augustine, and St. Thomas Aquinas. 3 credits.*

Political Science 332 (Philosophy 332). Modern Political Philosophy. Survey of modern political theories and philosophies, including the contributions of Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Burke, and Marx. 3 credits. *

Political Science 335. Western European Politics and Government. An examination of the political systems of Western Europe, with in-depth analyses of Great Britain, France, and Germany. Issues like social democracy, gendered politics, right-wing extremism, and the European Union are explored as causes of political change and continuity in Europe. 3 credits. ** and ***

Political Science 336. Russian and Eastern European Government and Politics. Study of the governments and politics of Russia and Eastern Europe. Special attention is given to the rise and fall of Communism and to the challenges of building democratic institutions and market oriented economic systems. 3 credits. **

Political Science 337. Asian Governments and Politics. A study of the political systems and foreign policies of the major Asian powers, with emphasis on China and Japan. 3 credits. **

Political Science 338. Politics of the Middle East. A survey of the political systems of the Middle East, focusing on Israel, Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Turkey.  Democratization, religion, gender, conflict, terrorism, and economic development are explored in this course. 3 credits. 

Political Science 341. American Political Thought to the Civil War. An introduction to the principal thinkers and the central themes in American political thought. 3 credits. **and ***

Political Science 342. American Political Thought 1860 to the Present. An introduction to the principal thinkers and the central themes in American political thought. 3 credits. **and ***

Political Science 343. American Foreign Policy. A study of U.S. foreign policy with special attention to the policy-making process, current problems in foreign affairs, and the development of long-range foreign policy. 3 credits. **

Political Science 350. The American Presidency. The modern presidency and its role in contemporary politics, emphasizing the constitutional background of the office, the evolution of presidential powers, relationships between the presidency and the Congress and bureaucracy, the presidential election process, and the role of the presidency in policy making. 3 credits. **

Political Science 355. Constitutional Rights and Liberties. Study of prominent Constitutional principles, issues, and practices pertaining to persons accused or convicted of crime. Particular focus on the ideas of the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments. Extensive use of Supreme Court decisions. 3 credits.

Political Science 356. Constitutional Rights and Liberties. Study of prominent Constitutional principles, issues, and practices concerning government-private individual relations, with particular emphasis upon freedoms of speech, press, religion; privacy; and social and economic discrimination. Extensive use of Supreme Court decisions. 3 credits.

Political Science 360. Comparative Political Participation. Examination of political participation from a comparative perspective, focusing mainly on cases from the United States and Western Europe. Political parties, voting, elections, and social movements are highlighted. 3 credits. ***

Political Science 370. Public Administration. Survey of the premises and issues of public bureaucracies, and of principal activities of policy administrators, including personnel management, budgeting, decision-making, intergovernmental relations, and relations with courts, elected officials, and private organizations. 3 credits.

Political Science 375. Latin American Politics and Government. A study of Latin American politics, government, and development. The course considers the importance of political institutions and social and economic forces in the processes of democratization and economic development. 3 credits. **

Political Science 390. Directed or Independent Study in Political Science. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as 391. 1-18 credits.

Political Science 392. Internship in Political Science. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of political science. 1-18 credits.

Political Science 394. Political Leadership. The course investigates the diverse nature of leadership and the place of leadership in modern society. While the main emphasis is on political leadership, a strong interdisciplinary approach is employed. Students are required to think about various needs, origins, moral dilemmas, requirements, and techniques of leadership in a wide variety of differing circumstances. 3 credits. ** and ***

Political Science 395. African Politics and Government. The course offers various intellectual perspectives on contemporary African politics. Attention is devoted to an examination of the state, political institutions, social forces and movements, gender, democratization, and regional economic development. 3 credits. **

Political Science 420. Democracy and Democratization.  This class explores the development of democracy, focusing on the theories, definitions, history, and pre-conditions of democratic development.  Democratic transitions and consolidations are also considered. 3 credits.

Political Science 441. International Relations. Study of the factors conditioning international politics, with emphasis upon the foreign policies of major powers. 3 credits. **

Political Science 442. International Law and Organizations. A study of international law and organizations, with emphasis upon the principles of international law. Additional consideration of the policies of the United Nations. 3 credits.

Political Science 443. United States Foreign Policy and National Security: 1990-Present. This course represents an endeavor to identify and analyze major US foreign policy and national security issues and threats likely facing the United States both externally and internally. Major attention is devoted to the continuing dynamics in Russo-American relations and to problems of a politico-economic nature posed by nations of the developing or Third World. Additionally, discussions focus on various response options potentially applicable to the resolution of current issues. 3 credits.

