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  Longwood University Undergraduate Catalog 2005 - 2006

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Department of Natural Sciences

Charles D. Ross, Chair
Betty J. Woodie, Fiscal Manager
Raymond Heinrich, Director of Laboratory Services and Hazardous Waste Manager

The Department offers majors in biology, chemistry, and physics; minors are available in biology, chemistry, earth science, environmental studies, geography, and physics. A student may major or minor in more than one area with the appropriate selection of courses. The Department also offers degrees in cooperation with other institutions in dual-degree engineering; pre-professional medical programs prepare students to transfer to professional schools in a number of health-oriented professions. The Department of Natural Sciences offers courses that satisfy the science requirements for general education in all degree programs of Longwood.

The aim of study in this department is to develop an interest in the natural world and to acquire the scientific habits of problem solving through experimentation, accurate observation, exact statements, and independent thought.

ASSESSMENT: The Department of Natural Sciences requires senior majors to take a comprehensive achievement test appropriate for their major. The purpose of the test is to assess the progress of the majors and the effectiveness of the program. This test is given in the spring and fall semester.

BIOLOGY PROGRAM

Faculty

Consuelo J. Alvarez, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Biology
David W. Buckalew, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Biology/Director of Health Pre-Professional Programs

Patrick Crumrine, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Biology
Lynn M. Ferguson, Ph.D., Professor of Biology
Alix D. Fink, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Biology and Area Coordinator of Biology
Mark L. Fink, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Science Education
G. Edward Hooks III, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Biology
Mary E. Lehman, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Biology
Donald A. Merkle, Ph.D., Professor of Biology

Melissa Zwick, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Biology
Anthony L. Palombella, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Biology

The biology major at Longwood provides fundamental training in many areas of the biological sciences so that graduates may pursue graduate study or careers in research, industry, teaching, medicine, dentistry, or allied health fields. To provide a broad background in the biological program, each student must take the unity of life, the diversity of life, evolution, genetics, ecology, ethics of biology and unifying biological principles. In addition, students must choose to specialize in one of the following tracks: Molecular, Ecology, Organismic or Health. The Health Track is restricted to those students who plan to pursue a career in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, or other health-related areas. A student who is in another major may obtain a biology minor. The minor program requires 8 semester hours at the introductory level, 8 hours at the 200 level or above, 4 hours at the 300 level or above, and 4 hours of electives for a total of 24 semester hours.  Students are encouraged to enroll in a program of honors study.

Students may take a maximum of four credits total in Internship (Biology/Chemistry/Physics 292, 392, 492) and Research (Biology/Chemistry/Physics 496) courses for quality points (A, B, C, and D grades). Beyond four credits, such courses must be taken on a Pass/Fail basis.

A student may seek a secondary teaching endorsement in biology. This program consists of courses required for a biology major, and EASC 300, EDUC 245, 260, 265, 370, 380, 430, 455, 484, 487, SCED 352, SPED 489, and the professional semester consisting of 12 hours in the senior year. If an additional endorsement in chemistry or physics is desired, the student must minor in that discipline and meet all state-mandated core requirements for that endorsement. Interested students should meet with Secondary Science Education faculty for advising on preparation for secondary science teaching.

BIOLOGY MAJOR, B.A., B.S. DEGREE

A. General Education Core Requirement. 41 credits

PHYS 101 or PHYS 201 is recommended for General Education Goal 6.
PHIL 315 or 316 is required for General Education Goal 13.

B. Additional Degree Requirements for B. A. Degree - 6 credits

Foreign Language/3 credits
Humanities/3 credits
Additional Degree Requirements for B. S. Degree - 7 credits
Mathematics/Computer Science/3 credits
CHEM 111/4 credits

C. Major Requirements. 58 credits

Core Curriculum (required of all biology majors)

BIOL 121 The Unity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 122 The Diversity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 324 Genetics/4 credits
BIOL 341 General Ecology/4 credits
BIOL 399 Evolution/3 credits
BIOL 400 Unifying Biological Principles/3 credits
CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits
(satisfied by Additional Degree Requirements)
CHEM 112 Fundamentals of Chemistry II/4 credits
CHEM 205 Organic Chemistry for Biologists I/3 credits
or CHEM 305 Organic Chemistry I/3 credits
CHEM 206 Organic Chemistry for Biologists II/3 credits
or CHEM 306 Organic Chemistry II/3 credits
CHEM 307 Organic Chemistry Laboratory I/1 credit
CHEM 308 Organic Chemistry Laboratory II/1 credit
PHYS 101 General Physics I/4 credits (satisfied if taken as General Education Goal 6)
or PHYS 201 University Physics I/4 credits (satisfied if taken as General Education Goal 6)*
PHYS 102 General Physics II/4 credits
or PHYS 202 University Physics II/4 credits
*PHYS 101 is a prerequisite for PHYS 102. PHYS 201 is a prerequisite for PHYS 202.

Biology majors must choose one of the following tracks:

Ecology:

BIOL 300 Biostatistics and Experimental Design/4 credits
BIOL 430 Conservation Biology/4 credits
or BIOL 435 Advanced Ecology/4 credits or Biol 361 Aquatic Ecology/4 credits

Choose one of the following:

BIOL 410 Field Ornithology/6 credits
BIOL 405 Field Mammalogy/6 credits
BIOL 441 Field Ecology/6 credits
BIOL 443 Field Botany/6 credits
BIOL electives/6 credits

Molecular:

BIOL 304 Microbiology/4 credits
BIOL 412 Biochemistry/4 credits
BIOL 426 Cell Biology/4 credits
Biology electives/8 credits

Organismic:

BIOL 303 Vertebrate Morphology/4 credits
BIOL 306 Vertebrate Physiology/4 credits
BIOL 307 Plant Form and Function/4 credits
Biology electives/8 credits

Health:

BIOL 206 Human Anatomy and Physiology/4 credits
BIOL 207 Human Anatomy and Physiology/4 credits
BIOL 304 Microbiology/4 credits
BIOL 412 Biochemistry/4 credits
Biology Electives/4 credits

The health track is designed for students planning post-graduate study leading to a health career, such as medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, nursing, physical and occupational therapy, and medical technology.

D. General Electives B.A. Degree (non-teaching majors)/15 credits

General Electives B.S. Degree (non-teaching majors)/14 credits

E. Secondary Teaching Endorsement, Grades 6-12. 42 credits

Must take SCED 352/4 credits and EASC 300/3 credits in addition to Professional Education requirements.

* For additional endorsement to teach Chemistry

Minor in Chemistry/24 credits.

* For additional endorsement to teach Physics

Minor in Physics/24 credits.

* Students seeking endorsement in these areas must meet criteria established by the State Department of Education.

F. Total Credits Required for B.A. or B.S. in Biology - 120

Total Credits Required for B.A. in Biology with Secondary Teaching Endorsement - 151

Total Credits Required for B.S. in Biology with Secondary Teaching Endorsement - 148

BIOLOGY MINOR

Students who are interested in pursuing a biology minor should contact the area coordinator. The minor must include:

BIOL 121 The Unity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 122 The Diversity of Life/4 credits
8 semester hours of biology at the 200 level or above.
4 semester hours of biology at the 300 level or above.
4 semester hours of biology electives

TOTAL/24 credits

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES MINOR

This interdisciplinary minor serves those students majoring in any subject who are interested in beginning an understanding of environmental issues. Grades below C- will not apply toward the fulfillment of minor requirements. Students choosing this minor must make appropriate selections from each of the following groups:

*Group A/8 credits

Select one of the following blocks:

BIOL 101 Biological Concepts/4 credits
or BIOL 121 The Unity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 341 General Ecology/4 credits
or
CHEM 112 Fundamentals of Chemistry II/4 credits
CHEM 351 Instrumental Analysis I/4 credits

Group B/3 credits

Choose one of the following:

BIOL 364 Man and the Environment/3 credits
HLTH 310 Environmental Health/3 credits

Group C/4 credits

Choose one of the following:

CHEM 101 General Chemistry/4 credits
CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits

Group D/3 credits

Choose one of the following:

ECON 314 Environmental and Resource Economics/3 credits
EASC 354 Hydrology/3 credits
EASC 355 Climatology/3 credits

Group E/Take 6 credits from the following:

BIOL 410 Field Ornithology/6 credits
BIOL 405 Field Mammology/6 credits
BIOL 441 Field Ecology/6 credits
BIOL 443 Field Botany/6 credits
EASC 520 Stream Processes and Landforms/6 credits

Total required hours: 24

* Biology majors seeking this minor must take Chemistry 112 and 351; Chemistry majors seeking this minor must take Biology 101/341. All other majors may choose one of the two options indicated in Group A.

BIOLOGY COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

A special fee is charged for all courses with laboratories.

General Education Course *

Writing Intensive Course **

Speaking Intensive Course ***

BIOLOGY 101. Biological Concepts and Applications. This course introduces students to the nature, methods, and applications of biology. Conceptual topics include methods of biological investigation, molecular and cellular features of living things, mechanisms for the evolution and continuity of life, and ecological interactions among individuals, populations and their environment. Issues of contemporary and historical importance will be used to illustrate conceptual topics and demonstrate Biology's relevance to the quality of human life and history and future of human civilizations. This course does not fulfill requirements for the biology major. 3 lecture hours and one 2-hour lab period. 4 credits. *

BIOLOGY 114. Fundamentals of Life Science An inquiry into the common features of life at the molecular, cellular, and organismic levels. Emphasis on classification, life cycles, metabolic processes, genetics, ecology, evolution, and importance in society. For Liberal Studies majors or students seeking licensure. Does not meet the requirements for a biology major or minor. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOLOGY 121. The Unity of Life. The first of a two-semester introduction to Longwood-level study of biology for biology and health pre-professional majors. Major topics include the molecular and cellular basis of life, energy and life, photosynthesis and cellular respiration, classical and molecular genetics, mechanisms of evolution, and classification schemes. Open only to biology majors and minors, environmental sciences minors, and health pre-professional majors. Biology majors must make at least a C- in this course before taking advanced courses. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOLOGY 122. The Diversity of Life. The second of a two-semester introduction to Longwood-level study of biology for biology and health pre-professional majors. Major topics include eubacteria and archaea; protists; fungi; plant structure, reproduction and development; major animal phyla; animal reproduction and development; and ecological relationships, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Open only to biology majors and minors, environmental sciences minors, and health pre-professional majors. Biology majors must make at least a C- in this course before taking advanced courses. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOLOGY 126. Essential Laboratory Techniques (CHEMISTRY 126, EARTH SCIENCE 126, PHYSICS 126). Good laboratory techniques, skills and safe practices are taught by actual practice in the laboratory. 1 credit.

