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  Longwood University Undergraduate Catalog 2005 - 2006

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  Department of Psychology

Jennifer M. Apperson, Ph.D., Chair
Joyce M. Trent, Secretary

The Department of Psychology offers both an undergraduate major and a minor, as well as basic introductory and service courses to numerous other college majors. Psychology courses required for other majors and minors are clearly identified under those disciplines.



Jennifer M. Apperson, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Psychology
Christopher A. Bjornsen, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Psychology
Norman J. Bregman, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology

Stephanie Buchert, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Psychology

David M. Carkenord, Ph.D.,Professor of Psychology
Eric L. Laws, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Psychology
David B. Stein, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology

To satisfy major requirements for graduation, students majoring in psychology must earn a grade of no less than C- in all psychology courses (41-43 credits).

The Department of Psychology offers four concentrations. All psychology majors are required to take the 22-24 credits of core requirements and 13 credits of concentration requirements and 6 credits of psychology electives.


The Department of Psychology requires senior majors to take a comprehensive psychology test. The purpose of the test is to assess the progress of our majors and the effectiveness of our program.


A. General Education Requirement. 41 credits.

B. Additional Degree Requirements. 7 credits.

C. Major Requirements/41-43 credits.

1. CORE REQUIREMENTS. 22-24 credits

PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology/3 credits
PSYC 233 Research Methods in Psychology/4 credits
PSYC 234 Quantitative Methods in Psychology/3 credits
PSYC 251 Introduction to Biopsychology/3 credits

PSYC 457 History and Systems of Psychology/3 credits
PSYC 460 Advanced General Psychology/3 credits
PSYC 461 Seminar in Psychology/3 credits
PSYC 492 Internship in Psychology (satisfies General Education Goal 15)

(May be taken for additional credit applied toward PSYC electives)


All students must successfully complete at least one class from each area below.


PSYC 371 Infant and Child Development/3 credits
PSYC 373 Adolescent Development/3 credits
PSYC 375 Psychology of Adulthood and Aging/3 credits


PSYC 300 Sensation and Perception (lab)/4 credits
PSYC 321 Physiological Psychology (lab)/4 credits
PSYC 322 Cognitive Psychology (lab)/4 credits
PSYC 323 Developmental Methods (lab)/4 credits
PSYC 324 Learning (lab)/4 credits


PSYC 331 Social Psychology/3 credits
PSYC 360 Consumer Psychology/3 credits
PSYC 366 Industrial/Organizational Psychology/3 credits
PSYC 400 Human Factors Psychology/3 credits


PSYC 356 Abnormal Psychology/3 credits
PSYC 420 Psychological Tests and Measurements/3 credits
PSYC 423 Theories of Personality/3 credits


Students must complete at least 6 Psychology elective credits. PSYCHOLOGY ELECTIVE courses may be selected from the CONCENTRATION areas or from the elective courses offered on a rotating basis listed below. Students planning to attend graduate school in a given CONCENTRATION area or intending to seek employment in a given CONCENTRATION area are encouraged to complete their electives from that CONCENTRATION area.

ELECTIVE courses offered on a rotating basis:

PSYC 330 Life Span Developmental
PSYC 295 Special Topics in Psychology
PSYC 311 Study Abroad
PSYC 312 Study Abroad
PSYC 350 Psychology of Sex and Gender
PSYC 357 Psychopathology of Childhood
PSYC 384 Cross-Cultural Psychology
PSYC 410 Fundamentals of Psychological Interviewing
PSYC 430 Psychology and the Law
PSYC 440 Applied Behavior Analysis
PSYC 452 Psychopharmacology

PSYC 453 Psycholinguistics
PSYC 470 Psychology of Terrorism and Homeland Security

PSYC 489 Symposium in Psychology (Washington Center)
PSYC 490 Independent Research in Psychology
PSYC 492 Internship in Psychology (Applied or Research)
PSYC 495 Special Topics in Psychology

D. General electives for B.S. in Psychology - 29-31 credits.

E. Total credits required for B.S. in Psychology - 120.


A minor in psychology is offered. A minimum of 18 semester hours is required for this program. These include:

PSYC 101. Introduction to Psychology/3 credits

Three credits from courses in Developmental Area

Three credits from courses in Industrial/Organizational/Social Area

Three credits from courses in Pre-Clinical/Counseling Area

Six credits of electives selected from any of the Psychology courses

TOTAL/18 credits


General Education Course *
Writing Intensive Course **

Speaking Intensive Course ***

Psychology 101. Introduction to Psychology. Overview of the theories, methods, and applications of psychology. Explanation of the ways psychology and culture have influenced each other, as well as the application of psychological principles and ideas to contemporary issues. Focuses on personality, emotional, and social development; psychological disorders and treatment; cognitive processes and abilities; direct and indirect influences on thoughts, feelings, and behavior; and health, stress, and coping. 3 credits.

Psychology 233. Research Methods in Psychology. Examination of the major problems of psychology and experimental procedures available for their investigation. Lecture and one double-lab period. 4 credits. **

Psychology 234. Quantitative Methods in Psychology. Introduction to the principles and techniques of experimental design and statistical analysis. 3 credits.

PSYCHOLOGY 251. Introduction to Biopsychology. A general introduction to, and overview of, the structure and function of the nervous system and its role in determining behavior. Emphasis will be on the impact of biopsychology on the traditional areas of psychology, as well as its relationship to everyday behavior. Prerequisites: PSYC 101. 3 credits.

PSYCHOLOGY 292. Internship in Psychology. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of psychology. 1-18 credits.

Psychology 295. Special Topics. Selected topics in Psychology. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. 1-3 credits.

Psychology 300. Sensation and Perception. A study of transduction, organization, and interpretation of information. Topics include sensory physiology, theories of perception, theories of attention, subjective influences on perception, and consciousness. Prerequisites: PSYC 233 and 234. 3 lecture and one double-lab period. 4 credits. **

Psychology 311, 312. Studies Abroad. Primarily intended for transfer of credit earned abroad in courses on psychology. 1-18 credits.

Psychology 321. Physiological Psychology. Study of the physiological correlates of behavior including the sensory receptors, central brain mechanisms, and coordination of the motor system. Prerequisites: PSYC 233 and 234. 3 lectures and one-double lab period. 4 credits. **

Psychology 322. Cognitive Psychology. Examination of theories and research dealing with verbal learning, concept learning, short-term and long-term memory stores, cognitive encoding and search strategies, and transfer. Prerequisites: PSYC 233 and 234. 3 lecture and one double-lab period. 4 credits. **

PSYCHOLOGY 323. Developmental Methods. An examination of the designs and methods used to investigate growth and change in humans from birth through old age. Introduction to the wide variety of research programs that exist in developmental psychology. Emphasis on hands-on application of techniques used in developmental research. Prerequisite: PSYC 233. 4 credits

Psychology 324. Learning. Examination of the classic and contemporary literature in animal learning and motivation. Prerequisites: PSYC 233 and 234. 3 lecture and one double-lab period. 4 credits. **

Psychology 330. Life-Span Developmental Psychology. Principles and research covering the life-span development of human abilities and behavior. Topics include developmental research methodologies, variables influencing development, basic processes in development; and physical, motor, perceptual, cognitive, linguistic, motivational, emotional, social, and personality development. 3 credits.

Psychology 331. Social Psychology. An examination of some of the many interesting ways in which individual behavior and thought is influenced by social situations. A major theme that will emerge is that social situations are often more powerful than personality in influencing behavior. Topics to be covered include: aggression, altruism, conformity, interpersonal attraction, persuasion, and prejudice. 3 credits.

Psychology 350. Psychology of Sex and Gender. An examination of the differences between the male and female experience from the psychologist’s point of view. The course will include factors which have affected the male and female experience, current research on actual and perceived gender differences, and how social changes have contributed to changing roles. 3 credits. ***

Psychology 356. Abnormal Psychology. Diagnostic classifications and models of adult behavior disorders. 3 credits.

Psychology 357. Psychopathology of Childhood. Diagnostic classifications and models of abnormal childhood behavior. Attention will be given to physical, learned and social bases of abnormal behavior. 3 credits.

Psychology 360. Consumer Psychology. Study of the psychological relationship between individuals who receive services and purchase goods and those organizations who provide such services and goods. 3 credits. ***

Psychology 366. Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Study of the theories and techniques of psychology in relation to the topics of employee selection, performance appraisal, work motivation, job satisfaction, leadership, working conditions, and job-related health and stress. 3 credits.

Psychology 371. Infant and Child Development. An examination of the biological, cognitive, social, emotional, and behavioral changes that take place during prenatal development, infancy, and childhood including genetic influences, transformations in attachment, autonomy, family relations, sibling relations, peer relations, moral thinking and behavior, intelligence, language, and achievement. Brief examination of childhood psychopathology. 3 credits. ***

Psychology 373. Adolescent Development. An examination of the biological, cognitive, social, emotional, and behavioral changes that take place during early, middle, and late adolescence including transformations in identity, intimacy, autonomy, sexuality, achievement, and attachment. Brief examination of adolescent psychopathology. 3 credits. ***

Psychology 375. Psychology of Adulthood and Aging. A review of major changes taking place in late adulthood. Changes in sensory processes, cognitive functions, and social relations will be explored. The effects of these changes on the psychological health of the individual as well as ways of coping with these stressors will be covered. 3 credits. ***

PSYCHOLOGY 384. Cross-Cultural Psychology. An in-depth investigation of the relationships between cultural and human development, and the thoughts, emotions and behaviors of individuals in different cultures. Focuses on human traits, development, and interactions from a multicultural and multiethnic perspective. 3 credits. ***

PSYCHOLOGY 390. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as 391. 1-18 credits.

PSYCHOLOGY 392. Internship in Psychology. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of psychology. 1-18 credits.

Psychology 400. Human Factors Psychology. This course examines the relationship between human behavior and technology, with a focus on understanding how knowledge of psychology can be applied to make the human-technology interaction more efficient and effective. 3 credits. ***

Psychology 410. Fundamentals of Psychological Interviewing. This course will provide an overview of the interview process in different settings. Basic professional listening, communicating, and interviewing skills will be taught and practiced. Strategies for obtaining accurate information and for avoiding bias in the interview will also be reviewed. 3 credits. ***

Psychology 420. Psychological Tests and Measurements. A survey of methods, techniques, and instruments for measuring individual differences in behavior, personality interests and intellectual ability. Prerequisite: PSYC 234. 3 credits.

Psychology 423. Theories of Personality. An examination of the major theories of personality including analytical, cognitive and behavioral theories. 3 credits.

Psychology 430. Psychology and the Law. Psychology applied to various legal topics such as criminal behavior, characteristics of lawyers and police, civil commitments, insanity plea, competence, the legal process and ethical issues. 3 credits.

Psychology 440. Applied Behavior Analysis. Research on the use of behavioral techniques for modifying human behavior in the clinical setting will be explored. Methods for working with child and adult cases will be covered. Methods for working with group behavior will also be reviewed. The student will learn how to monitor case progress through the use of single case designs. 3 credits.

Psychology 452. Psychopharmacology. This course serves as an overview of the research and current thought on the topics of treating and counseling people addicted to drugs. In addition, the course will review the use and misuse of prescription medications. We will be reviewing the history of various drugs, the neuropharmacological actions, the affects on health, and the psychopharmacological actions. 3 credits.

Psychology 453. Psycholinguistics.  This course surveys the psychological foundations of language.  Topics will range from basic issues such as the structure of language, language development, language comprehension, and language production, to special issues such as the relationship between language and thought, the relationship between language and the brain, bilingualism, and learning a second language.  3 credits.

Psychology 457. History and Systems of Psychology. The development of psychology from ancient to modern times. Prerequisite: 6 hours of psychology. Open only to psychology majors and minors. 3 credits. **

Psychology 460. Advanced General Psychology. A survey course for senior psychology majors. It covers the most contemporary concepts, principles, theories, methodologies, issues and insights in the field of psychology. Prerequisite: Open only to senior psychology majors. 3 credits. **

Psychology 461. Seminar in Psychology. A seminar for the senior psychology major, designed to integrate knowledge of specific fields into a comprehensive view of psychology. Prerequisites: PSYC 233 and 234. Open only to senior psychology majors. 3 credits. ** and ***

PSYCHOLOGY 470. Psychology of Terrorism and Homeland Security. This course will include defining and understanding the terrorist organizations, the psychology they use to intimidate, the psychology of terrorist recruitment, the psychological, economic and political goals of terrorist organizations. This course also covers the psychology of living in a new world under the everyday threat of terrorism and the new laws restricting freedom and increasingly empowering law enforcement. It includes understanding the psychological impact of being a victim of a terrorist act. 3 credits.

Psychology 489. Symposium in Psychology. The department grants academic credit for successful participation in symposium programs sponsored by the Washington Center. A symposium involves 40 to 60 hours of lectures, panel discussions, workshops, site visits, and 9 contact hours in bi-weekly small discussion groups over a 2 to 3 week period in Washington, DC. Interested students, who must have at least a 2.5 GPA, should contact the head of the Department of Psychology and gain approval for participation. The work done in the symposium will be evaluated by a faculty member designated by the department head in cooperation with the Washington Center. By permission of instructor. 2-15 credits.

Psychology 490. Independent Research in Psychology. A directed research project administered by qualified specialists in the department. By permission of instructor. 1-6 credits.

Psychology 492. Internship in Psychology. Directed practicum in applied setting, or research mentorship that permits supervised experiential learning. Students learn through performance in meaningful tasks in a variety of environments. By permission of instructor. 1-15 credits.

Psychology 495. Special Topics. Selected topics in Psychology. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. 1-6 credits.

PSYCHOLOGY 498. Honors Research in Psychology. Students conduct research in psychology under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits.

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