Political Science 455 (History 455). Constitutional History of the United States. Intensive case-study examination of the continuing development of the Constitution. Emphasis on judiciary, presidency, federalism, commerce, and due process problems. 3 credits.

Political Science 460. Political Science Seminar. Open to juniors and seniors; offered on demand. 1-3 credits.

Political Science 461. Senior Seminar. Capstone course in Political Science. Research, writing, and assessment of student outcomes. Required of majors in Political Science. 1 credit. **and ***

Political Science 465. The Role of US National Intelligence in Foreign Policy. This course provides a basic overview of the history, current organization, and missions of the US Foreign intelligence establishment ("the Intelligence Community") and its various programs and activities in support of US foreign policy and national security objectives. 3 credits.

Political Science 490. Directed or Independent Study in Political Science. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as. 1-18 credits.

Political Science 492. Internship in Political Science. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of political science. 1-18 credits.

Political Science 495. Special Topics in Political Science. Selected topics in political science. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. 3 credits.

Political Science 498. Honors Research in Political Science. Students conduct research in political science under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits. **

Minor in Leadership Studies  

Directors
N. Scott Cole, PhD, Assistant Professor of Political Science
Kerstin Soderlund, PhD, Director of Leadership and New Student Programs

Longwood University's stated mission is to create citizen leaders. The Leadership Studies Program is intended for students who want to explore further the theoretical foundations of leadership.  This is an interdisciplinary minor that draws on different conceptions of leadership from across the curriculum.  Students from a variety of academic areas are encouraged to participate in this educational experience.  Courses for this program are designed to inform students about the concepts, theories, and issues related to leadership.

Requirements for the 19-Credit Minor in Leadership Studies:

In order to complete a minor in Leadership Studies, students must:
1.  File a form of intention to pursue the Minor at the Office of Registration.
2.  Earn a grade point average of 2.0 in those courses chosen to meet the minor requirements.
3.  Complete the following course requirements/19 credits   

LDST 120 Foundations of Leadership Studies/3 credits
LDST 220 Leadership and Service/3 credits
LDST 320 Leaders and Leadership/3 credits
POSC 394 Political Leadership/3 credits
LDST 420 Practicum in Leadership /1 credit
Choose 6 credit hours from the following:  
COMM 330 Small Group Communication/3 credits
EDUC 375  Intro to Residence Life/1 credit
HONS 202 Fundamentals of Citizen Leadership/1 credit (open to non-Honors students with a GPA of 3.25 or higher)
MISC 101  Foundations of Officership/1 credit
MISC 102  Basic Leadership/1 credit
MISC 201  Military Leadership I: Individual Leadership Studies/2 credits
MISC 202  Military Leadership II: Leadership and Teamwork/2 credits
POSC 360  Comparative Political Participation/3 credits
PSYC 331  Social Psychology/3 credits
RECR 350 Ropes Course and Initiative Dynamics/2 credits
RECR 375 Leadership Development through Wilderness Pursuits/3 credits
 

LEADERSHIP STUDIES COURSE DESCRIPTIONS  

Leadership Studies 120. Foundations of Leadership Studies.  This course is designed to introduce and engage students in the study of leadership.  The course will explore the history, ideas, and theories of leadership, answer questions about leadership and the leadership process, and develop a basic vocabulary and portfolio of concepts and approaches that will prepare students to exercise leadership in service to society. 3 credits. 

Leadership Studies 220. Leadership and Service.  Discussion and understanding of theoretical leadership concepts is not sufficient; students must actively employ, reflect upon, and revise (when necessary) their leadership qualities, knowledge, and strategies.  This course is a critical component of the Leadership Studies minor as it requires students to be actively engaged in the community - observing, critiquing, and exerting leadership.  It is also essential for an institution that strives to create citizen leaders as it cultivates an understanding and appreciation for the concept of leader as servant.  3 credits.

Leadership Studies 320. Leaders and Leadership.  This interdisciplinary course will explore the question, "Do individuals in leadership roles necessarily exhibit exemplary leadership?"  Through active involvement in this course, students will have the opportunity to explore and evaluate the legacy of both positional and non-positional leaders from several historical and grassroots/social movements.  3 credits.