BIOLOGY 206, 207. Human Anatomy and Physiology I and II. Basic physiological principles and integrated anatomy and physiology of the integumentary, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular and lymphatic systems (BIOL 206) and the skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, excretory and reproductive systems (BIOL 207). BIOL 206 is recommended as a prerequisite for 207. 3 lecture and one 2-hour laboratory periods. 4 credits each semester.

BIOLOGY 292. Internship in Biology. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of biology. 3-15 credits.

BIOLOGY 295. Special Topics in Biology. Specialized courses on a variety of topics that may be offered periodically. 1-4 credits.

BIOLOGY 300. Biostatistics and Experimental Design. This course focuses on identifying and using proper statistical analysis techniques to solve biological problems. Scientifically valid methods of experimental design will also be emphasized. Students will learn how to apply a broad range of statistical tests commonly used in Biology and other scientific disciplines, including but not limited to parametric and nonparametric analysis of variance, simple and multiple linear regression, and principal component analysis. Laboratory exercises will involve extensive use of computer software to conduct statistical analyses. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. ***

BIOLOGY 303. Vertebrate Morphology. A comparative study of embryonic development, anatomy and evolution in representative vertebrate groups. Prerequisite: BIOL 122. 2 lecture and two 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOLOGY 304. Microbiology. A study of the structure, physiology and activities of micro-organisms as related to their role in nature, disease, immunological interactions, industrial processes and human affairs. Basic concepts and fundamental techniques for isolation, growth, identification and immunological reactions are stressed. Prerequisite: BIOL 121 and 122. 3 lecture and two 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. ***

BIOLOGY 306. Vertebrate Physiology. The principal functional processes in vertebrate organs and organ systems including respiration, circulation, hormonal coordination, water balance, thermoregulation, nervous coordination, and responses to special environments. Prerequisites: CHEM 111 and BIOL 122. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits. **

BIOLOGY 307. Plant Form and Function. The investigation of the relationship of morphology and anatomy to physiological processes in vascular plants. Emphasis on structure and metabolism of plant cells, the interactive functions of plant tissues, and the detailed structure and development of plant organs. Prerequisites: BIOL 122. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab period. 4 credits.

BIOLOGY 310. Diagnostic Microbiology. A study of various human pathogens and the diseases they cause, with emphasis on host-pathogen interaction including host defense mechanisms, virulence factors, and an in-depth review of the major bacterial and viral disease agents. The lab will focus on the use of diagnostic media and identification techniques used to identify disease agents. Prerequisites: BIOL 304 and CHEM 305. 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab period. 4 credits.

BIOLOGY 311, 312. Studies Abroad. Primarily intended for transfer of credit earned abroad in courses in biology. 1-18 credits.

BIOLOGY 321. Plant Taxonomy. The morphology, classification and systematics of the vascular plants with emphasis on family characteristics. The laboratory stresses the identification and herbarium preparation of local plants collected during weekly field trips. Prerequisite: BIOL 122. 2 lecture and two 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOLOGY 324. Genetics. A study of classical and modern genetics, including the mechanisms for the replication, continuation, variation of regulation and expression of genetic information. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOLOGY 341 (EARTH SCIENCE 341). General Ecology. The principles underlying the interrelations of groups of organisms with their environments, including the population, community and ecosystem levels of organization. The lab normally includes local field trips. Prerequisite: BIOL 122. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits. **

BIOLOGY 360. Terrestrial Ecology. An advanced study of ecological principles governing the operation of terrestrial ecosystems. Major topics covered include plant and animal responses to abiotic factors, species interactions, processes controlling ecosystems structure and function, and major terrestrial biomes. Research techniques and advanced statistical analysis at the population, community, and ecosystem level will also be considered. Laboratory normally includes local field trips and an extended field trip to the mountains. Prerequisite: BIOL 341. 3 lecture and one 3-hour laboratory periods. 4 credits.

BIOLOGY 361. Aquatic Ecology. A study of lakes, ponds and streams including their origin, development, morphometry, geochemistry, energy balance, productivity, and the dynamics of plant and animal communities. Laboratory includes a field trip within Virginia. Prerequisites: BIOL 122 and a semester of Chemistry is recommended. 2 lecture and two 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOLOGY 364. Man and the Environment. A consideration of local, national and international environmental problems. Three lecture periods. 3 credits. **

BIOLOGY 390. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as 391. 1-18 credits.

BIOLOGY 392. Internship in Biology. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of biology. 3-15 credits.

BIOLOGY 399. Evolution. A study of the basic processes of organic evolution including the historical development of evolutionary theory, sources of variation, adaptation, natural selection, speciation, the fossil record, biogeography and major steps in evolution. Prerequisite: BIOL 324. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits. **

BIOLOGY 400. Unifying Biological Principles. An integrative study of phenomena common to all living creatures: metabolism, homeostasis, reproduction, development, inheritance, life’s interactions and the environment through time and space. Themes are studied from the perspective of both cellular and organismic levels of complexity. Open only to junior and senior biology majors and minors. Prerequisite: BIOL 324. Corequisite or prerequisite: BIOL 341. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits. **

BIOLOGY 410. Field Ornithology. A field course emphasizing identification of birds by sight and sound in Virginia’s mountain, coastal, and Piedmont regions. Students will also gain an understanding of general habitat associations, breeding behavior, and conservation issues. Census and monitoring techniques will be studied to emphasize the development of practical skills. Activities focused on Southside Virginia with additional required extended trips to other areas. Lab work, field activities, and independent study required. Offered during summer session. 6 credits.

BIOLOGY 405. Field Mammalogy. A field course emphasizing identification of common mammals in Virginia’s mountain, coastal, and Piedmont regions. Students will also gain an understanding of general habitat associations, breeding behavior, and conservation issues. Additional emphasis will be placed on learning to employ standard census techniques such as small mammal and bat trapping and radio telemetry. Students will have the opportunity to contribute to a long-term research project on small mammal populations. Activities focused on Southside Virginia with additional required extended trips to other areas. Offered during summer session. 6 credits.

BIOLOGY 412 (CHEMISTRY 412). Biochemistry. A study of the chemistry of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids in biological systems. Prerequisite: CHEM 206 or CHEM 306 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab period. 4 credits.

BIOLOGY 425. Modern Genetics. A study of the structure and function of hereditary material at the molecular level. Topics include DNA-RNA structure and replication, protein synthesis, and homeostasis. Prerequisite: BIOL 324. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOLOGY 426. Cell Biology. A study of the structure and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including plant and animal cell types. Emphasis on the structure and function of membranes, mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticula, plastids, nuclei and nucleoli. Prerequisite: BIOL 121 and 122. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits. **

BIOLOGY 430. Conservation Biology. A multifaceted course focused on the application of basic ecological principles to complex conservation problems. Successful conservation efforts require that biological solutions be meshed with political, social, and economic realities, and thus conservation biology is an interdisciplinary field. Class discussions and projects will apply basic concepts to the high-stakes field of endangered species management as well as local, regional, and global biodiversity conservation. Students will be required to complete research assignments independently and as a part of a functional team. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. ***

BIOLOGY 435. Advanced Ecology  . Advanced ecological concepts will be emphasized through readings and discussions of primary literature.  Various forms of scientific writing will also be taught and practiced through multiple writing assignments.  Other miscellaneous topics related to scientific research and career preparation will also be considered.  This course is primarily designed for Ecology track Biology majors who plan to pursue graduate studies.  Prerequisites: boil 341 or permission of instructor.  3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.**

BIOLOGY 441. Field Ecology. A field course studying the fundamental concepts, principles, and terminology of ecology at the population, community, and ecosystem levels. Major emphasis is placed on learning various field sampling techniques for plants and animals in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Students will also develop skills for using field instrumentation to measure abiotic factors. Expert consultants from other institutions and from federal and state agencies provide additional exposure to other scientific research and management perspectives and allow students to explore various career options. Overnight field trips required. Offered during summer session. Prerequisite: Biology 122 or permission of instructor. 6 credits.

BIOLOGY 443. Field Botany. A field course emphasizing the ecology and taxonomy of local plants in their natural habitats. Daily trips are made to local biological communities where specimens are examined and collected to enhance future recognition of the plants. Students are expected to learn the scientific names and classification of the most common bryophytes, pteridophytes, wildflowers, shrubs and trees of the Virginia Piedmont, coast, and mountains. Additional emphasis is placed on the development of skills for using plant keys to determine species identity. Overnight field trips required. Offered during summer session. 6 credits.

BIOLOGY 461. Biological Seminar. Short oral presentations by students on selected, researched biological topics. May be repeated. Open to junior and senior biology majors and minors. 1 lecture period. 1 credit.

BIOLOGY 471. Ornithology. Identification, classification and morphology of birds common to Virginia. Saturday field trips. Prerequisites: BIOL 122 and permission of instructor. 3 lecture/lab periods. 2 credits.

BIOLOGY 474. Entomology. A study of insects: morphology, ecology, evolution, physiology, or taxonomy of the class or of a particular order. Prerequisites: BIOL 122 and permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOLOGY 485. The Ethics of Biology. A study of basic ethical principles coupled with student-led discussions of how these principles apply to contemporary personal and professional biological concerns. Open only to biology majors and minors. 1 credit. *

BIOLOGY 490. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. 1-18 credits.

BIOLOGY 492. Internship in Biology. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of biology. 3-15 hours.

BIOLOGY 495. Special Topics in Biology. Specialized courses on a variety of topics that may be offered periodically. 1-4 credits.

BIOLOGY 496. Research Projects in Biology. With the approval of a faculty member and the department chair, a student may carry out an individual research project. The nature of the project must be determined between the student and faculty member and approved by the department chair before the student may register for the course. May be repeated. 1-4 credits.

BIOLOGY 498. Honors Research in Biology. Students conduct research in biology under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits. **

BIOLOGY MAJOR, B.S. DEGREE

Medical Technology Concentration

(Roanoke Memorial Hospital, Fairfax Hospital)

A. General Education Core Requirement. 41 credits

PHYS 101 or PHYS 201 is recommended for General Education Goal 6.

B. B. S. Degree Additional Degree Requirements - 7 credits

Mathematics/3 credits
CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits

C. Major Requirements. 45 credits

BIOL 121 The Unity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 122 The Diversity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 206 Human Anatomy and Physiology/4 credits
BIOL 207 Human Anatomy and Physiology/4 credits
BIOL 304 Microbiology/4 credits
Biology elective (300-400 level)/4 credits
CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits
(satisfied in Additional Degree Requirements)
CHEM 112 Fundamentals of Chemistry II/4 credits
CHEM 305 Organic Chemistry I/3 credits
CHEM 306 Organic Chemistry II/3 credits
CHEM 307 Organic Chemistry Laboratory I/1 credit
CHEM 308 Organic Chemistry Laboratory II/1 credit
PHYS 101 General Physics I/4 credits (satisfied if taken for General Education Goal 6)
Or PHYS 201 University Physics I/4 credits (satisfied if taken for General Education Goal 6)
PHYS 102 General Physics II/4 credits
PHYS 202 University Physics II/4 credits
Electives/3 credits

Major Requirements (affiliated schools)

Fairfax Hospital/36 credits

Roanoke Memorial Hospital/42.5 credits

* PHYS 101 is a prerequisite for PHYS 102. PHYS 201 is a prerequisite for PHYS 202.

D. Total Credits Required for B.S. in Biology with Medical Technology Concentration affiliated with Fairfax Hospital - 129

Total Credits Required for B.S. in Biology with Medical Technology Concentration affiliated with Roanoke Memorial Hospital - 135.5

Students should take the biology assessment test in their junior year unless they plan to take their senior year at Longwood. Information concerning curriculum at the hospitals, expenses, financial aid, etc. is available.

BIOLOGY MAJOR, B.S. DEGREE

Concentration in Pre-Dentistry, Pre-Medical, Pre-Occupational Therapy, Pre-Physical Therapy, or Pre-Veterinary Medicine

The Pre-Professional concentration is designed to guide those students who desire entry into medical, veterinary, dental, physician assistant, physical therapy, and occupational therapy upon graduation from Longwood University.

Typical courses required for admission into most medical schools include: BIOL 121, BIOL 122, CHEM 111, CHEM 112, CHEM 305, CHEM 307, CHEM 306, CHEM 308, PHYS 101, PHYS 102, ENGL 150, MATH 261, and MATH 262.  Most Biology students preparing for any of the above concentrations adhere to the Health track curriculum over the four years of undergraduate study.  Each student should become familiar with their selected professional school(s) early in their academic career as course requirements for individual schools vary.

This curriculum will prepare students with the foundation courses necessary for the required admissions exams (MCAT, DAT, or GRE) usually taken during their junior year.  As minimal preparation, students should complete the required courses listed above by the end of their junior year.

For admission into graduate or professional school, students should have a strong GPA and score competitively on the admissions exam.  To be a viable candidate for professional school in a Pre-Med/Pre-Professional school, students must also demonstrate firsthand experience in their chosen area of study.  This can be accomplished by “shadowing” a clinician whereby a pre-professional student observes and assists practicing health professionals or through volunteer or paid work in a hospital, clinic, or other health setting.  Course credit can be obtained for these experiences by registering for BIOL 492 Internship in Biology.  

A. General Education Core Requirement. 41 credits.

B. B. S. Degree Additional Degree Requirements - 7 credits

Mathematics 171 or 261/3-4 credits

CHEM 111/4 credits

C. Major Core Requirements. 49 credits.

BIOL 121 The Unity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 122 The Diversity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 206 Human Anatomy and Physiology/4 credits
BIOL 207 Human Anatomy and Physiology/4 credits
BIOL 304 Microbiology/4 credits
BIOL 324 Genetics/4 credits
BIOL 412 Biochemistry/4 credits
Biology elective at 300-400 level/4 credits
CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits (satisfied in Additional
Degree Requirements)
CHEM 112 Fundamentals of Chemistry II/4 credits
CHEM 305 Organic Chemistry I/3 credits
CHEM 306 Organic Chemistry II/3 credits
CHEM 307 Organic Chemistry Laboratory I/1 credit
CHEM 308 Organic Chemistry Laboratory II/1 credit
PHYS 101 General Physics I/4 credits (satisfied if taken as General Education Goal 6)
Or PHYS 201 University Physics I/4 credits (satisfied if taken as General Education Goal 6)
PHYS 102 General Physics II/4 credits
Or PHYS 202 University Physics II/4 credits
Elective/3 credits

Major Requirements from Professional Schools

30 semester hours credit of 300-400 level courses taken at the professional school

(with grades of C or better) will be accepted as transfer credit by Longwood.

NOTE: 120 hours are required for graduation from Longwood with a cumulative average of 2.0, a 2.0 average in all major courses, and no grade below C- in biology courses required for the major. Candidates for this degree must also arrange to take the departmental comprehensive achievement test for assessment purposes. This test is given only in the spring. Students should plan to take this test their junior year unless they will be at Longwood their senior year.

HEALTH PRE-PROFESSIONAL PROGRAMS

Faculty

David W. Buckalew, Ph.D., Program Director for Health Pre-Professionals

Representatives of our Affiliated Institutions

C. Barrie Cook, M.D., Medical Director, School of Medical Technology, The Fairfax Hospital, Falls Church

Janet T. Hiler, MT(ASCP), Program Director, Roanoke Memorial Hospital, Roanoke

Amy Shoemaker, M.T. (ASCP) MBA, Program Director, Fairfax Hospital, Falls Church

Samuel F. Vance, M.D., Medical Director, School of Medical Technology, Roanoke Memorial Hospital, Roanoke

The Department of Natural Sciences is successful in preparing students for careers in medical technology, dental hygiene, occupational therapy, physical therapy, nursing, pharmacy, medicine, dentistry, and other health related professions. Students spend two-three years at Longwood taking the required coursework for transfer into the professional program at another institution. By working closely with an academic advisor, students can prepare for transfer into programs at any professional institution. Completion of Longwood’s pre-professional program, however, does not guarantee admission to the professional program. Admission to these programs is competitive and is based on the student’s academic performance during the pre-professional period as well as personal recommendations and related experiences. A minimum GPA of 3.0 is usually required for transfer. Links to professional schools and specific requirements may be found at: http://web.lwc.edu/staff/dmerkle/preprof.htm

PRE-DENTAL HYGIENE

(VCU-MCV, ODU)

Requirements:

BIOL 121 The Unity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 206 Human Anatomy and Physiology/4 credits
BIOL 207 Human Anatomy and Physiology/4 credits
BIOL 304 Microbiology/4 credits
CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits
ENGL 150 Writing and Research/3 credits
MATH 171 Statistical Decision Making/3 credits
PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology /3 credits
PSYC 251 Introduction to Biological Psychology/3 credits
SOCL 101 Principles of Sociology/3 credits
COMM 101 Oral Communication/3 credits

Choose three credits from the following:

ENGL 201 World Literature/3 credits
ENGL 202 British Literature/3 credits
ENGL 203 American Literature/3 credits

Electives/22 credits (MCV)*

TOTAL 63 credits

* For transfer to ODU, these electives must include 6 hours of humanities, 6 hours of history, 3 hours of philosophy, 3 hours of computer science, and chemistry 121.

PRE-NURSING (MCV AND UVA)

Changes in the nursing curricula at both MCV SCHOOL OF NURSING and UVA SCHOOL OF NURSING have changed the programs to 1+3 programs where students should transfer to the professional nursing program after only one year at another college. This has made it very hard for students to transfer, and, therefore, Longwood no longer recruits Pre-Nursing students. Any student at Longwood that wishes to transfer to any nursing program should contact Dr. Don Merkle for assistance.

PRE-OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY (VCU-MCV)

PLEASE NOTE THAT MCV IS CURRENTLY IN THE PROCESS OF CHANGING THIS PROGRAM TO A M.S. LEVEL PROGRAM WHICH WOULD REQUIRE STUDENTS TO HAVE AT LEAST 3, IF NOT 4, YEARS OF COLLEGE BEFORE ADMISSION.

Requirements:

BIOL 121 The Unity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 206 Human Anatomy and Physiology/4 credits
BIOL 207 Human Anatomy and Physiology/4 credits
ENGL 100 Rhetoric and Research/3 credits
ENGL 150 Writing and Research/3 credits
PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology /3 credits
PSYC 221 Life-Span Developmental Psychology/3 credits
PSYC 356 Abnormal Psychology/3 credits
Psychology elective/3 credits
SOCL 101 Principles of Sociology/3 credits
Sociology elective/3 credits
MATH 171 Statistical Decision Making/3 credits
Computer Science elective/3 credits

Choose three credits from the following:

ENGL 201 World Literature/3 credits
ENGL 202 British Literature/3 credits
ENGL 203 American Literature/3 credits

*Electives/48 credits

TOTAL/93 credits

*Students are encouraged to pursue further study in Biology, Psychology, and Sociology.

Applicants to MCV should have many hours of work-related experience.

CHEMISTRY PROGRAM

Faculty

Dr. Lee Friedman, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Chemistry
Gary P. Lutz, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Chemistry
Melissa C. Rhoten, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Chemistry and Chemistry Area Coordinator
Keith B. Rider, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Chemistry

The chemistry major at Longwood provides graduates with the necessary background to pursue graduate studies or a career in industry, government, medicine, and other health-related fields. There are three tracks in the chemistry program - regular, professional, and pre-pharmacy. The regular program is designed for students taking chemistry along with a second major, preparing to enter the teaching profession, or preparing for medical or other health-related professional schools. The professional program is designed to meet the needs of students planning to enter a graduate program in chemistry or another of the sciences. The professional program is the one that prepares graduates for the greatest variety of post-Longwood opportunities. The pre-pharmacy program is designed to meet the specific entrance requirements for the Schools of Pharmacy at Shenandoah and Virginia Commonwealth Universities, but it is general enough to meet the requirements for most other pharmacy schools. Chemistry majors graduating from Longwood have completed advanced degrees at graduate schools in Virginia and other states. They also have been able to step into jobs in state and federal laboratories and industrial facilities.

The requirements for the chemistry major include courses in general chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, and special interest electives. Students are encouraged to enroll in research courses in Chemistry in order to increase their competence in working in a laboratory. Superior students are encouraged to complete a chemistry Honors Project or a Research Project. The program in chemistry is rigorous, but it is flexible enough for students to take a second major. Students are encouraged to consider additional studies in biology, mathematics, physics, and computer science.

Students majoring in other areas may elect to minor in chemistry. The chemistry minor requires 24 semester hours: general chemistry (8 hours), organic chemistry (8 hours), quantitative analysis (4 hours), and a chemistry elective (4 hours).

No grade below C- on chemistry courses is accepted for the graduation requirements for the major or minor in chemistry.

Students may take a maximum of four credits total in Internship (Biology/Chemistry/Physics 292, 392, 492) and Research (Biology/Chemistry/Physics 496) courses for quality points (A, B, C, and D grades). Beyond four credits, such courses must be taken on a Pass/Fail basis.

A student may seek a secondary teaching endorsement in chemistry. This program consists of courses required for a chemistry major, and BIOL 121, EASC 300, EDUC 245, 260, 265, 370, 380, 430, 455, 484, 487, SCED 352, SPED 489, and the professional semester consisting of 12 hours in the senior year. If an additional endorsement in biology or physics is desired, the student must minor in that discipline and meet all state-mandated core requirements for that endorsement. Interested students should meet with Secondary Science Education faculty for advising on preparation for secondary science teaching.

CHEMISTRY MAJOR, Regular Track (B.A., B.S. DEGREE)

A. General Education Core Requirement. 41 credits

PHYS 201 is strongly recommended for General Education Goal 6.

B. Additional Degree Requirements for B. A. Degree

Humanities. 3 credits
Foreign Language (202 Level or above). 3 credits
Additional Degree Requirements for B. S. Degree
MATH 262. 4 credits
CHEM 111. 4 credits

C. Major Requirements. 42-43 credits

Core Chemistry Courses. 33-34 credits

CHEM 112 Fundamentals of Chemistry II/4 credits
CHEM 232 Quantitative Analyses/4 credits
CHEM 270 Inorganic Chemistry/3 credits
CHEM 305 Organic Chemistry I Lecture/3 credits
CHEM 306 Organic Chemistry II Lecture/3 credits
CHEM 307 Organic Chemistry Laboratory I/1 credit
CHEM 308 Organic Chemistry Laboratory II/1 credit
CHEM 361 Chemistry Seminar I/1 credit
CHEM 461 Chemistry Seminar II/1 credit
PHYS 202 University Physics II/4 credits
MATH 261 Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits (satisfies Goal 5 general education
requirement)

Non-teaching majors choose at least one credit from the following (satisfied in Goal 15 general education requirement)

CHEM 292 Internship in Chemistry/1-15 credits
CHEM 390 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
CHEM 392 Internship in Chemistry/1-15 credits
CHEM 490 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
CHEM 492 Internship in Chemistry/1-15 credits
CHEM 496 Research Projects in Chemistry/1-4 credits
CHEM 498 Honors Research in Chemistry/3 credits

Required Courses. 7-8 credits

Choose one course from the following:

CHEM 351 Instrumental Analysis I/4 credits
CHEM 352 Instrumental Analysis II/4 credits

Choose one course from the following:

CHEM 400 Physical Chemistry I/4 credits
CHEM 401 Quantum Mechanics/3 credits

Chemistry Electives. 1-6 credits.

D. General Electives for non-teaching majors. 30-33 credits

E. Secondary Teaching Endorsement, Grades 6-12. 46 credits.

Must take SCED 352/4 credits, BIOL 121/4 credits, and EASC 300/3 credits in addition to Professional Education requirements.

*For additional endorsement to teach Biology

Minor in Biology/24 credits

*For additional endorsement to teach Physics

Minor in Physics/24 credits

*Students seeking endorsement in these areas must meet criteria established by the State Department of Education.

F. Total credits required for B.A., B.S. in Chemistry - 120

Total credits required for B.A., in Chemistry with secondary teaching endorsement - 135-136.

Total credits required for B.S. in Chemistry with secondary teaching endorsement - 132-133

CHEMISTRY MAJOR, Professional Track (B.S. Degree)

A. General Education Core Requirement. 41 credits

PHYS 201 is strongly recommended for General Education Goal 6.

B. Additional Degree Requirements for B. S. Degree - 7 credits

MATH 262/4 credits
CHEM 111/4 credits

C. Major Requirements. 46-51 credits.

Core Chemistry Courses (42 credits)

PHYS 202 University Physics II/4 credits
CHEM 112 Fundamentals of Chemistry II/4 credits
CHEM 232 Quantitative Analyses/4 credits
CHEM 270 Inorganic Chemistry/3 credits
CHEM 305 Organic Chemistry I Lecture/3 credits
CHEM 306 Organic Chemistry II Lecture/3 credits
CHEM 307 Organic Laboratory I/1 credit
CHEM 308 Organic Laboratory II/1 credit
CHEM 351 Instrumental Analysis I/4 credits
CHEM 352 Instrumental Analysis II/4 credits
CHEM 361 Chemistry Seminar I/1 credit
CHEM 400 Physical Chemistry II/4 credits
CHEM 401 Quantum Mechanics/3 credits
CHEM 461 Chemistry Seminar II/1 credit
MATH 261 Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits (satisfies Goal 5 general education requirement)

Choose at least one credit from the following (satisfies Goal 15 general education requirement)

CHEM 292 Internship in Chemistry/1-15 credits
CHEM 390 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
CHEM 392 Internship in Chemistry/1-15 credits
CHEM 490 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
CHEM 492 Internship in Chemistry/1-15 creditsCHEM 496 Research Projects in Chemistry/1-4 credits
CHEM 498 Honors Research in Chemistry/3 credits

Chemistry Electives (4-9 credits) - can be chosen from CHEM 371-376, 412, 492, 496, or 498

D. General Electives for professional chemistry majors: 26 credits

E. Total credits required for B.S. in Professional Chemistry - 120

Chemistry Major, Pre-Pharmacy Track (B.S. Degree)

A. General Education Core Requirement. 41 credits

PHYS 201 is strongly recommended for General Education Goal 6.

B. Major Requirements. 42-43 credits.

Core Chemistry Courses. 34 credits

CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits
CHEM 112 Fundamentals of Chemistry II/4 credits
CHEM 232 Quantitative Analyses/4 credits
CHEM 270 Inorganic Chemistry/3 credits
CHEM 305 Organic Chemistry I Lecture/3 credits
CHEM 306 Organic Chemistry II Lecture/3 credits
CHEM 307 Organic Chemistry Lab I/1 credit
CHEM 308 Organic Chemistry Lab II/1 credit
CHEM 461 Chemistry Seminar II/1 credit
PHYS 202 University Physics II/4 credits
MATH 261 Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits (satisfies Goal 5 general education
requirement)

Choose at least one credit from the following (satisfies Goal 15 general education requirement)

CHEM 292 Internship in Chemistry/1-15 credits
CHEM 390 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
CHEM 392 Internship in Chemistry/1-15 credits
CHEM 490 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
CHEM 492 Internship in Chemistry/1-15 credits
CHEM 496 Research Projects in Chemistry/1-4 credits
CHEM 498 Honors Research in Chemistry/3 credits
CHEM 499 Honors Research in Chemistry/3 credits
Required Courses. 7-8 credits

CHEM 351 Instrumental Analysis I/4 credits
CHEM 352 Instrumental Analysis II/4 credits

Choose one course from the following:

CHEM 400 Physical Chemistry I/4 credits
CHEM 401 Quantum Mechanics/3 credits

Chemistry Electives. 1-6 credits.

C. Additional Pharmacy School Requirements (MCV/VCU). 18-22 credits

BIOL 121 The Unity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 122 The Diversity of Life/4 credits
MATH 171 Statistical Decision Making/3 credits
MATH 262 Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits
COMM 101 Oral Communication/3 credits
Additional Pharmacy School Requirements (Shenandoah)
BIOL 121 The Unity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 122 The Diversity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 304 Microbiology/4 credits
MATH 262 Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits

COMM 101 Oral Communications/3 credits
ECON 217/218 Micro- or Macroeconomics/3 credits

D. General Elective (either from Longwood or transferred from pharmacy school) 16-21 credits

E. Total credits required for B.S. in chemistry (pre-pharmacy) - 120 credits



CHEMISTRY MINOR

Students interested in pursuing a chemistry minor should contact the director of the chemistry program. Grades below C- are not accepted for the minor. The minor must include:

8 semester hours general chemistry

8 semester hours organic chemistry

4 semester hours analytical chemistry (CHEM 232)

4 semester hours chemistry electives (CHEM 351, 352, or 400)

CHEMISTRY COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

A special fee is charged for all courses with laboratories.

General Education Course *

Writing Intensive **

Speaking Intensive ***

CHEMISTRY 101. General Chemistry. A study of the basic concepts of chemistry, including the structure of matter and the historical development that led to that understanding. Designed for students with no previous education in chemistry. Does not fulfill requirements for biology, chemistry or physics majors. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. *

CHEMISTRY 111. Fundamentals of Chemistry I. An introduction to Chemistry that provides the foundation for further chemistry courses by focusing on the structure of matter (including nuclear chemistry, orbital theory, and stoichiometry), acid-base theory, concepts of chemical bonding and the periodic law. The importance of chemistry in everyday life as well as being the basis for other sciences will be outlined. 3 lecture, one 2-hour lab periods. Prerequisites: High School Chemistry or Placement test. Chemistry majors must make at least a C- in this course before taking advanced chemistry courses. 4 credits.

CHEMISTRY 112. Fundamentals of Chemistry II. A continuation of CHEM 111 that examines the mechanisms by which chemists obtain information about reacting systems. Major concepts include: chemical equilibrium, thermodynamics, kinetics, gas laws, and electrochemistry. 3 lecture, one 2-hour lab periods. Prerequisite: CHEM 111, acceptable math placement score, MATH 164 or permission of instructor. Chemistry majors must make at least a C- in this course before taking advanced chemistry courses. 4 credits.

CHEMISTRY 126. Essential Laboratory Techniques (BIOLOGY 126, EARTH SCIENCE 126, PHYSICS 126). Good laboratory techniques, skills and safe practices are taught by actual practice in the laboratory. 1 credit.

CHEMISTRY 205. Organic Chemistry I. First semester of a two-semester course designed to illustrate how the fundamental principles, basic classes of compounds and common reactions in organic chemistry relate to biological systems. Emphasis is placed on classes of compounds like alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alkyl halides and alcohols. Prerequisite: CHEM 112. The course consists of three 1-hour lecture periods per week (3 credits). A one-credit laboratory class (CHEM 307) is also required in order to complete the degree requirements for organic chemistry.

CHEMISTRY 206. Organic Chemistry II. Second semester of a two-semester course designed to illustrate how the fundamental principles, basic classes of compounds and common reactions in organic chemistry relate to biological systems. Other classes of compounds like carboxylic acids, amines, aldehydes and ketones are introduced. Special emphasis is placed on major classes of compounds found in living systems (Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids, Proteins, and Lipids for example). Prerequisite: CHEM 205. The course consists of three 1-hour lecture periods per week (3 credits). A one-credit laboratory class (CHEM 308) is also required in order to complete the degree requirements for organic chemistry.

CHEMISTRY 232. Quantitative Analyses. This course is designed to provide a sound physical understanding of the principles of analytical chemistry and show how these principles are applied in chemistry and related disciplines. Topics covered include statistics, chemical equilibrium, acid-base chemistry, titrimetry, potentiometry, and introduction to analytical separations. The laborabory component of this course focuses on gravimetric and volumteric methods of chemical analysis. 2 lecture, one 4-hour laboratory periods. Prerequisite: CHEM 112. 4 credits.**

CHEMISTRY 270. Inorganic Chemistry and Qualitative Inorganic Analysis. This course provides an extensive description of the chemical elements and their compounds, occurrences, manufacture, reactions, and relevance for society. How atomic and molecular electronic structure influence chemical properties will be discussed. Students will be introduced to theories of bonding, symmetry, group theory, and coordination chemistry. 3 lecture periods. Prerequisite: CHEM 112. 3 credits.

CHEMISTRY 292. Internship in Chemistry. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of chemistry. 3-15 credits.

CHEMISTRY 295. Special Topics in Chemistry. Specialized courses on a variety of topics that may be offered periodically. 1-4 credits.

CHEMISTRY 305. Organic Chemistry I. First semester of a two-semester course designed to provide a sound foundation in the fundamental principles and basic reactions of organic chemistry. The course illustrates how three-dimensional structure effects the physical properties and the reactivity of organic compounds. Simple hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes) and alkyl halides are used to introduce the concepts of structural isomerism, stereoisomerism, reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, reaction mechanisms, and limited synthetic strategies. Prerequisite: CHEM 112. The course consists of three 1-hour lecture periods per week (3 credits). A one-credit laboratory class (CHEM 307) is also required to complete the organic chemistry requirement.

CHEMISTRY 306. Organic Chemistry II. Second semester of a two-semester course designed to provide a sound foundation in the fundamental principles and basic reactions of organic chemistry. Increasingly complex compounds like alcohols, amines, substituted aromatic compounds, carboxylic acids and carboxylic acid derivatives are used to provide a heightened emphasis on reaction mechanisms and synthetic strategies. Structural elucidation techniques (1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, and MS) are introduced and are used to identify organic compounds. Prerequisite: CHEM 305 The course consists of three 1-hour lecture periods per week (3 credits). A one-credit laboratory class (CHEM 308) is also required to complete the organic chemistry requirement.

CHEMISTRY 307. Organic chemistry Laboratory I. First semester of a two-semester laboratory course designed to provide a sound foundation in the basic methods of performing organic chemical reactions. The course introduces glassware and reaction techniques used in synthetic organic chemistry. The course further illustrates methods used for monitoring chemical reactions, and for isolation and purification of reaction products. Prerequisite: CHEM 112. The course consists of one 3-hour laboratory period per week (1 credit). The course may be taken concurrently with or after CHEM 205 or CHEM 305.

CHEMISTRY 308. Organic Chemistry Laboratory II. Second semester of a two-semester laboratory course designed to provide a sound foundation in the basic methods of performing organic chemical reactions. The course strongly emphasizes NMR, IR and MS spectral analysis/identification of organic compounds and introduces multi-step chemical reactions. Prerequisite: CHEM 307. The course consists of one 3-hour laboratory period per week (1 credit).

 

CHEMISTRY 311, 312. Studies Abroad. Primarily intended for transfer of credit earned abroad in courses in chemistry. 1-18 credits.

CHEMISTRY 351. Instrumental Analysis I. The theory of instrumental techniques in analytical chemistry, including optical and electrochemical methods of analysis. Develops familiarity with both instrument physics and the physical chemistry of measurement. Prerequisite: CHEM 232. 3 lecture, one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits.**

CHEMISTRY 352. Instrumental Analysis II. A continuation of CHEM 351, including chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods of analysis. Develops familiarity with both instrument physics and the physical chemistry of measurement. Prerequisite: CHEM 232. 3 lecture, one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits.**

Chemistry 361.  Chemistry Seminar I.  This course is designed to instruct students in reading and searching the chemical literature in order to prepare a research paper in a style approved for selected ACS journals.  Students are also instructed in the creation of a professional portfolio and are required to assemble this document for review by professional chemists.  Students must have junior status to enroll in this course.  1 credit. **

CHEMISTRY 371-376. Special Courses in Chemistry. Specialized courses for small groups of students. The course titles and descriptions listed below represent some of the special areas covered. 1-4 credits.

Advanced Organic Chemistry 371. An advanced study of organic reactions and mechanisms. Prerequisites: CHEM 305 and 306. 3 lecture periods; 3 credits.

Environmental Chemistry 372. A study of the fundamental problems of chemistry pollution of the soil, water, and atmosphere. Prerequisite: CHEM 305 or permission of instructor. 2 lecture and one 3-hour laboratory periods; 3 credits.

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry 373. The structures, properties, reactions and uses of inorganic compounds. Prerequisite: CHEM 270 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture periods; 3 credits.

Laboratory Safety 374. A study of laboratory safety equipment, hazards from chemical reaction, toxins, carcinogens, corrosives, and radiation. 2 lecture periods; 2 credits.

Polymer Chemistry 375. A study of chemical reactions used to synthesize modifications in polymer properties, techniques to characterize polymers, and natural polymers. 3 lecture periods; 3 credits.

Chemistry 376. Advanced Laboratory Techniques. A study of modern laboratory techniques. 3 credits.

CHEMISTRY 390. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as 391. 1-18 credits.

CHEMISTRY 392. Internship in Chemistry. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of chemistry. 3-15 credits

CHEMISTRY 400. Physical Chemistry I. A study of thermodynamics, equilibria, kinetics, solution properties, and electrochemistry. Prerequisite: CHEM 232; MATH 261 or 267, or permission of instructor. 3 lecture, one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. **

CHEMISTRY 401. Quantum Mechanics. A study of elementary quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular structure, spectroscopy, and statistical mechanics. Prerequisites: MATH 262 or 267; or permission of instructor. 3 lecture, one 2-hour lab periods. 3 credits.

CHEMISTRY 412 (BIOLOGY 412). Biochemistry. A study of the chemistry of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids in biological systems. Prerequisite: CHEM 206 or CHEM 306 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture periods; 3 credits.

CHEMISTRY 461. Chemistry Seminar II.  This course is designed to instruct students in reading and searching the chemical literature in order to prepare a literature seminar.  Students must have junior status to enroll in this course. 1 credit. ***

CHEMISTRY 467. Scientific Instrument Design and Fabrication. Design and actual fabrication of scientific instruments including glass, metal, wood, plastic, and electronic instruments. Course involves one or more of the following: glass working techniques, precision milling machine and lathe operations, machine shop techniques, electronic testing of circuits, and breadboard and hardwiring electronic circuits. Each semester course will emphasize different projects. May be repeated for credit. One 3-hour lab period per credit. 1-4 credits.

CHEMISTRY 481. Advanced Chemical Laboratory Problem Solving. Laboratory practice involving the use of instruments and other techniques to solve chemical problems. Problems will be presented that do not have an obvious method or solution. Students must research and develop their own path to solving each problem and must then complete them. One 6-hour laboratory period. 2 credits.

CHEMISTRY 490. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated. 1-18 credits.

CHEMISTRY 492. Internship in Chemistry. A semester long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of chemistry. 3-15 credits.

CHEMISTRY 495. Special Topics in Chemistry. Specialized courses on a variety of topics that may be offered periodically. 1-4 credits.

CHEMISTRY 496. Research Projects in Chemistry. Students will carry out research projects under individual supervision of an instructor. The nature of the project will depend on the interest and needs of the student. Consent of the instructor and approval of the department head are prerequisites for enrollment. May be repeated. One 3 hour lab period per credit. 1-4 credits. ***

CHEMISTRY 498. Honors Research in Chemistry. Students conduct research in chemistry under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits.**

CHEMISTRY 500. Chemistry of the Environment. This course addresses the science of the complex interactions that occur among terrestrial, atmospheric, aquatic, living, and anthropological environments. Interactions are addressed from diverse perspectives including chemistry, biology, ecology, and governmental regulations. Emphasis is placed on the study of the sources, reactions, transport, effects and fates of chemical species in water, soil, air, and living environments. The role that technology plays in these systems is also discussed. Prerequisite: CHEM 551. 3 credits.

CHEMISTRY 551. Instrumental Analysis Projects. Theory of optical and electrochemical methods of chemical analysis applied to environmental, industrial, or medical problems. Practical laboratory methods emphasized. Prerequisite: CHEM 232 or permission of instructor. 4 credits.

CHEMISTRY 552. Chromatographic Analysis Projects. Theory of chromatographic methods of separation and chemical analysis applied to environmental, industrial, or medical problems. Practical laboratory methods emphasized. Prerequisite: CHEM 232 or permission of instructor. 4 credits.

EARTH SCIENCES PROGRAM

Faculty

Daniel Druckenbrod, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Environmental Sciences

Lynn M. Ferguson, Ph.D., Professor of Biology and Earth Science
Joseph E. Garcia, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Geography and Earth Science/Geography Area Coordinator
David S. Hardin, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Geography
Edward L. Kinman, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Geography

The Earth Science Program is designed to meet the general education of all students by strengthening their knowledge of the physical environment. The program also provides a solid foundation for those planning to pursue careers in environmental science and offers graduate level courses for partial fulfillment of the M.S. in Environmental Studies (see Longwood Graduate Catalog).

EARTH SCIENCE MINOR

Students interested in pursuing an earth science minor should contact the Area Coordinator. Grades below C- are not accepted for the minor. The minor must include:

EASC 300 The Dynamic Planet/3 credits

15 credits of Earth Science electives

TOTAL 18 credits

EARTH SCIENCE COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

A special fee is charged for all courses with laboratories.

General Education Course *

Writing Intensive Course **

EARTH SCIENCE 101. Physical Science. A survey of basic physics and chemistry needed for a cross-disciplinary major. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods; for Liberal Studies majors and other students seeking teaching endorsement. 4 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 126. Essential Laboratory Techniques. (BIOLOGY 126, CHEMISTRY 126, PHYSICS 126). Good laboratory techniques, skills and safe practices are taught by actual practice in the laboratory. 1 credit.

EARTH SCIENCE 210. Physical Geology. An introduction to the natural physical environment, the materials and processes which shape the earth’s crust. Specific topics include minerals, rocks, earthquakes, volcanoes, the ocean, and plate tectonics. Also the effects of streams, waves, ground water, ice, wind, and gravity on the surface of the earth. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods; 4 credits.*

EARTH SCIENCE 220. Astronomy. Descriptive study of the solar system, stars, galaxies, and cosmology. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods; 4 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 252 (GEOGRAPHY 252). Physical Geography. A study of the earth’s physical landscape, the dynamics of the natural systems which form it and the interrelationships between the systems. Included are investigations of human impacts on the earth’s system. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 261 (GEOGRAPHY 261). Meteorology. A study of the basic weather phenomena and processes including the elements for modern weather forecasting. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods; 4 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 292. Internship in Earth Science. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of earth science. 1-18 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 300. The Dynamic Planet. This course explores the major principles of the earth sciences, including geology, oceanography, meteorology and astronomy. The course focuses on earth-shaping processes, atmospheric dynamics, oceanographic circulation, and earth’s place in the solar system. It is designed to develop an awareness and appreciation for these geosystems and their important interrelationships, as well as an understanding of the scientific approach to problem solving. Emphasis will be placed on interactions between systems in order to better understand the earth as a single, multidimensional system. For liberal studies majors and others seeking teaching endorsement. 2 lecture and one 2-hour lab period. 3 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 310. Historical Geology. An introduction to the methods, assumptions, and current interpretations of the evidence concerning the origin and evolution of the earth and its life forms. Emphasis on the geologic history of the United States. Co-or prerequisite EASC 210 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods; 4 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 311, 312. Studies Abroad. Primarily intended for transfer of credit earned abroad in courses in earth science. 1-18 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 341 (BIOLOGY 341). General Ecology. The principles underlying the interrelations of groups of organisms with their environments, including the population, community, and ecosystem levels of organization. The lab normally includes local field trips. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods; 4 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 353 (GEOGRAPHY 353). Geography of Virginia. Geographical appraisal of Virginia, including the geology, landforms, soils, climate, economic minerals, original vegetation, and human geography of Virginia, emphasizing settlement of population, agriculture, industries and transportation. 3 lecture periods. Prerequisite: GEOG 201 and permission of instructor. 3 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 354 (GEOGRAPHY 354). Hydrology. This course is an introductory survey of hydrology. Emphasis is on the general physical and chemical principles which govern hydrologic processes. Approaches to hydrologic measurements and the application of hydrologic analyses to water-resource management issues will be examined. A basic understanding of elementary mathematics, physics, physical geography, and chemistry is assumed. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 355 (GEOGRAPHY 355). Climatology. A study of the dynamics of the atmosphere as an energy system, its interactions with other parts of the Earth’s physical system, and the effects of these interactions on human life and activity. Climate variations on global, regional, and local scales are investigated including methods of climate classification and techniques used to model future climatic conditions. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 358 (GEOGRAPHY 358). Map Design and Analysis. Emphasis is focused on construction of thematic maps at the preprofessional level and their incorporation in presentations of research. Modern techniques and processes are stressed along with rudimentary geographic information system design. Prerequisites: permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab period; 4 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 363. Physical Oceanography. An introduction to the historical, geological, chemical and physical aspects of the oceans. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 390. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as 391. 1-18 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 392. Internship in Earth Science. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of earth science. 1-18 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 410 (Geography 410). Geomorphology. An introduction to the major landform shaping processes that affect the surface of the earth. Human impact on these geomorphic processes, particularly the effects of urbanization and erosive land use, will be discussed with regard to current models of geomorphic change. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 490. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated. 1-18 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 492. Internship in Earth Science. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of earth science. 1-18 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 495. Special Topics in Earth Science. Specialized courses on a variety of topics that may be offered periodically. 1-4 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 498. Honors Research in Earth Science. Students conduct research in earth science under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits. **

EARTH SCIENCE 510. Geomorphology. This seminar will examine the major geomorphic processes that affect the surface of the earth. The focus of the course will be on geomorphic processes that are most relevant to the landscape of Virginia and how these local features fit within the context of landform development theories. The human impact on these geomorphic processes, particularly the effects of urbanization and erosive land use, will be discussed with regard to current models of geomorphic change. 3 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 554. Hydrology. An introductory survey of hydrology, with emphasis on the general physical and chemical principles which govern hydrologic processes. Approaches to hydrologic measurements and the application of hydrologic analyses to water-resource management issues will be examined. A basic understanding of elementary mathematics, physics, physical geography, and chemistry is assumed. Graduate students will be expected to participate in seminar discussions of readings pertinent to environmental issues in hydrology. 3 credits.

EARTH SCIENCE 555. Climatology. EASC 555 is an introductory survey of climatology. The dynamics and general circulation of the atmosphere will be qualitatively examined. Emphasis will be on surface and upper level atmospheric linkages in the midlatitudes and will include discussion of tropospheric waves, jet streams and cyclogenesis. The goal of this course will be to explore regional climatic patterns and anomalies with a fundamental understanding of synoptic atmospheric processes.

EARTH SCIENCE 520. Stream Processes and Landforms. This course will examine the dynamics of rivers and the landforms which result from streamflow. Students will learn laboratory, field and analytical techniques to evaluate drainage basin, streamflow, and channel form characteristics. The human impact on fluvial systems, particularly urbanization and erosive land use, will be discussed with regard to current models of river channel changes. Students are expected to attend all field trips. Offered during summer session. Prerequisite: EASC/GEOG 354, EASC 554, or permission of instructor. 6 credits.

SCIENCE EDUCATION COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

SCIENCE EDUCATION 330 (MATH 330). Integration of Mathematics and Science Principles. An inquiry into basic principles involved in the study of mathematics and science. Emphasis on measurement, use of manipulatives, inference, prediction, data analysis, and hypothesizing. For Liberal Studies Majors only. Students are required to take these courses simultaneously. 1.5 credits each. Corequisite: MATH 330.

SCIENCE EDUCATION 352. Science for Secondary Teachers. A comprehensive methods course for teaching the sciences in middle or high school. Based on national and state teaching standards. The class meets for a weekly seminar on campus and students also observe each week in a secondary classroom. To be taken in the senior year prior to Student Teaching. 4 credits.

SCIENCE EDUCATION 482. Directed Teaching in the Secondary School (Science). This course is required of all students seeking Secondary Science Teaching Licensure. Each student is assigned to work with a qualified cooperating teacher in a selected school setting. The student teacher will follow the schedule of the cooperating teacher for 14 weeks. Prerequisite: Admission to Student Teaching. 11 credits.

GEOGRAPHY PROGRAM

Faculty

Joseph E. Garcia, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Geography and Geography/Earth Science Area Coordinator
David S. Hardin, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Geography
Edward L. Kinman, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Geography

GEOGRAPHY MINOR

Students interested in pursuing a geography minor should contact Dr. Hardin. Grades below C- are not accepted for the minor. The minor must include:

GEOG 201 Basic Elements of Geography/3 credits

Choose minimum of 3 credits from the following:

GEOG 241 Cultural Geography/3 credits
GEOG 242 Economic Geography/3 credits
GEOG 252 Physical Geography/3 credits
GEOG 261 Meteorology/4 credits
GEOG 354 Hydrology/3 credits
GEOG 355 Climatology/3 credits
GEOG 358 Map Design and Analysis/4 credits
GEOG 410 Geomorphology/3 credits
GEOG 444 Political Geography/3 credits
GEOG 450 Geography of Contemporary Problem Areas/3 credits

Choose minimum of 3 credits from the following:

GEOG 352 World Regional Geography/3 credits
GEOG 353 Geography of Virginia/3 credits
GEOG 401 Geography of South and East Asia/3 credits
GEOG 402 Geography of Latin America/3 credits
GEOG 403 Geography of Europe/3 credits
GEOG 404 Geography of the U.S. and Canada/3 credits
GEOG 405 Geography of Africa/3 credits
GEOG 453 Geography of the former Soviet Union/3 credits
9 credits of Geography electives

TOTAL 18 credits

GEOGRAPHY COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

A special fee is charged for all courses with laboratories.

General Education Course *

Writing Intensive Course **

GEOGRAPHY 201. Basic Elements of Geography. The scope and nature of geographic inquiry are treated. Special emphasis is placed on the significance of man, environment, and cultural processes in the organization of space on the earth’s surface. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits. *

GEOGRAPHY 220. The Geography of South America. An examination of the natural and cultural landscape in the regional development of South America. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits. *

GEOGRAPHY 241. Cultural Geography. A study of the interaction between man and the land. Spatial and time elements are interwoven with selected topics such as man’s religions, settlement patterns, political organization, economics, and population characteristics. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 242. Economic Geography. Relation of geographic factors to economic conditions in determining the nature and location of the several productive occupations and the distribution of the output of these occupations, including their transportation and marketing. Prerequisite: GEOG 201 and permission of instructor. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 252 (EARTH SCIENCE 252.) Physical Geography. A study of the earth’s physical landscape, the dynamics of the natural systems which form it and the interrelationships between the systems. Included are investigations of human impacts on the earth’s systems. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 261 (EARTH SCIENCE 261). Meteorology. A study of the basic weather phenomena and processes including the elements for modern weather forecasting. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods; 4 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 292. Internship in Geography. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of geography. 1-18 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 295. Special Topics in Geography. Specialized courses on a variety of topics that may be offered periodically. 1-3 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 311, 312. Studies Abroad. Primarily intended for transfer of credit earned abroad in courses in geography. 1-18 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 352. World Regional Geography. Analysis of the geography of major world regions, emphasizing the physical, cultural, and economic factors affecting life in each. Special consideration is given to current problems involving natural hazards, political developments, and cultural attributes of countries around the world. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 353 (EARTH SCIENCE 353). Geography of Virginia. Geographical appraisal of Virginia, including the geology, landforms, soils, climate, economic minerals, original vegetation, and the human geography of Virginia, emphasizing settlement and population, agriculture, industries and transportation. Prerequisite: GEOG 201 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 354 (EARTH SCIENCE 354). Hydrology. This course is an introductory survey of hydrology. Emphasis is on the general physical and chemical principles which govern hydrologic processes. Approaches to hydrologic measurements and the application of hydrologic analyses to water-resource management issues will be examined. A basic understanding of elementary mathematics, physics, physical geography, and chemistry is assumed. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 355 (EARTH SCIENCE 355). Climatology. A study of the dynamics of the atmosphere as an energy system, its interactions with other parts of the Earth’s physical system, and the effects of these interactions on human life and activity. Climate variations on global, regional, and local scales are investigated including methods of climate classification and techniques used to model future climatic conditions. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 358 (EARTH SCIENCE 358). Map Design and Analysis. Emphasis is focused on the construction of thematic maps at the preprofessional level and their incorporation in presentations of research. Computer-based techniques and processes are stressed along with rudimentary geographic information system design. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. 3 lecture periods. 4 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 390. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as 391. 1-18 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 392. Internship in Geography. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of geography. 1-18 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 401. Geography of South and East Asia. Regional analysis of the physical geography and problems in the economic and political geography of South and East Asia. Emphasis on China, Japan, and India. Prerequisite: GEOG 201 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 402. Geography of Latin America. Regional and systematic analysis of the geography of Latin America, including treatment of physical, cultural and economic characteristics of the several regions and countries within Latin America. Prerequisite: GEOG 201 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 403. Geography of Europe. Regional analysis of peninsular, western and central Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. Prerequisite: GEOG 201 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 404. Geography of the U.S. and Canada. Regional analysis of the United States and Canada, emphasizing the physical, cultural, and economic factors affecting the utilization of the several regions. Prerequisite: GEOG 201 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 405. Geography of Africa. A regional analysis of the geographical factors influencing the culture and economics of the African continent. Special emphasis will be placed on the present state of economic development. Prerequisite: GEOG 201 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 410 (EARTH SCIENCE 410). Geomorphology. An introduction to the major landform shaping processes that affect the surface of the earth. Human impact on these geomorphic processes, particularly the effects of urbanization and erosive land use, will be discussed with regard to current models of geomorphic change. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 444. Political Geography. Geographic factors in major nations of the world and how they affect international relations, with analysis of the current strategic position of the U.S. and the reorganization of the post-Cold War World. Prerequisite: GEOG 201 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 450. Geography of Contemporary Problem Areas. A physical, economic, historical, and cultural analysis of selected regions and nations in the news. A background for understanding present day conditions, and the social significance of the events occurring in these areas. Prerequisite: GEOG 201 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 453. Geography of the Former Soviet Union. An evaluation of people, land, climate, resources and space as they bear on the economic developments and political prospects of the former Soviet Union. Prerequisite: GEOG 201 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 490. Directed or Independent Study. Students will carry out study or research projects under supervision of an instructor. Six credits total may be earned. 1-3 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 492. Internship in Geography. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of geography. 1-18 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 495. Special Topics in Geography. Specialized courses on a variety of topics that maybe offered periodically. 1-3 credits.

GEOGRAPHY 498. Honors Research in Geography. Students conduct research in geography under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits. **

PHYSICS PROGRAM

Faculty

Michael Langham, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Physics                                                         Wayne K. Meshejian, M.S., Assistant Professor of Physics
Michelle Parry, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Physics and Area Coordinator of Physics
Charles D. Ross, Ph.D., Professor of Physics

The physics major at Longwood provides fundamental training in several areas of physics so that graduates may pursue graduate study or careers in research, industry, teaching, or engineering. Those who wish to major in physics may choose from the following options:

1. traditional physics major for students interested in preparation for graduate work or careers in research, industry, or teaching.

2. pre-medical/biophysics concentration for students interested in preparation for medical school or graduate work in biophysics.

3. pre-engineering for students interested in cooperative engineering programs.

A minimum of 31 semester hours credit in physics is required for all physics majors. Many physics majors elect to double major in both physics and some other discipline. Also, a student majoring in another field may choose to minor in physics. The minor program requires 24 semester hours in physics. No grade below C- in physics courses is accepted for the major or minor in physics.

Students may take a maximum of four credits total in Internship (Biology/Chemistry/Physics 292, 392, 492) and Research (Biology/Chemistry/Physics 496) courses for quality points (A, B, C, and D grades). Beyond four credits, such courses must be taken on a Pass/Fail basis.

A student may seek a secondary teaching endorsement in physics. This program consists of courses required for a physics major, and BIOL 121, EASC 300, EDUC 245, 260, 265, 370, 380, 430, 455, 484, 487, SCED 352, SPED 489, and the professional semester consisting of 12 hours in the senior year. If an additional endorsement in biology or chemistry is desired, the student must minor in that discipline and meet all state-mandated core requirements for that endorsement. Interested students should meet with Secondary Science Education faculty for advising on preparation for secondary science teaching.

PHYSICS MAJOR, B.A., B.S. DEGREE

A. General Education Core Requirement. 41 credits

Physics Majors are strongly encouraged to take PHYS 201 to fulfill General Education Goal 6 Requirements.

B. Additional Degree Requirements for B.A. Degree - 6 credits

Additional Degree Requirements for B. S. Degree - 7 credits

MATH 261 The Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits
CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits

C. Major Requirements. 46 credits.

CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits
(satisfied by Additional Degree Requirements)
CHEM 112 Fundamentals of Chemistry II/4 credits
MATH 262 The Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits
MATH 361 Calculus III/4 credits
MATH 460 Differential Equations/3 credits
PHYS 202 University Physics II/4 credits **
PHYS 321 Modern Physics/4 credits
PHYS 332 Classical Electricity and Magnetism/4 credits
PHYS 342 Electronics and Circuit Theory/4 credits
PHYS 352 Mechanics/4 credits
Physics Elective/4 credits

** Phys 201 is a prerequisite to Phys 202. Students are strongly encouraged to take it to fulfill General Education Goal 6.

CHOOSE ONE

Concentration I (Physics)

PHYS 400 Unifying Principles of Physics/4 credits
PHYS 401 Quantum Mechanics/3 credits

Concentration II (Engineering)

Engineering Electives/7 credits - fulfilled at transfer institution

Recommended elective for all physics majors: CMSC 204 Introduction to Programming/3 credits

D. General electives for non-teaching majors - 26-27.

E. Secondary Teaching Endorsement, Grades 6-12. 46 credits

Must take SCED 352/4 credits, BIOL 121/4 credits, and EASC 300/3 credits in addition to Professional Education requirements.

*For additional endorsement to teach Biology

Minor in Biology/24 credits.

* For additional endorsement to teach Chemistry

Minor in Chemistry/24 credits.

* Students seeking an endorsement in these areas must meet criteria established by the State Department of Education.

F. Total credits required for B.S./B.A. in Physics - 120

Total credits required for B.A. in Physics with Secondary Teaching Endorsement - 139

Total credits required for B.S. in Physics with Secondary Teaching Endorsement - 140

PHYSICS MAJOR, B.S. or B.A. DEGREE

Pre-Medicine and Biophysics Concentration

A. General Education Core Requirement. 41 credits

Physics majors with concentrations in Pre-Medicine and Biophysics are strongly encouraged to take PHYS 201 to fulfill General Education Goal 6 requirements.

B. Additional Degree Requirements for B.A. degree - 6 credits

B. S. Degree Additional Degree Requirements - 7 credits

MATH 261 The Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits
CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits

C. Major Requirements. 74-76 credits

BIOL 121 The Unity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 122 Diversity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 304 Microbiology/4 credits
or BIOL 412 Biochemistry/4 credits
BIOL 306 Vertebrate Physiology/4 credits
BIOL 324 Genetics/4 credits
CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits
(satisfied by Additional Degree requirements)
CHEM 112 Fundamentals of Chemistry II/4 credits
CHEM 205 Organic Chemistry I for Biologists/3 credits
Or CHEM 305 Organic Chemistry I/4 credits
CHEM 206 Organic Chemistry II for Biologists/3 credits
Or CHEM 306 Organic Chemistry II/4 credits
CHEM 307 Organic Chemistry I Lab/1 credit
CHEM 308 Organic Chemistry II Lab/1 credit
MATH 262 The Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits
MATH 361 Calculus III/4 credits
MATH 460 Differential Equations/3 credits
PHYS 202 University Physics II/4 credits
PHYS 321 Modern Physics/4 credits
PHYS 332 Classical Electricity and Magnetism/4 credits
PHYS 342 Electronics and Circuit Theory/4 credits
PHYS 352 Mechanics/4 credits
PHYS 400 Unifying Principles of Physics/4 credits
PHYS 401 Quantum Mechanics/3 credits

Physics Elective/4 credits

** PHYS 201 is a prerequisite to PHYS 202. Students are encouraged to take it as General Education Goal 6.

Recommended elective for all physics majors:

CMSC 204 Introduction to Programming/3 credits.

D. Total credits required for a B.A. in Physics with Pre-Medicine or Biophysics Concentration – 121-123

E. Total credits required for a B.S. in Physics with Pre-Medicine or Biophysics Concentration - 122-124

PHYSICS COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

A special fee is charged for all courses with laboratories.

General Education Course *

Writing Intensive Course **

Speaking Intensive Course ***

PHYSICS 101. General Physics I. An introduction to the basic concepts of mechanics. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. *

PHYSICS 102. General Physics II. A study of heat, sound, light, electricity and magnetism. Prerequisite: PHYS 101.  3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

PHYSICS 126. Essential Laboratory Techniques (BIOLOGY 126, CHEMISTRY 126, EARTH SCIENCE 126). Good laboratory techniques, skills and safe practices are taught by actual practice in the laboratory. 1 credit.

PHYSICS 201. University Physics I. Similar to PHYS 101, but with the calculus used throughout. Physics majors and minors must make at least a C- in this course before taking advanced physics courses.  3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. *

PHYSICS 202. University Physics II. Similar to PHYS 102, but with the calculus used throughout. Prerequisite: PHYS 201. Prerequisite or corequisite:  MATH 262.  Physics majors and minors must make at least a C- in this course before taking advanced physics courses. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

PHYSICS 292. Internship in Physics. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of physics. 1-18 credits.

PHYSICS 295. Special Topics in Physics.   Specialized courses on a variety of topics that may be offered periodically. 1-4 credits.

PHYSICS 311, 312. Studies Abroad. Primarily intended for transfer of credit earned abroad in courses in physics. 1-18 credits.

PHYSICS 321. Modern Physics. A survey of modern developments in electron, atomic, and nuclear physics. Prerequisites: PHYS 101, 102 or 201, 202. Prerequisite or corequisite: MATH 261. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. **

PHYSICS 322. Nuclear and Particle Physics. A continuation of PHYS 321. Prerequisites: PHYS 101, 102 or 201, 202, 321. Prerequisite or corequisite: MATH 262. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

PHYSICS 324. Thermodynamics. A study of thermal properties of matter; phenomena involved in flow of heat and performance of work. Kinetic theory and statistical mechanics are included. Prerequisites: PHYS 101, 102 or 201, 202. Prerequisite or corequisite: MATH 262. 4 lecture periods. 4 credits.

PHYSICS 326. Optics. A study of the nature and behavior of light and other electro-magnetic radiation. Prerequisites: PHYS 101, 102 or 201, 202, MATH 261. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

PHYSICS 332. Classical Electricity and Magnetism. A study of electric and magnetic fields, potentials, resistance, inductance, and capacitance, polarization, magnetic materials, Maxwell’s equations. Prerequisite: MATH 361, PHYS 102 or PHYS 202. 4 lecture periods. 4 credits.

PHYSICS 342. Electronics and Circuit Theory. An introduction to electric circuits that includes Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits and phasors, and an introduction to electronics that includes D.C. and A.C. analysis and synthesis of transistor amplifier circuits, OP amps, and elementary logic circuits. Prerequisite: PHYS 102 or PHYS 202 and MATH 261. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. **

PHYSICS 352. Mechanics. A mathematical study of motion using Newtonian and Lagrangian techniques. Prerequisites: PHYS 101, 102 or 201, 202. Prerequisite or corequisite: MATH 460. 4 lecture periods. 4 credits.

PHYSICS 390. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as 391. 1-18 credits.

PHYSICS 392. Internship in Physics. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of physics. 1-18 credits.

PHYSICS 400. Unifying Principles of Physics. A course that unified the topics covered in mechanics, electricity and magnetism, thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics by studying the principles that shape our understanding of the universe, the major contributions to physics will be revisited by examining multi-topic problems. Open only to junior and senior physics majors and minors. Prerequisites: PHYS 332, PHYS 352, PHYS 324, PHYS 401 or by permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 2 hour laboratory periods. 4 credits. ***

PHYSICS 401. Quantum Mechanics. A study of elementary quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular structure, spectroscopy, and statistical mechanics. Prerequisites: PHYS 202, MATH 262 or 267; or permission of instructor. 3 lecture, one 2-hour lab periods. 3 credits.

PHYSICS 490. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated. 1-18 credits.

PHYSICS 492. Internship in Physics. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of physics. Enrollment in the course is based on permission of the Director of Physics and Dual-degree Engineering Programs and the coordinator at the internship location, and is subject to availability. Prerequisites: Restricted to physics and pre-engineering majors who have earned a minimum of 60 credits. 15 credits. **

PHYSICS 495. Special Topics in Physics. Specialized courses on a variety of topics that may be offered periodically. 1-4 credits.

PHYSICS 496. Research Projects in Physics. Students will carry out research projects under individual supervision of an instructor. The nature of the project will depend on the interest and needs of the student. Consent of instructor and approval of department head is prerequisite for enrollment. May be repeated. 1-4 credits. ***

PHYSICS 498. Honors Research in Physics. Students conduct research in physics under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits. **

DUAL-DEGREE ENGINEERING PROGRAM

B.S. in Physics Granted by Longwood and a second degree:

M.S. Degree in Engineering Granted by University of Virginia or Old Dominion University

or

M.S. Degree in Applied Physics Granted by Christopher Newport University

or

B.S. Degree in Engineering Granted by Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Old Dominion University, or The University of Tennessee

Students in the Dual-Degree Engineering Program attend Longwood for the first three years to complete courses listed under A, B and C of the Longwood Physics degree requirements. The student’s work in these three years will also fulfill the requirements of the first two years of the B.S. degree at ODU and Virginia Tech. At the beginning of the fourth year, provided the appropriate academic requirements have been met (see following note), the student transfers to the second institution and takes appropriate engineering (or physics at CNU) courses as designated by the adviser at the second institution. When the necessary Longwood requirements are taken at the second institution and the credit hours are transferred back, the student will be awarded the B.S. degree in Physics from Longwood. When all prescribed courses are fulfilled at the second institution, the student is awarded the second degree by that institution. Normally, in roughly a five-year period, the student receives two degrees, one from each institution.

The course requirements for the Dual-Degree Engineering Program are the same as for the Longwood Physics major, except for the specific electives below:

Required Electives:

CNU:

CMSC 204 Introduction to Programming/3 credits
CMSC 206 Data Structures in Advanced Programming/3 credits

Solid State Physics Option:

CHEM 400 Physical Chemistry I/3 credits
PHYS 326 Optics/4 credits

Instrumental and Advanced Computer Systems Option:

CMSC 301 Computer Organization and Assembler Language Programming/3 credits
CMSC 306 Computer Organization/3 credits
CMSC 310 Introduction to Operating Systems and Computer Architecture/3 credits

Recommended Electives:

ODU:

MATH 343 Linear Algebra/3 credits

UVA:

CMSC 204 Introduction to Computer Programming/3 credits
MATH 300 A Transition to Advanced Mathematics/3 credits
MATH 343 Linear Algebra/3 credits
MATH 371 Introduction to Probability and Statistics/3 credits
MATH 461 Senior Seminar/1 credit
MATH 481 Complex Analysis/3 credits

NOTES: 120 hours are required for graduation from Longwood with a cumulative average of 2.0 and with no grade below C- in a physics course. General elective hours for the Longwood physics requirements that are not fulfilled at the time of transfer will be taken at the second institution. Longwood will award transfer credit for courses passed with grades of C or above at the second institution.

Students transferring to UVA or CNU may elect to remain at Longwood for seven semesters before transferring.

The ODU B.S. program will only accept certain Longwood General Education courses for transfer. Students electing this option should see their academic advisor for details.

In the M.S. programs, the student’s Longwood academic average must be B or better (a grade point average of 3.25 or better is recommended for UVa), both overall and in mathematics and physics, to be eligible for transfer. The student applies to the second institution for admission as a conditional graduate student. At the second institution, the student completes a sufficient number of appropriate undergraduate courses to fulfill Longwood’s 120 hour degree requirement. Providing that the average in this course work is B or better and that a satisfactory score has been obtained on the Graduate Record Examination (which may be taken at any time prior to the awarding of the Longwood physics degree), the student is admitted unconditionally into the graduate program at the second institution.

For the Virginia Tech and University of Tennessee B.S. programs, a student must have a 3.0 academic average at Longwood (both overall and in mathematics and physics) to be eligible for transfer.

For transfer to UVA and Virginia Tech., all coursework listed under A, B, and C of the Longwood physics degree requirements must be completed at Longwood before transfer. At the other institutions, some of this coursework may be taken at the second institution with prior permission of authorities at both institutions.

PHYSICS MINOR

Students interested in pursuing a physics minor should contact the Area Coordinator of the physics program. No grade below C- is acceptable in minor courses.

The minor must include:

8 semester hours general physics

16 semester hours advanced physics courses

TOTAL/24 hours

NOTE: MATH 261, 262 required in most of these courses.

 
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