Leadership Studies 420.  Practicum in Leadership. This practicum provides students with the opportunity to apply the theoretical concepts and interdisciplinary perspectives and knowledge they have acquired in their leadership courses.  They will select an organization/agency with which to work and will concentrate efforts on a designated program/project/issue. 1 credit. 

PHILOSOPHY PROGRAM

Faculty

Mark Lukas, PhD, Assistant Professor of Philosophy
Eric Moore, PhD, Associate Professor of Philosophy
Paul V. Moriarty, PhD, Associate Professor of Philosophy

MINOR IN PHILOSOPHY

The minor in Philosophy requires 18 credit hours of work in Philosophy. Its objectives are as follows: to develop the skill to examine critically the philosophical problems that are basic and perennial for any serious-minded and reflective person; to begin to develop a personal philosophy or system of beliefs concerning those issues; to provide a background in the history of western thought; and to analyze problems and theories in other fields in both the humanities and sciences.

Minor Requirements/18 credits
PHIL 200 Introduction to Philosophy/3 credits
Choose two of the following:
PHIL 210 Survey of Ancient Philosophy/3 credits
PHIL 211 Survey of Medieval Philosophy/3 credits
PHIL 212 Survey of Early Modern Philosophy/3 credits
PHIL 213 Survey of Nineteenth-Century Philosophy/3 credits
Choose three credits from the following:
PHIL 308 Introduction to Ethics/3 credits
PHIL 315 Biomedical Ethics/3 credits
PHIL 316 Environmental Ethics/3 credits
Additional PHIL electives/6 credits
(Students may count POSC 331 or POSC 332 as PHIL electives)
 

PHILOSOPHY COURSE DESCRIPTIONS (PHIL)

General Education Courses *
Writing Intensive Course **

Philosophy 200. Introduction to Philosophy. Critical examination of basic problems of philosophy in various fields, e.g. ethics, religion, psychology. Attention to both critical analysis and systematic thinking. An introduction to ideas considered in most of the remaining courses in philosophy. Attention to the development of a system of beliefs in the student. Modern and contemporary readings. 3 credits. **

Philosophy 210. Survey of Ancient Philosophy. A survey of the development of western thought during the Hellenic and Hellenistic periods; that is, from Homer to Roman thought. Emphasis on the "golden age of Athens" and on Plato and Aristotle. 3 credits.

Philosophy 211. Survey of Medieval Philosophy. A survey of the development of western thought during the Medieval and Renaissance periods. Emphasis on the Christian philosophies of Augustine and Aquinas and on the humanistic philosophies of the Italian renaissance. 3 credits.

Philosophy 212. Survey of Early Modern Philosophy. A survey of the development of western thought from the 16th century through the 19th century. Emphasis on the philosophical traditions from Hobbes in the British Isles and from Descartes on the continent, especially on Descartes, Locke, and Hume. 3 credits.

Philosophy 213. Survey of Nineteenth-Century Philosophy. A survey of the development of western thought from Kant to the beginning of the 20th century. Emphasis on Kant's position as a solution to problems raised in the 18th century, and to the development of German philosophy in Schopenhauer, Hegel, and Marx. The foundations of existentialism. 3 credits.

Philosophy 214.  Survey of Twentieth-Century Analytic Philosophy.  A survey of the development of analytic philosophy in the twentieth century.  Topics covered may include the early paradigms of Moore and Russell, logical atomism in Russell and early Wittgenstein, logical positivism, the later Wittgenstein, the ordinary language school of philosophy, Quine's naturalism in semantics, Davidson's views on truth, Kripke's reconceptualization of semantic and metaphysical categories, and the legacy of 20th century analytic philosophy.  3 credits. 

Philosophy 292. Internship in Philosophy. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of philosophy. 1-18 credits.

Philosophy 295. Special Topics. Selected topics in Philosophy. The topics will vary from semester to semester. Descriptions will be available from academic advisors. May be repeated for credit when topics change. Prerequisite none. 1-3 credits.

Philosophy 300. Logic. The fundamentals of deduction and induction which aid the student in developing habits of valid thinking and in understanding the scientific method. Emphasis on deductive logic and on tools for analysis of issues in different fields of inquiry. 3 credits.

Philosophy 306. Ethics. An introduction to ethics designed to help the student to make informed, ethical choices and decisions on moral problems and to weigh the consequences of those choices. Emphasis on the detection of moral problems, the process of ethical reasoning, ethical theories and the process of resolution of moral dilemmas posed by contemporary moral issues. 1 credit.

Philosophy 307. Moral Issues and Perspectives. An introduction to the philosophical analysis of today's moral problems and the "care and justice" perspectives in which such problems may be resolved. (Students may not receive credit for both PHIL 201 and 307). Prerequisite: PHIL 306. 2 credits.

Philosophy 308. Introduction to Ethics. An introduction to ethical theories and their applications to moral issues. This course has three major components: (1) a survey of the main normative and metaethical theories; (2) a detailed examination of the method of philosophical analysis; and (3) the application of ethical theories and philosophical analysis to contemporary moral issues. 3 credits. *

Philosophy 311, 312. Studies Abroad. Primarily intended for transfer of credit earned abroad in courses on Philosophy. 1-16 credits per semester.

Philosophy 315. Biomedical Ethics. Ethical inquiry into the concepts of person, autonomy, rights, responsibility, and justice relevant to biomedicine and their application to issues of euthanasia, abortion, genetic control, the definition of death, allocation of scarce medical resources, experimentation with human beings, and intentional deception in biomedicine. 3 credits.*

Philosophy 316. Environmental Ethics. A study of how the principles of ethical theory can be applied to contemporary environmental controversies. The class will examine a variety of theoretical approaches to environmental ethics, comparing human-centered (anthropocentric), animal-centered (zoocentric), and nature-centered (biocentric) value systems. Students will study local, national, and global environmental issues including factory farming, pollution and pesticides, loss of biodiversity, habitat destruction, and global warming. 3 credits.*

Philosophy 320. American Thought. A survey of the development of American philosophy from its colonial beginnings to the present. Emphasis on the development of native American pragmatism in Pierce, James and Dewey. 3 credits.

Philosophy 331 (Political Science 331). Ancient and Medieval Political Philosophy. Survey of the principal political theories and philosophies from ancient Greece through the Middle Ages, including the contributions of Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, St. Augustine, and St. Thomas Aquinas. 3 credits.*

Philosophy 332 (Political Science 332). Modern Political Philosophy. Survey of modern political theories and philosophies, including the contributions of Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Burke, and Marx. 3 credits. *

Philosophy 350. Aesthetics. A study of theories of art and beauty, including the relation between beauty and the arts, the function and value of the arts in culture, and standards for criticism and judgments of beauty. 3 credits.

Philosophy 355. Philosophy of Mind. A study of such leading theories as dualistic interactionism, behaviorism and materialism, which concern the nature of the person, self-knowledge, the relation to the mental and the physical and human action. Emphasis on theories of the self or person and on criteria for the evaluation thereof. Classical, modern, and contemporary sources. 3 credits.

Philosophy 360. Philosophy of Religion. A critical examination of certain problems in religion, including the nature of religion, grounds for belief and disbelief in God, the varieties of religious experience and immortality. Classical, modern and contemporary sources. 3 credits.

Philosophy 365 (History 365). History and Philosophy of Science. An examination of such issues as the logic of scientific reasoning and method, the distinction between science and pseudoscience, the analysis of central concepts in science, especially causality, law and explanation, and finally, the relation of science and values in our culture. Attention will be given to the development of a consistent point of view on these issues. Examples will be drawn from a broad range of sciences, both natural and social. 3 credits.

Philosophy 390. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as 391. 1-18 credits.

Philosophy 392. Internship in Philosophy. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of philosophy. 1-18 credits.

Philosophy 461. Seminar in Philosophy. An intensive study of one of the major philosophers emphasized in the introductory four-course sequence in the history of western philosophy. Lectures on the systematic position in general and student papers on particular topics on or about that position. Readings from major works of the philosopher chosen and from important critical secondary sources. Prerequisites: completion of the other specified required courses for either the major or minor programs in philosophy or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

Philosophy 468 (History 468). European Intellectual History from the Enlightenment. A survey of the major trends in European thought after the Enlightenment, and the relationship of these trends to their social, cultural, and political context. Prerequisite: HIST 110 or permission of instructor. 3 credits. ** and ***

Philosophy 490. Independent Study. A directed reading and/or research program on a topic or thinker selected by the student and approved by the director. 3 credits.

Philosophy 492. Internship. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of philosophy. 1-18 credits.

Philosophy 495. Special Topics. Selected topics in Philosophy. The topics will vary from semester to semester. Descriptions will be available from academic advisers. May be repeated for credit when topics change. 1-3 credits.

Philosophy 498. Honors Research in Philosophy. Students conduct research in philosophy under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits.