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  Longwood University Undergraduate Catalog 2005 - 2006

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College of Business and Economics

Accredited by AACSB International - The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business
 

Evelyn C. Hume, Dean
Melinda I. Fowlkes, Assistant Dean
Robert F. Dame, Assistant Dean for External Affairs & Professional Development
Janet C. Evans, Executive Secretary to the Dean
Kathy C. Dunnavant, Executive Secretary to the Faculty


Degree Programs:

Bachelor of Science in Business Administration
Bachelor of Science in Economics
Bachelor of Arts in Economics
 

Minors:

Business Administration
Economics
Computer Security, Forensics, and Law (An interdisciplinary minor with Computer Science and Criminology)

Department of Accounting, Economics, and Finance

William P. Brown, Chair
 

Department of Management, Marketing, Retailing, Computer Information Management Systems, and Business Education

C. Mitchell Adrian, Chair
 

McGaughy Professional Development Center
Robert F. Dame, Director
Nancy C. Postans, Executive Assistant
 

Department of Military Science

Captain Scott Victor, Officer in Charge

 

College of Business and Economics

Evelyn C. Hume, Dean and Professor of Accounting
Melinda I. Fowlkes, Assistant Dean and Assistant Professor of Business
Robert F. Dame, Assistant Dean for External Affairs & Professional Development
William P. Brown, Department Chair and Associate Professor of Accounting
C. Mitchell Adrian, Department Chair and Associate Professor of Management
Janet C. Evans, Executive Secretary to the Dean
Kathy C. Dunnavant, Executive Secretary to the Faculty


Faculty

Cheryl L. Adkins, Ph.D., Professor of Management
C. Mitchell Adrian, D.B.A., Associate Professor of Management
Frank W. Bacon, Ph.D., Professor of Finance
Raymond T. Brastow, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Economics
William P. Brown, Ph.D., CPA, Associate Professor of Accounting
Roman Cech, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Economics
Robert J. Cochran, Ph.D., CPA, Assistant Professor of Accounting
Roy R. Creasey, M.S.E, Lecturer in Management
Glenn S. Dardick, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Information Systems
Cheryl F. Davis, M.S., Lecturer in Management
Mary A. Flanigan, Ph.D., CPA, Professor of Accounting
Melinda I. Fowlkes, M.B.A., CPA, Assistant Professor of Business
John N. Gaskins, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Marketing
Sally W. Gilfillan, M.S., CPA, Associate Professor of Accounting
Drew L. Harris, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Management
Evelyn C. Hume, Ph.D., Professor of Accounting
Claire R. LaRoche, J.D., M.B.A., Assistant Professor of Business Law
Linda K. Lau, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Information Systems
David Lehr, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Economics
Melanie B. Marks, Ph.D., Professor of Economics
Ronald F. McPherson, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Information Systems
Wayne E. McWee, Ed.D., Professor of Business
Abigail H. O'Connor, M.B.A., Lecturer in Marketing
Bennie D. Waller, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Information Systems and Finance
Linda B. Wright, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Marketing
 

DEGREE PROGRAMS

The College of Business and Economics offers courses leading to a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, a Bachelor of Science in Economics and a Bachelor of Arts in Economics. In addition, minors are offered in business administration, economics, and computer security, forensics and law.
 

COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS

The College of Business and Economics is one of 36 undergraduate-only business schools accredited by AACSB International, the most prestigious business school accrediting agency. The College is characterized by excellence in teaching and high levels of student achievement as defined by the business community. The vision, mission, values, and degree outcomes of the College of Business and Economics are defined as follows:

VISION:  To be a nationally ranked business school that develops exceptional business leaders. 

MISSION:  Building upon Longwood University’s mission of developing citizen leaders, the College of Business and Economics is dedicated to preparing effective and successful business leaders by guiding students to develop their full potential. 

 

VALUES:

  • Committing to excellent teaching and active scholarship
  • Fostering an engaging learning community where student-faculty interactions extend beyond the classroom
  • Encouraging students to develop team skills and become involved in leadership roles
  • Promoting real world experience through internships, collaborative research, interaction with business leaders, and travel study, complemented by coursework that emphasizes the application of knowledge to the resolution of practical issues
  • Cultivating critical thinking, formal analysis, and communication skills
  • Incorporating a world view that includes ethical responsibility, diversity, community service, and appreciation for the global marketplace
  • Coordinating disciplines for an integrated academic experience
  • Striving for continuous improvement in all we do

 

DEGREE OUTCOMES

Students will:

         gain core business knowledge and in-depth knowledge in their concentration.

         integrate concepts across disciplines.

         communicate effectively orally and in writing, formulating thoughts and ideas and transmitting them to target audiences.

         utilize effective critical thinking skills and problem solving techniques.

         demonstrate proficiency in the use of computer technology.

         exercise sound ethical reasoning, synthesizing and critically analyzing information from multiple perspectives, and making informed, ethical decisions.

 

ADMISSION REQUIREMENT
 

Formal Admission to the College of Business & Economics

Students must be formally admitted to the College of Business & Economics before they may declare a business or economics major or minor or register for upper division business and economics courses. Only those students admitted to the College of Business & Economics (see admission criteria below) may declare a “business” or “economics” major or minor.

All new freshmen and transfer students entering with freshman or sophomore standing interested in pursuing a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration (BSBA), Bachelor of Arts in Economics, or a Bachelor of Science in Economics will be admitted to the respective “pre-business” or “pre-economics” program pending their successful completion of the criteria for formal admission to the College of Business & Economics.

Declaration of an intended concentration is advisable for all pre-business and pre-economics students, but not required.

The minimum criteria for formal admission to the College of Business & Economics are as follows:
 

Admission to the College of Business & Economics as a Business Administration or Economics Major or Minor
 

Current Students:

- good standing with the university (not subject to probation or suspension or in financial arrears)

- an overall grade-point average (GPA) of at least 2.33;

- successful completion of the following “pre-core” business courses

- for business administration  majors: ACCT 240, ACCT 242, CIMS 170, ECON 217, ECON 218, and MANG 275;

- for business administration minors: ACCT 240, ACCT 242, ECON 217, and ECON 218;

- for economics majors: CIMS 170, ECON 217, ECON 218, MANG 275 and 3 credits of upper level economics electives;

- for economics minors: ECON 217, and ECON 218; 

- a business administration or economics major GPA of at least 2.33;

- the completion of a minimum of 45 credits for business administration majors or 30 credits for economics majors;

- submission of the College of Business & Economics admission application by the posted deadline the term prior to expected admission.
 

Transfer Students:

The College of Business & Economics concentrates most of its professional business and economics courses in the last two years of the four-year program. As a result of this approach and because of the standards of AACSB International accreditation, it would be best for students planning to transfer to the College from another program to do so by the end of their sophomore year.
 

It is recommended that students majoring in business at a two-year college or another university should take only those business courses that are offered at the freshman or sophomore level at Longwood University or a part of the College of Business & Economics “pre-core” described above. Students transferring from two-year colleges or from four-year programs not accredited by AACSB International may not use coursework completed at those institutions to satisfy upper division course requirements of the College of Business & Economics.
 

Transfer students entering Longwood University with junior status or higher in a business or economics program may be provisionally admitted to the College of Business & Economics for one semester during which they must successfully complete any remaining “pre-core” courses and otherwise comply with all admission criteria listed above.
 

Upper division transfer students from non-business or economics fields of study or those otherwise unable to meet the College of Business & Economics admission criteria within one semester of study at Longwood will not be offered admission until such time as they do meet all criteria.

For purposes of eligibility, GPA for transfer students is computed on the basis of Longwood work only.
 

Continuation and Graduation Eligibility Requirements
 

Continuation
Continued enrollment in the College of Business & Economics is a privilege that is granted to a student who is making satisfactory academic progress and meets the standards of the College of Business & Economics, Longwood University and the Longwood Student Government Association. Students failing to do so will be subject to the Probation and Suspension policies of Longwood University as described on page 54 of this catalog.

To be eligible to register for the internship program and/or the MANG 497 Business Policy or ECON 461 Senior Seminar capstone courses a student must continue to meet the College of Business & Economics entrance requirements.
 

Probation and Suspension

The academic probation and suspension policies of Longwood University are described on page 54 of this catalog. In addition to those policies, College of Business & Economics students on probation or returning from suspension are required to first correct any deficiencies in their previously attempted business and economics coursework before moving forward in their program sequence.
 

Readmission after Suspension

Eligibility for readmission to Longwood University is determined according to the procedure and requirements described on page 53 of this catalog.

To be considered for readmission to the College of Business & Economics a student must be readmitted to Longwood and meet the College’s admission criteria described above. Until readmitted to the program a student may only register for those College courses necessary to correct any deficiencies in their previously attempted business and economics courses.
 

Graduation

Bachelor of Science in Business Administration degree:

To be eligible for graduation, students seeking the BSBA degree must be in good standing with the university, must complete their respective programs with a G.P.A. of at least 2.33 in their major, and pass the Major Field Achievement Test (MFAT) for Business.

Bachelor of Arts Economics and Bachelor of Science Economics:

To be eligible for graduation, students seeking either the BA or BS degrees in economics must be in good standing with the university, must complete their respective programs with a G.P.A. of at least 2.33 in their major, and pass a comprehensive examination in economics.
 

GENERAL GUIDELINES

All students will be assigned an individual College of Business and Economics advisor to assist them with program planning, course selection, course registration, and career planning. Students are strongly encouraged to maintain close communication with their faculty advisor in order to plan a program that meets their individual goals and needs.

Since the College of Business and Economics offers some upper-level courses only once a year and does not guarantee that all courses will be offered every year, it is important for students to consult their academic advisor as they plan their course of study.
 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

• Courses should be taken in the order approved by the faculty of the College of Business and Economics. All prerequisites listed for individual courses must be satisfied (see individual course listings for prerequisites). Under special circumstances, a student may have a course prerequisite waived by obtaining written permission of the department chair and Dean of the College of Business and Economics.

• Students must meet course requirements in general education, additional degree requirements, major requirements, and the requirements of a selected area of concentration.

• Students are allowed a maximum of six credits in internship (the 492 courses) toward the total credit hour requirement for any degree offered by the College of Business and Economics.

• Any course substitution involving Major Requirements must be approved by the respective department chair and the Dean, College of Business and Economics.
 

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DEGREE PROGRAM

Students seeking a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration (B.S.B.A.) degree pursue a general course of business study that includes studying core courses in the functional areas of business. Students earning the BSBA degree must take a minimum of 50 percent of the total business hours at Longwood. For the purpose of assessing the quality of the program, graduating seniors will be tested on their general knowledge of business.

Students also gain in-depth business knowledge by concentrating in one of eight areas of business. Students must declare a concentration prior to registering for the second semester of their junior year.
 

Concentration Areas

Students pursuing a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration degree (B.S.B.A.) must concentrate in one of the following eight areas:

 

Accounting: Students concentrating in accounting take courses that provide both technical instruction and a managerial perspective relevant to a career in accounting. The accounting concentration is designed to prepare students to be professional accountants in industry, government, or public practice. Students who complete the requirements for a concentration in accounting meet the specified content requirements to take the Virginia Certified Public Accountant examination. However, students taking the exam after July 1, 2006, will need a total of 150 credit hours to sit for the exam.

Business Education: The business education concentration is a joint program between the College of Education & Human Services and the College of Business & Economics.  This program of study provides students with practical experience both in business and education.  Students completing this concentration are qualified to teach business courses at the middle and secondary level as well as pursue a career in the business world.  Additionally, students may elect to complete the marketing education endorsement to be licensed to teach marketing at the secondary level.  Students are subject to the teaching licensure requirements listed under the College of Education & Human Services. 

Computer Information Management Systems (CIMS): The CIMS concentration is designed to prepare students to plan, design, and implement information systems in a modern computer environment. Students learn how to manage information technologies and exploit their full potential. The concentration prepares students for a career in a variety of organizations ranging from the end users to the creators of information technology.

 

Economics: Economic logic underlies all business decisions and all government policies. A goal of the economics concentration is to teach students how to think critically about a situation and analyze its implications. Emphasis is placed on exposing students to important consumer, business, government and international situations. Graduates with a background in economics are hired by government and industry. In addition, a concentration in economics is a traditional education for students wishing to enter law school.

 

Finance: The finance concentration prepares students to make financial assessments and managerial decisions as well as plan and supervise financial activities for businesses and clients. Financial managers must be knowledgeable in a wide variety of fields, including capital budgeting, investments, capital markets, financial institutions, and emerging financial instruments. The finance curriculum provides background in these areas.

 

Management: The management concentration explores the relationship of behavioral and quantitative management techniques in the application of human resources, production processes, and organizational development. This curriculum provides students with skills in communication and critical thinking leading to management careers in any organization. In addition, the management skills of planning, directing, motivating, and controlling are essential for achieving organizational goals. The management concentration provides a strong foundation for future graduate study in business.

 

Marketing: Careers in advertising, buying, selling, logistics, product management, international marketing, and marketing research are only a few of the fields available to students concentrating in marketing. This concentration is designed to prepare students for managerial positions in these fields. The curriculum includes not-for-profit, governmental, and international applications of marketing knowledge. Classroom knowledge, internship opportunities, and involvement of students in business organizations are integral components of the marketing concentration.

 

Retailing: The retailing concentration provides students with background and skills leading to careers in retail store management. Students with a serious interest in retailing who wish to enter the retail environment at the upper store level or regional level will benefit from the extensive and directed educational experience of this concentration. The curriculum provides a strong foundation in management, marketing, and retailing subject matters.

 

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION MAJOR, B.S.B.A. DEGREE

 

A. General Education Core Requirements- 41 credits

Lower Level General Education - 31 credits

Upper Level General Education - 10 credits - Business students must take:

- ECON 319 International Economics (Accounting concentrators may take any upper level Economics course) for Goal 12

- MANG 474 Business Ethics for Goal 13

- Internship 492 in their area of concentration for Goal 15

 

B. Additional Degree Requirements 7-8 credits

Natural Science/4 credits

Choose one of the following:

MATH 181 Finite Mathematics/3 credits
MATH 261 The Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits
MATH 267 Applications of Calculus/4 credits

 

C. Major Requirements 42-45 credits (plus 4 to 7 credits counted in General Education). A minimum of 50 percent of the total business hours must be taken at Longwood.

 

1. General Core 36 credits (4 credits counted in upper-level General Education)

ACCT 240 Principles of Accounting I/3 credits
ACCT 242 Principles of Accounting II/3 credits
ACCT 296 Legal Environment/3 credits
CIMS 170 Computer Applications/3 credits
ECON 217 Principles of Economics (Micro Emphasis)/3 credits
ECON 218 Principles of Economics (Macro Emphasis)/3 credits
FINA 350 Principles of Finance/3 credits
MANG 275 Business Statistics/3 credits
MANG 291 Business Communication/3 credits
MANG 360 Principles of Management/3 credits
MANG 474 Managing Business Ethics and Diversity/3 credits (Meets General Education Goal 13)
MANG 497 Business Policy/3 credits
MARK 380 Principles of Marketing/3 credits
ACCT, CIMS, ECON, FINA, MANG, or MARK 492 - Internship/1 credit (Meets General Education Goal 15)

 

2. Functional Competencies 6 - 9 credits (3 credits counted in upper-level General Education for all concentrations except Accounting)

Concentrations require one course from each group as indicated:

International Issues:

ACCT 447 International Accounting/3 credits (Accounting)

In addition, accounting students take a three credit 300-400 level economics course to fulfill General Education Goal 12

ECON 319 International Economics/3 credits (Meets General Education Goal 12)
(Business Education, Computer Information Management Systems, Economics, Finance, Management, Marketing, and Retailing).

Information Systems:

ACCT 448 Accounting Information Systems/3 credits (Accounting)
CIMS 370 Principles of Management Information Systems/3 credits (Business Education, Computer Information Management Systems, Economics, Finance, Management, Marketing, and Retailing).

Quantitative Methods:

ACCT 342 Cost Accounting/3 credits (Accounting)
ECON 309 Managerial Economics/3 credits (Economics, Finance)
MANG 363 Introduction to Management Science/3 credits (Business Education, Computer Information Management Systems, Management, Marketing, and Retailing).

 

D. Business Concentration Requirements

In addition to completing the major requirements, each candidate for the B.S.B.A. degree shall satisfy the additional specific requirements of one of the following concentrations. Students must declare a concentration prior to registering for the second semester of their junior year but are strongly encouraged to do so earlier.

 

Business Concentration Requirements - Accounting 24, Business Education 39, Management 15, Retailing 21, all others 18 credits.

ACCOUNTING -24 credits

ACCT 340 Intermediate Accounting I/3 credits
ACCT 341 Intermediate Accounting II/3 credits
ACCT 344 Tax Accounting I/3 credits
ACCT 346 Intermediate Accounting III/3 credits
ACCT 442 Auditing/3 credits

Select three of the following:

ACCT 345 Tax Accounting II/3 credits
ACCT 441 Accounting Theory/3 credits
ACCT 443 Governmental Not-For-Profit and Advanced Accounting/3 credits
ACCT 445 Law for Accountants/3 credits
ACCT 495 Special Topics in Accounting/1-3credits

 

BUSINESS EDUCATION – 39 credits
MANG 190 Introduction to American Business Systems/3 credits
EDUC 245 Human Growth & Development/3 credits
EDUC 260 Intro to the Teaching Profession/3 credits
EDUC 265 Practicum I/3 credits
EDUC 299 Admission to the Teacher Preparation Program/0 credits
EDUC 380 Classroom Assessment/2 credits
EDUC 430 Teaching Reading in the Content Area/2 credits
EDUC 455 Principles of Secondary Education/1 credit
EDUC 487 Classroom Management & Systems Issues/3 credits
SPED 489 Survey of Exceptional Children/3 credits
BUAD 435 Methods for Teaching Business in Secondary Schools/4 credits
EDUC 402 Directed Teaching in the Secondary School/11 credits
EDUC 488 Education Seminar/1 credit

Students in Business Education are subject to the teaching licensure requirements listed under the College of Education & Human Services. To be licensed to teach in business education in Virginia, students in the Business Education Concentration need to take Keyboarding and Office Procedures at the community college (see course list below).  Students who have had at least two semesters of keyboarding and two semesters of office procedures/administration in high school could exempt these two courses.  Students also have the option of exempting Keyboarding by passing the Keyboarding Pro test.

AST 101, Keyboarding/3 credits
AST 243, Office Administration/3 credits  

Students in the Business Education Concentration may elect to seek a marketing education teaching endorsement by taking:

MARK 387, Retailing/3 credits
MARK 492, Marketing Internship/3 credits

COMPUTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS - 18 credits
CIMS 272 Introduction to Business Programming/3 credits
CIMS 373 Database Management/3 credits
CIMS 471 Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design/3 credits
CIMS 473 Network Communications/3 credits

Select two of the following:

CMSC 204 Introduction to Programming/3 credits
CIMS 372 COBOL Programming/3 credits
CIMS 375 Web Design and Development3 credits
CIMS 475 Web Programming
CIMS 495 Special Topics in Computer Information Systems/1-3 credits

 

ECONOMICS - 18 credits

ECON 317 Intermediate Microeconomics/3 credits
ECON 318 Intermediate Macroeconomics/3 credits
ECON 414 Econometrics and Forecasting/3 credits
ECON 461 Senior Seminar/3 credits
Economics electives/ 6 credits 300-400 level, ECON 492 cannot be used as economics elective

 

FINANCE - 18 credits

FINA 353 Managerial Finance/3 credits
FINA 450 Financial Management/3 credits
FINA 451 Investment Analysis and Portfolio Management/3 credits
FINA 452 Financial Markets and Institutions/3 credits

Select two of the following:

ACCT 340 Intermediate Accounting I/3 credits
ACCT 341 Intermediate Accounting II/3 credits
ACCT 342 Cost Accounting/3 credits
ACCT 344 Tax Accounting I/3 credits
ACCT 345 Tax Accounting II/3 credits
CIMS 471 Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design/3 credits
ECON 308 Money and Banking/3 credits
ECON 317 Intermediate Microeconomics/3 credits
ECON 318 Intermediate Macroeconomics/3 credits
ECON 414 Econometrics and Forecasting/3 credits
FINA 351 Risk Management/3 credits
FINA 354 Working Capital and Treasury Function/3 credits
FINA 495 Special Topics in Finance/1-3 credits
*MATH 261 The Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits
or MATH 262 The Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits
*MATH 267 Applications of Calculus/4 credits

*Cannot be used both as a FINA elective and to meet BSBA additional degree requirement.

 

MANAGEMENT - 15 credits

MANG 362 Organization Behavior/3 credits
MANG 465 Human Resource Management/3 credits

Select three of the following (a minimum of two courses selected must have the MANG prefix):

MANG 364 Negotiation and Conflict Resolution/3 credits
MANG 365 Breakthrough Work Teams/3 credits
MANG 462 Staffing Organizations/3 credits
MANG 466 Industrial Relations/3 credits
MANG 469 Entrepreneurship/3 credits
MANG 495 Special Topics in Management/1-3 credits
FINA 353 Managerial Finance/3 credits
FINA 450 Financial Management/3 credits
MARK 385 Marketing Channels Management/3 credits
MARK 481 International Business/3 credits
COMM 360 Organizational and Professional Communication/3 credits
POSC 394 Political Leadership/3 credits
SOCL 310 Complex Organizations/3 credits

MARKETING - 18 credits

MARK 381 Marketing Research/3 credits
MARK 383 Consumer Behavior/3 credits
MARK 482 Marketing Strategy/3 credits

 

Select three of the following:

MARK 382 Professional Selling and Sales Force Management/3 credits
MARK 385 Marketing Channels Management/3 credits
MARK 387 Principles of Retailing/3 credits

MARK 388 Services Marketing/3 credits
MARK 480 Advertising/3 credits
MARK 481 International Business/3 credits
MARK 488 Electronic Marketing/3 credits
MARK 495 Special Topics in Marketing/1-3 credits

 

RETAILING - 21 credits (May complete a Management or Marketing Internship, but it must be in a retail setting.)
MANG 465 Human Resource Management/3 credits
MANG 362 Organizational Behavior/3 credits
MARK 383 Consumer Behavior/3 credits
MARK 387 Principles of Retailing/3 credits (may not be simultaneously used as a Marketing Concentration elective)

MARK 388 Services Marketing/3 credits
MARK 489 Retail Strategy/3 credits

 

Select one of the following:
MARK 389 Retail Merchandising/3 credits
MARK 488 Electronic Marketing/3 credits

 

E. General Electives: Accounting, 5 credits; Business Education, 0 credits, Management, 15 credits; Retailing, 9 credits; all other concentrations, 12 credits.

 

F. Total Credits Required for Bachelor of Science in Business Administration with a concentration in Computer Information Management Systems, Economics, Finance, Management, Marketing: or Retailing: 120; for Accounting: 122; for Business Education: 129.

 

MINOR IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

The College of Business and Economics offers a minor in Business Administration. Students must complete the following requirements.

Business Administration - 21 credits

ACCT 240 Principles of Accounting I/3 credits
ACCT 242 Principles of Accounting II/3 credits
ECON 217 Principles of Economics (Micro Emphasis)/3 credits
ECON 218 Principles of Economics (Macro Emphasis)/3 credits
FINA 350* Principles of Finance/3 credits
MANG 360** Principles of Management/3 credits
MARK 380*** Principles of Marketing/3 credits

*Prerequisites to FINA 350: ACCT 242; CIMS 170; ECON 217 & 218; and one of the following: MANG 275, MATH 171, or MATH 271.

** Prerequisite to MANG 360: PSYC 101 or SOCL 101 or 102.

***Prerequisites to MARK 380: ECON 217 & ACCT 242.

 

MINOR IN COMPUTER SECURITY, FORENSICS, AND LAW

Students may pursue a minor in Computer Security, Forensics, and Law. Students pursuing this interdisciplinary minor will take courses in Computer Information Management Systems, Computer Science, and Criminology and Criminal Justice.

Computer Security, Forensics, and Law - 18 credits

CIMS 376 Introduction to Computer Security, Forensics, and Law/3 credits
CMSC 355 Computer Security/3 credits
CIMS 377 Computer Communications and Forensics/3 credits
CRIM 305 White Collar Crime/3 credits
CIMS 476 Advanced Topics in Computer Security, Forensics, and Law/3 credits

Select one of the following: (Students must select a course outside their major/concentration.)

CMSC 360 Computer Network Theory/3 credits
CMSC 455 Network Security and Cryptography/3 credits
CIMS 473 Network Communications/ 3 credits
SOCL 305 Society and Technology: Identity, Community, and Ethics/3 credits

 

ECONOMICS DEGREE PROGRAM

Two degrees in economics are offered: the Bachelor of Science and the Bachelor of Arts. Both degrees are designed to offer the student flexibility in fashioning the major. Students are taught to think critically about typical issues faced in business and social policy and how to analyze their implications. Emphasis is placed on exposing the student to decision-making tools used in a variety of career paths. All economics majors are required to take at least 36 hours of economics courses.

Economics is also considered to be a traditional pre-law degree since students with an economics degree enter law school with well-refined analytical tools and an ability to think critically. The Wall Street Journal has quoted Edward Tom of UC Berkeley School of Law as stating that “of all the majors, economics ranks in the top four or five consistently year after year for both applications and offers made. Logical reasoning and analytical skills are critical to legal studies.” Furthermore, research has shown that economics majors tend to perform well on the LSAT exam. Research published in the Journal of Economics Education reports that of the 14 majors that had more than 2,000 students taking the exam, economics students received the highest average score in both of the time periods studied.


There are three curricular tracks offered for the Bachelor of Science in Economics, each of which has a different emphasis. The first track, Business Economics Concentration, focuses on economics while requiring students to take supporting courses in accounting, finance, computing, and statistical methods. It is designed to prepare students for analytical positions in a variety of businesses.


The second track, the Public Policy Concentration, allows students to study Economics while focusing on public policy and social issues. Economics is combined with Political Science and Sociology to provide a Liberal Arts orientation.


The third track, the Bachelor of Science degree without a specific concentration, provides the most flexibility in both course work and career choices.


There is one curricular track offered for the Bachelor of Arts degree with a concentration in International Economics. This concentration provides a wide-ranging international experience. As part of this program, the student is required to take international economics courses, the International Studies Minor, and a foreign language as a requirement of the BA degree. In addition, Longwood's Office of International Studies offers many study-abroad experiences that complement this major.


ECONOMICS MAJOR, B.S. DEGREE

A. General Education Core Requirements 41 credits

Lower Level General Education - 31 credits

Upper Level General Education - 10 credits - Economics students must take

• Econ 492 Internship for Goal 15

B. Additional Degree Requirements - 7 or 8 credits

Natural Science/4 credits

Choose one of the following:

MATH 164 Precalulus/3 credits
MATH 181 Finite Mathematics/3 credits
MATH 261 The Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits
MATH 267 Applications of Calculus/4 credits

C. Major Core Requirements - 27 credits (plus 1 credit counted in upper-level General Education

ECON 217 Principles of Economics (Micro Emphasis)/3 credits
ECON 218 Principles of Economics (Macro Emphasis)/3 credits
ECON 309 Managerial Economics/3 credits
ECON 317 Intermediate Microeconomics/3 credits
ECON 318 Intermediate Macroeconomics/3 credits
ECON 414 Econometrics and Forecasting/3 credits
ECON 461 Senior Seminar/3 credits
ECON 492 Internship/1 credit (Meets General Education Goal 15)
(Additional credits of ECON 492 may be taken as general electives, but may not be
used as ECON electives. The total credits in ECON 492 cannot exceed 6 hours.)
MANG 275 Business Statistics/3 credits
CIMS 170 Computer Application/3 credits

D. Economics Concentration Requirements

In addition to completing the major core requirements, each candidate for the B.S. in Economics degree shall satisfy the additional specific requirements of one of the following concentrations.

Business Economics - 27 credits

ECON 319 International Economics/3 credits
ECON Electives/15 credits (at the 300 or 400 level)
ACCT 240 Principles of Accounting I/3 credits
ACCT 242 Principles of Accounting II/3 credits
FINA 350 Principles of Finance/3 credits

Public Policy - 33 credits

ECON 302 Law for Economists/3 credits
ECON 313 Public Economics/3 credits
ECON 314 Environmental and Resource Economics/3 credits
ECON 319 International Economics/3 credits
ECON Electives 9 credits (at the 300 or 400 level)
COMM 101 Oral Communication/3 credits
POSC 370 Public Administration/3 credits

Select one of the following:

POSC 255 Introduction to Comparative Politics/3 credits
POSC 343 American Foreign Policy/3 credits
POSC 441 International Relations/3 credits

Select one of the following

CRIM 401 Issues in Criminal Justice/3 credits
SOCL 350 Power and Privilege: Social Stratification/3 credits
SOCL 360 Urban Sociology/3 credits
CRIM 375 Criminology/3 credits
SOCL 376 Sociology of Law/3 credits

No concentration - 15 credits

ECON Electives/15 credits (at the 300 or 400 level)

E. General Electives:

Business Economics concentration: 17 or 18 credits. No more than 21 elective credits in total can be taken in Business (ACCT, MANG, MARK, FINA, CIMS). There is no limit to how many of these credits can be taken as ECON.

Public Policy Concentration: 11 or 12.

No Concentration: 29 or 30 credits. No more than 15 credits can be taken in Business (ACCT, MANG, MARK, FINA, CIMS). There is no limit to how many of these credits can be taken as ECON.

F. Total Credits Required for a B.S. in Economics - 120.


ECONOMICS MAJOR, B.A. DEGREE

International Economics Concentration

A. General Education Core Requirements 41 credits

Lower Level General Education - 31 credits

Upper Level General Education - 10 credits - Economics students must take:

• Econ 492 Internship for Goal 15

B. Additional Degree Requirements - 6 credits

Humanities (3 credits) - not in the discipline of the major.

Foreign Languages (3 credits) - at the 202-level or above (Meets General Education Goal 10)

C. Major Requirements 57 - 64 credits (plus 1 credit counted in General Education)

ECON 217 Principles of Economics (Micro Emphasis)/3 credits
ECON 218 Principles of Economics (Macro Emphasis)/3 credits
ECON 307 Economic Development and Transition to Free Markets/3 credits
ECON 309 Managerial Economics/3 credits
ECON 310 Comparative Economic Systems/3 credits
ECON 317 Intermediate Microeconomics/3 credits
ECON 318 Intermediate Macroeconomics/3 credits
ECON 319 International Economics/3 credits
ECON 414 Econometrics and Forecasting/3 credits
ECON 461 Senior Seminar/3 credits
ECON 492 Internship (1 credit counted in General Education as Goal 15)
(Additional credits of ECON 492 may be taken as general electives, but may not be used as ECON electives. The total credits in ECON 492 cannot exceed 6 hours.)
ECON Electives/9 credits (at the 300 or 400 level)
CIMS 170 Computer Applications/3 credits
MANG 275 Business Statistics/3 credits
MATH 164 Precalculus/3 credits
or
MATH 267 Applications of Calculus/4 credits

International Studies Minor/18 credits (which may include ECON 310 and 319 listed above and foreign language general education goal 10)

D. General Electives 9 - 16 credits

E. Total Credits Required for B.A. in Economics with Concentration in International Economics - 120

Minor in Economics

The College of Business and Economics offers a minor in Economics. Students must complete the following requirements:

Economics - 21 credits

ECON 217 Principles of Economics (Micro Emphasis)/3 credits
ECON 218 Principles of Economics (Macro Emphasis)/3 credits
ECON 317 Intermediate Microeconomics/3 credits
or ECON 318 Intermediate Macroeconomics/3 credits

Economics electives/12 credits (at the 300 or 400 level)

(ECON 492 may not be used as an Economics elective)

MILITARY SCIENCE PROGRAM

Faculty and Staff

Captain Scott Victor, Assistant Professor of Military Science

Army ROTC (Reserve Officers’ Training Corps) is a four- or two-year course of study, open to men and women, who are interested in exploring the possibility of earning a commission as an army officer during their college years and may be taken by students concurrently with their regular work. Credits earned in Military Science are counted as general elective hours and may be applied toward hours required to fulfill the graduation requirements for any degree.

Students enrolled in the Advanced Course receive a grant of up to $2,000 per school year. Uniforms, books, and equipment for all courses are provided by the Army. Freshmen and sophomores may compete for ROTC scholarships that include all academic fees and tuition, and $600 per year for books and supplies, plus a grant of up to $6,000.

Hampden-Sydney students are also encouraged to enroll in military science classes and are also eligible for scholarships.

The Military Science program is divided into two phases: the Basic Course, 100-200 level classes and the Advanced Course 300-400 level classes. Students enrolled in the Basic Course do not incur any military obligation and are not required to take the Advanced Course unless under scholarship contract. The 100 and 200 level courses offered during the freshman and sophomore years serve two purposes: (1) they allow students to determine whether serving their country as Army officers will support their goals without making a military commitment, and (2) successful completion of these courses (if otherwise qualified) allows the student to enter the Advanced ROTC Program. Upon enrollment in the Advanced ROTC Program, the student must make a commitment to serve in the Army, and will receive a $4,000 grant paid during his/her enrollment in the Advanced ROTC Program. The student is commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant in the U.S. Army, U.S. Reserves, or the National Guard upon completing the Advanced ROTC Program and the requirements for graduation.

 

ACCOUNTING COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

Writing Intensive Courses **

Speaking Intensive Courses ***

 

ACCOUNTING 240. Principles of Accounting I. Basics of the accounting cycle, including use of journals and ledgers, and the preparation of balance sheets and income statements. 3 credits.

ACCOUNTING 242. Principles of Accounting II. Continuation of ACCT 240. Preparation of statement of cash flows. Accounting for owners’ equity in partnerships and corporations, standard costs and budgeting, cost-volume-profit analysis, and analysis of financial data. Prerequisite: ACCT 240. 3 credits.

ACCOUNTING 295. Special Topics. Selected topics in accounting. Topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 1-3 credits.

ACCOUNTING 296. Legal Environment. A survey of the critical business law requirements that are needed for day-to-day business operations. Topics such as contracts, consumer protection, agency and bailments will be included. 3 credits.

ACCOUNTING 311-312. Studies Abroad. Primarily intended for transfer of credit earned abroad in courses in accounting. 1-18 credits.

ACCOUNTING 340. Intermediate Accounting I. Review of the accounting cycle; development of the theoretical foundation of financial reporting; accounting for assets; payroll accounting; additional topics related to current developments in financial accounting and reporting. Offered fall semester only. Prerequisite: ACCT 242 with a C- or better. 3 credits.

ACCOUNTING 341. Intermediate Accounting II. Continuation of ACCT 340. Accounting for assets, liabilities, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows; financial statement disclosure and analysis; additional topics related to current developments in accounting. Offered spring semester only. Prerequisite: ACCT 340. 3 credits.

ACCOUNTING 342. Cost Accounting. The study of basic cost accounting systems and concepts. Consideration of inventory costing, cost variance analysis, budgeting, and managerial decision-making based on economic considerations. Offered fall semester only. Prerequisite: ACCT 242 with a C- or better. 3 credits.

ACCOUNTING 344. Tax Accounting I. A comprehensive study of income tax problems relating to individuals. These topics, among others, will be studied: income, exclusions, gain or loss on sales, exchange and involuntary conversions, deductions, exemptions and credits. Offered fall semester only. Prerequisite: ACCT 242 with a C- or better. 3 credits. **

ACCOUNTING 345. Tax Accounting II. A comprehensive study of income tax problems relating to partnerships, corporations, specially taxed corporations, estates and trusts. Offered spring semester only. Prerequisite: ACCT 344. 3 credits.

ACCOUNTING 346. Intermediate Accounting III. Continuation of ACCT 341. Accounting for leases, pensions, and income taxes; effect of accounting changes; revenue measurement and income presentation; accounting for partnerships; additional topics related to current developments in financial accounting and reporting. Offered fall semester only. Prerequisite: ACCT 341. 3 credits.

ACCOUNTING 390. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as 391. 1-18 credits.

ACCOUNTING 441. Accounting Theory. A study of current issues in accounting, including generally accepted accounting principles, APB opinions, and FASB statements. Prerequisite: ACCT 346. 3 credits. **

ACCOUNTING 442. Auditing. Examines auditing standards, procedures, internal control, programs and reports to clients, ethics and legal liabilities. Offered fall semester only. Offered fall semester only. Prerequisite: ACCT 341. 3 credits. **

ACCOUNTING 443. Governmental Not-For-Profit and Advanced Accounting. Fund and budget accounting for governmental and not-for-profit entities. Consolidated financial reporting for corporations. Offered fall semester only. Prerequisite: ACCT 341. 3 credits.

Accounting 445. Law for Accountants. This course is designed to present students concentrating in accounting with a broad overview of the legal environment of U.S. business operations with emphasis on areas of substantive law that entry level professional accountants are expected to know. Offered spring semester only. 3 credits.

ACCOUNTING 447. International Accounting. This course introduces students to the problems that the U.S. accountant faces when functioning in the global economy. The course starts with a survey of accounting systems around the world, including comparative financial accounting practices and efforts towards harmonization. The second part of the course covers the international aspects of specific financial topics: accounting for price changes, foreign currency exposure and translation, and analysis of foreign financial statements. Offered spring semester only. Prerequisite: ACCT 341. 3 credits. ***

ACCOUNTING 448. Accounting Information Systems. This course covers the treatment of accounting information as a system to be managed. Topics include a general overview of management information systems; managing computer technology; transaction processing; systems security; systems planning and analysis; and database management. Students will also be exposed to data communications technologies. Offered spring semester only. Prerequisites: ACCT 340, CIMS 170, and junior status. 3 credits.

ACCOUNTING 490. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated. 1-18 credits.

ACCOUNTING 492. Internship: Accounting. An on-the-job learning experience designed to give students an opportunity to apply their technical and professional skills and to observe organizations in action. Prerequisites: Cumulative GPA of 2.33 or greater, 60 credits, declared business or economics major and a declared concentration, and permission of internship director, 1-3 credits per internship placement; limited to a maximum of 6 credits.

ACCOUNTING 495. Special Topics. Selected topics in accounting. An individually designed course that allows the student to pursue advanced topics in specific accounting areas. Topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 1-3 credits.

ACCOUNTING 498. Honors Research in Accounting. Students conduct research in accounting under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits.

 

BUSINESS EDUCATION COURSE DESCRIPTION

Writing Intensive Course **

Speaking Intensive Course ***

 

BUSINESS EDUCATION 435. Methods of Teaching Business in Secondary Schools. A study of how to implement the current practices and procedures in teaching business courses in secondary schools with emphasis on principles, techniques, and materials. Prerequisite: EDUC 299. 4 credits.

 

COMPUTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

Writing Intensive Course **

Speaking Intensive Course ***

COMPUTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 170. Computer Applications. The course utilizes several common business software applications to explore how these tools are used in typical business environments. The course enhances the students’ knowledge of tools needed for upper-level courses in the School of Business and Economics, as well as their knowledge of computer concepts that are required in the business world. 3 credits.

COMPUTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 272. Introduction to Business Programming. The course emphasizes analysis of existing systems and designs of new systems using common structured and object-oriented modeling tools. It also includes the development of information systems from the analysis of present information flow, system specifications, and modeling. Prerequisite: CIMS 170. 3 credits.

COMPUTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 295. Special Topics. Selected topics in computer information management systems. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. 1-3 credits.

COMPUTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 311, 312. Studies Abroad. Primarily intended for transfer of credit earned abroad in courses in computer information management systems. 1-18 credits.

COMPUTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 370. Principles of Management Information Systems. A general overview of information systems. Planning, designing and implementing information management systems. Emphasis is on application of the systems. Prerequisite: CIMS 170. 3 credits.

COMPUTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 372. COBOL Programming. An introduction to programming in a business oriented language (COBOL) with emphasis on commercial applications and elementary concepts of file processing. 3 credits.

COMPUTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 373. Database Management. Introduction to theory of data structure, implementation of database models, and applications using a conventional database system. Prerequisites: CIMS 370 and one of the following: CIMS 272, CIMS 372, or CMSC 204. 3 credits.

COMPUTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 375. Web Design and Development. This course teaches students how to use powerful, sophisticated, commercially available Web design tools to create interactive multimedia projects in an interdisciplinary team environment. Students build a personal Web site, an interactive portfolio site, and a site for a “real world” client. Other topics include introduction to ASP, CGI, Perl, VBScript, JavaScript, and Jscript. Prerequisites: CIMS 170 and 370, or permission of the instructor. 3 credits.

COMPUTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 376. Introduction to Computer Security, Forensics, and Law. This class covers IT security, computer law, and methods and tools for gaining forensic information from computer systems. It includes case studies of cyber crimes with a focus on the capabilities and limitations of forensics techniques today. The course introduces students to forensics tools using hands-on experience and the Internet. Prerequisite: CMSC 121 or CIMS 170, or permission of the instructor. 3 credits.

COMPUTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 377. Computer Communications and Forensics. This is a fundamental required course as part of an interdisciplinary curriculum that is very much in demand in today’s society. This course covers IT forensics as part of one of the three academic areas in the interdisciplinary curriculum. The three areas covered are IT security, IT forensics, and cyber law. Prerequisite: CIMS 376 or permission of instructor. 3 credits.

COMPUTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 390. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as 391. 1-18 credits.

COMPUTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 471. Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design. Development of an information system from the analysis of present information flow, system specifications and equipment selection to implementation. Emphasis on analysis of existing systems and design of new systems. Prerequisite: CIMS 370 and 373. 3 credits. ** ***COMPUTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 473. Network Communications. A study of voice and data communications concepts, including network components, strategies, topologies, planning and design issues, security considerations, evaluation/performance criteria, and management control requirements. Topics cover physical components as well as theoretical issues. Course includes in-class lectures as well as hands-on lab experiences with physical media, microcomputer connectors, and network operating systems. Prerequisite: CIMS 370. 3 credits.

COMPUTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 475. Web Programming. An in-depth study of programming techniques used in Web page design. Topics can include HTML and derivative languages, server-side programming, client-side programming, Web server architecture, and Web security. Use of these programming techniques to create contemporary applications will be covered. These applications can include, but are not limited to, shopping carts, guest books, login validation, database access and manipulation, form processing, auctions, and chat rooms. Other applications and techniques may be covered that reflect current trends in Web design and use. Prerequisites: Successful completion of a programming course prior to enrollment in this course is required as well as CIMS 373 or CMSC 362 and permission of instructor. 3 credits.

COMPUTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 476. Advanced Topics in Computer Security, Forensics, and Law. This class covers IT security, computer law, techniques for identifying and tracking cyber attacks, and methods and tools for gaining forensic information from computer systems. It includes case studies of cyber crimes with a focus on the relationship between computer forensics, IT security and cyber law today. The course will incorporate practical projects representing forensic challenges. The course will emphasize the application of law, ethics, conceptual models and hands-on experiences of using forensic tools with personal computers, servers, Internet activity and Web browser usage. Prerequisites: CMSC 355, CIMS 376, CIMS 377, CRIM 305, and one of the following: both CMSC 360 and 455; or CIMS 473; or SOCL 305. 3 credits.

COMPUTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 492. Internship: Computer Information Management Systems. An on-the-job learning experience designed to give students an opportunity to apply their technical and professional skills and to observe organizations in action. Prerequisites: Cumulative GPA of 2.33 or greater, 60 credits, declared business or economics major, a declared concentration, and permission of the internship director. 1-3 credits per internship placement; limited to a maximum of 6 credits.

COMPUTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 495. Special Topics. Selected topics in computer information management systems. An individually designed course that allows the student to pursue advanced topics in specific management information systems areas. Topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 1-3 credits.

COMPUTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 498. Honors Research in Computer Information Management Systems. Students conduct research in computer information management systems under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits.


ECONOMICS COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

General Education Course *

Writing Intensive Course **

Speaking Intensive Course ***

ECONOMICS 111. Contemporary Economic Issues and Social Policy. Fundamental economic principles and the economics of social issues. Material is addressed in a manner that illustrates the importance of understanding economic issues that affect you as a consumer, citizen, and taxpayer. Example topics are: environmental issues, poverty and inequality, the war on drugs, the determination of prices in markets and price manipulation, and the collapse of communism. The format for all classes is discussion. 3 credits. *

ECONOMICS 115. Economics for Educators. An examination and exploration of economic concepts and principles as well as instructional approaches aimed at incorporating these concepts into the elementary school curriculum. This course is designed especially for students preparing for careers as elementary school educators and will focus on preparing students to be able to implement the economics strand in the Virginia Social Studies Standards of Learning adopted in 1995. This course may not be taken for credit by business or economics majors. Prerequisite: EDUC 299. 3 credits.

ECONOMICS 217. Principles of Economics (Micro Emphasis). Overview of economic theory and real world applications. For example, how are prices in the economy determined? How do economic markets operate? How do economic events such as technological advances, increases in input prices, and government policy changes affect market prices and the consumer? Some time will be spent on discussion of market structures such as competitive markets versus monopoly. Real world applications will be used to illustrate economic theories. 3 credits.

ECONOMICS 218. Principles of Economics (Macro Emphasis). Study of the economy as a whole. Topics include the determination of a general price level for the economy, determinants of inflation, unemployment, interest rates, and Gross Domestic Product. For example, this course addresses how the Federal Reserve uses monetary policy to manipulate economic activity, inflation, and interest rates. 3 credits.

ECONOMICS 295. Special Topics. Selected topics in economics. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. 1-3 credits.

ECONOMICS 302. Law for Economists. Students will evaluate the law based on economic principles and will form connections to public policy. Specifically, students will examine the effects of current law on behavior and predict the effects of future laws on society. Topics include economics of crime and punishment, economic theory of property and property liability, and medical malpractice. Students will apply legal and economic concepts to recent cases. Prerequisite: ECON 217. 3 credits.

ECONOMICS 303. Economics of Sports. A study of how economic theories apply to the markets for professional and amateur sports. Topics will include competition within the industry, wage determination, labor market functions, regulation and market failure. Class will be discussion oriented. Prerequisite: ECON 217. 3 credits.

ECONOMICS 304. Experimental Economics. This course is project oriented. Students will work with the professor on grant-related research in order to learn about experimental design, protocol, and recruiting. Students will also work in groups on experimental projects that will be presented to the class. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 3 credits.

ECONOMICS 307. Economic Development and Transition to Free Markets. This course represents a unified approach to issues that have been traditionally partitioned into two separate subjects, the Economics of Development and Economics Systems. The events of 1989 in Eastern and Southeastern Europe brought political and economic changes, which highlight the fact that the countries undergoing transition from a centrally planned economy to free markets face challenges that are similar to those of the developing countries. That is why we examine the processes of transition together with economics development in a unified context with common basis in methods of analysis and measurement. Prerequisite: ECON 217 and 218. 3 credits. **

ECONOMICS 308. Money and Banking. The function of money as legal tender and the relation of money and credit to prices. Emphasis will be placed on monetary policy, interest rates, and the Federal Reserve System, international applications, and problems of currency exchange. Prerequisites: ECON 217 and 218. 3 credits.

ECONOMICS 309. Managerial Economics. This course applies economics to business decision-making. Applied regression analysis, an important empirical tool that is widely used in business and government, will be used to study managerial insights that can be gained from business data. Additional topics include linear programming, forecasting, and business strategies for firms in competitive and monopolistic markets. Prerequisites: ECON 217 and one of the following: MANG 275, MATH 171, or MATH 271. 3 credits.

ECONOMICS 311, 312. Studies Abroad. Primarily intended for transfer of credit earned abroad in courses in economics. 1-18 credits.

ECONOMICS 313. Public Economics. This course addresses the role of government in a market economy. The economic rationale for government intervention in correcting market failures is analyzed, along with regulation and redistribution issues. Emphasis is placed on the evaluation of government policies and programs, as well as potential reforms; for example, health care, drug prohibition, education reform, and farm subsidy programs. Contrast is made between bureaucratic and market solutions. Prerequisites: ECON 217. 3 credits.

ECONOMICS 314. Environmental and Resource Economics. This course analyzes environmental concerns and the economics of resource use. Specifically, a contrast will be made between governmental solutions to environmental issues and market-based environmental reforms. Issues addressed include: animal extinction and common ownership problems, pollution, water management, global warming/global cooling, and land management. The underlying theme of the course is the ability to use economic theory to develop appropriate incentive structures for the use of economic resources. Prerequisite: ECON 217. 3 credits.

ECONOMICS 317. Intermediate Microeconomics. Advanced topics in microeconomics supplemented by applications of microeconomic theory to policy and business issues. Theory of the consumer and production will be emphasized. Prerequisite: ECON 217. 3 credits.

ECONOMICS 318. Intermediate Macroeconomics. Advanced coverage of monetary and fiscal theory and policy with emphasis on money supply and interest rates, national income determination, unemployment, inflation, and international issues. Prerequisites: ECON 217 and 218. 3 credits.

ECONOMICS 319. International Economics. Analytical approach to gains derived from trade, treatment of various theories of international trade (classical and current). Includes analysis of economic and political influences on exports and imports, foreign exchange rates, concept of elasticity as applied to international trade, balance of payments, significance of foreign trade and investment. Prerequisites: ECON 217 and 218. 3 credits.

ECONOMICS 400. Economics in Elementary School Classroom. Teachers will learn how to make economics come alive in their classroom. Teachers will learn how to teach basic economics principles addressing scarcity, production, consumption, opportunity cost, markets, etc. Major focus will be hands-on activities for young students. Virginia SOL’s will be discussed. Course taught through Longwood Center of Economic Education. Not for credit toward the economics major, minor, or concentration. 1 credit. Summer only.

ECONOMICS 401. Economics in the High School Classroom. Teachers will learn basic economic concepts and how to apply them to topics including domestic and global issues such as the environment, international trade, economic reform in Russia, macroeconomic policy, welfare reform, and drug legalization. Classroom activities and social studies SOL’s will be addressed. Course taught through the Longwood Center of Economic Education. Not for credit toward the economics major, minor, or concentration. 3 credits.

ECONOMICS 411. Economics of Labor and Discrimination. Economic analysis of labor markets, including issues of labor supply and demand, wage determination, unemployment, job search, education, and other human capital investments. Emphasis will be placed on the analysis of data on labor market outcomes relative to ethnicity and gender. Theories of discrimination will be addressed. Policy issues and programs such as minimum wage, comparable worth pay programs, and affirmative action will be discussed. Prerequisite: ECON 217. 3 credits.

ECONOMICS 412. Industrial Organization and Regulation. Focus will be on organization of the firm and the impacts of regulation. Topics include industrial pricing practices, reasons why firms exist, why they vertically or horizontally integrate, and recent downsizing trends. The regulation component will address antitrust legislation, pricing regulations, and rate of return regulations such as those commonly imposed on public utilities. Prerequisite: ECON 217. 3 credits.

ECONOMICS 413. International Financial Markets. This course will analyze the key financial markets and instruments that facilitate trade and investment activity on a global scale. The scope of this class includes two area: first, the economics determinants of prices, price changes, and price relationships in the major financial markets; and second, the policy issues that result for private enterprises and government policymakers. Prerequisite: ECON 308 or FINA 350. 3 credits.

ECONOMICS 414. Econometrics and Forecasting. Introduction to the basic concepts used in economic data analysis. Emphasis is on applications of linear regression techniques to analyze common empirical problems in economics, business, and government. Forecasting techniques that are commonly used by economists will be covered. Students will receive hands-on experience in data collection, computer software, and project design. Prerequisites: ECON 217, 218, and one of the following: MANG 275, MATH 171 or MATH 271. 3 credits. ** ***

ECONOMICS 415. Teaching Environmental Economics. Educator oriented course, applying economics to environmental issues such as resource scarcity, pollution, property rights, garbage and recycling, oil spills, and endangered species. Students will learn how markets and prices can be used to help solve environmental problems. Course cannot be used as credit towards economics major or minor in economics. Students cannot receive credit for both ECON 415/EDUC 415 and ECON 500 or both ECON 415/EDUC 415 and ECON 314. 3 credits.

ECONOMICS 461. Senior Seminar. Designed as a seminar for senior level economics students. The course will be project oriented. Emphasis placed on discussion and project presentation. Topics will vary by semester. Prerequisite: Senior status in economics or approval of instructor. Prerequisites: ECON 317, 318, 319, and 414. (ECON 318 & 319 may be taken concurrently with ECON 461.) 3 credits. ** ***

ECONOMICS 490. Independent Study: Economics. This is an individually designed course that allows the student to pursue advanced topics in specific areas of economics. Prerequisites: Senior standing and permission of instructor. 1-3 credits.

ECONOMICS 492. Internship: Economics. An on-the-job learning experience designed to give students an opportunity to apply their technical and professional skills and to observe organizations in action. Prerequisites: Cumulative GPA of 2.33 or greater, 60 credits, declared business or economics major, a declared concentration, and permission of internship director. 1-3 credits per internship placement; limited to a maximum of 6 credits.

ECONOMICS 495. Special Topics. Selected topics in economics. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. 1-3 credits.

ECONOMICS 498. Honors Research in Economics. Students conduct research in economics under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits.

ECONOMICS 500. Environmental Economics. This course analyzes the economics of resource use, focusing on market based environmental reforms. Issues addressed include: animal extinction and common ownership problems, pollution, water and air regulation, garbage and recycling. This course is intended for students in the Masters in Environmental Studies program. Prerequisite: ECON 217. 3 credits. **


FINANCE COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

Writing Intensive Course **

FINANCE 250. Personal Finance. Basic fundamentals in selected areas of personal finance; role of the individual as a consumer and as an investor. 3 credits.

FINANCE 295. Special Topics. Selected topics in finance. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 1-3 credits.

FINANCE 311, 312. Studies Abroad. Primarily intended for transfer of credit earned abroad in courses in finance. 1-18 credits.

FINANCE 350. Principles of Finance. Principles and practices of financial management within a business firm. Examines acquisition of funds, cash flow, financial analysis, capital budgeting, working capital requirements, and capital structure. Prerequisites: CIMS 170, ACCT 242, ECON 217 and 218, and one of the following: MANG 275, MATH 171, or MATH 271. 3 credits.

FINANCE 351. Risk Management. An introduction to the fundamentals of risk management. General understanding of the varied applications of the principles of insurance to situations involving risk. Prerequisite: FINA 350. 3 credits.

FINANCE 353. Managerial Finance. This course focuses on corporate financial decision-making. Topics include risk assessment, capital budgeting, cost of capital, and asset pricing models. Offered fall semester only. Prerequisite: FINA 350. 3 credits.

FINANCE 354. Working Capital and Treasury Function. This course complements FINA 353; it concerns managing liquidity, working capital, long-term liabilities, selecting a capital structure, and obtaining long-term financing. Prerequisite: FINA 350. 3 credits.

FINANCE 390. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as 391. 1-18 credits.

FINANCE 413. International Financial Markets. This course will analyze the key financial markets and instruments that facilitate trade and investment activity on a global scale. The scope of this class includes two area: first, the economics determinants of prices, price changes, and price relationships in the major financial markets; and second, the policy issues that result for private enterprises and government policymakers. Prerequisite: ECON 308 or FINA 350. 3 credits.

FINANCE 450. Financial Management. Considerations, analyses and decisions pertinent to the financial management of a business firm. The course will make extensive use of cases. Offered spring semester only. Prerequisite: FINA 350. 3 credits. ** ***

FINANCE 451. Investment Analysis and Portfolio Management. Characteristics and analysis of individual securities as well as the theory and practice of optimally combining securities into portfolios. The presentation of material is intended to be rigorous and practical, without being overly quantitative. Offered fall semester only. Prerequisite: FINA 350. 3 credits.

FINANCE 452. Financial Markets and Institutions. Characteristics of and interrelationships among financial markets, securities, and institutions. Includes analysis of futures, options, swaps, and other derivative instruments. Offered spring semester only. Prerequisite: FINA 350. 3 credits.

FINANCE 453. Principles of Real Estate. Principles of ownership and transfer of real property interests; buying, selling, or leasing residential or investment real estate; and legal, economic, financial, and appraisal aspects of the subject matter. Prerequisite: FINA 350. 4 credits.

FINANCE 490. Independent Study. Advanced topics in finance. This is an individually designed course that allows the student to pursue advanced topics in specific finance areas. Prerequisites: Senior standing and permission of instructor. 1-3 credits.

FINANCE 492. Internship: Finance. An on-the-job learning experience designed to give students an opportunity to apply their technical and professional skills and to observe organizations in action. Prerequisites: Cumulative GPA of 2.33 or greater, 60 credits, declared business or economics major, a declared concentration, and permission of internship director. 1-3 credits per internship placement; limited to a maximum of 6 credits.

FINANCE 495. Special Topics. Selected topics in finance. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 1-3 credits.

FINANCE 498. Honors Research in Finance. Students conduct research in finance under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits.


MANAGEMENT COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

General Education Course*

Writing Intensive Course **

Speaking Intensive Course ***

MANAGEMENT 190. Introduction to the American Business System. Operations of the American Business System and its place in the economy. The course provides the basic understanding of the business world, philosophy, objectives, and general responsibilities to the environment, government, and society. 3 credits.

MANAGEMENT 275. Business Statistics. An introductory course in statistics stressing managerial applications. Interpret and analyze business data for use in managerial decision-making. Topics include descriptive statistics, probability sampling, estimation, hypothesis testing, and regression correlation analysis. 3 credits.

MANAGEMENT 291. Business Communication. Principles, practices, and techniques of writing and speaking in business settings. Includes report and letter writing, interpersonal and group communication, and oral presentation skills. Prerequisite: CIMS 170. 3 credits.** ***

MANAGEMENT 295. Special Topics. Selected topics in management. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 1-3 credits.

MANAGEMENT 360. Principles of Management. Management fundamentals with emphasis on theories of management, the evolution of management thought, and the functions of management in organizational activity. Prerequisite: PSYC 101 or SOCL 101 or 102. 3 credits.

MANAGEMENT 362. Organization Behavior. An examination of behavior at the individual, group, and organizational levels. Topics include individual differences, perception and attribution, motivation, groups and teams, decision-making, leadership, organizational culture and socialization, and change in organizations. Emphasis on translating theories of behavior into management practice. Prerequisite: MANG 360. 3 credits.

MANAGEMENT 363. Introduction to Management Science. Concepts and techniques of management science commonly used in managerial decision making with a focus on application. Topics include linear programming, transportation method, assignment model, forecasting, PERT/CPM, queuing models and simulation. Prerequisites: MANG 360, and one of the following: MANG 275, MATH 171, or MATH 271. 3 credits.

MANAGEMENT 364. Negotiation and Conflict Resolution. A study of negotiation and conflict resolution theory and application in various settings, with simulations. Demonstrations and role-plays provide for skill development as managers resolving conflict for themselves, with subordinates, and in teams. Course also covers designing organizational systems to manage conflict. Prerequisite: MANG 360. 3 credits. **

MANAGEMENT 365. Breakthrough Work Teams. Experiential approach to applying psychological, social, and structural theories and methods towards improving personal effectiveness in group settings and breakthrough performance for work teams. Prerequisite: MANG 360. 3 credits.

MANAGEMENT 390. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as 391. 1-18 credits.

MANAGEMENT 462. Staffing Organizations. This course will provide the student with an understanding of issues and techniques in staffing organizations including factors in the organization’s environment which affect staffing decisions, including legal issues, measurement in selection, internal and external recruitment and selection, orientation and socialization of new employees, and organizational exit. The emphasis in the course will be on applying knowledge of staffing issues to practical situations. Prerequisites: MANG 275 and 360. 3 credits.

MANAGEMENT 465. Human Resource Management. An introduction to human resource management with an emphasis on strategic human resource management. Topics include: legal issues affecting human resource management, human resource planning, job analysis, recruitment and election, training and development, performance appraisal compensation of employees (including employee benefits), and occupational safety and health. Prerequisite: MANG 360. 3 credits. ***

MANAGEMENT 466. Industrial Relations. The historical, legal, and institutional aspects of the American labor force and its organizations; wage and employment theory; and the economic, social and public dimensions of collective bargaining. Prerequisite: MANG 360. 3 credits.

MANAGEMENT 469. Entrepreneurship. An introduction to the essential functions of business planning for success in entrepreneurial endeavors. Students will learn concepts related to the planning organizing, financing, and management of a small business, as well as concepts related to marketing their business. Students will develop a start-up business plan during the course to test the feasibility of their business concept and to act as the blueprint for a potential start-up venture. Prerequisite: MANG 360. 3 credits.

MANAGEMENT 474. Managing Business Ethics and Diversity. Comparison of egoistic, deontological, and utilitarian ethical theories as well as the exploration of the perception of human differences based on concepts of demographic and cultural diversity. Methods and suggestions are analyzed for turning ethical and diversity issues into management opportunities. 3 credits. *

MANAGEMENT 490. Independent Study: Management. An individually designed course that allows the student to pursue advanced topics in specific management areas. Prerequisites: Senior standing and permission of instructor. 1-3 credits.

MANAGEMENT 492. Internship: Management. An on-the-job learning experience designed to give students an opportunity to apply their technical and professional skills and to observe organizations in action. Prerequisites: Cumulative GPA of 2.33 or greater, 60 credits, declared business or economics major and a declared concentration, and permission of internship director. 1-3 credits per internship placement; limited to a maximum of 6 credits.

MANAGEMENT 495. Special Topics. Selected topics in management. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 1-3 credits.

MANAGEMENT 497. Business Policy. Integrates the various functional areas of business in terms of policy level decision-making. The comprehensive case study method is used. Prerequisites: Cumulative GPA of 2.33 or greater, FINA 350, MANG 360, MARK 380, and senior standing. 3 credits. **

MANAGEMENT 498. Honors Research in Management. Students conduct research in management under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits.


MARKETING COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

Writing Intensive Course **

Speaking Intensive Course ***

MARKETING 280. Fundamentals of Marketing. Fundamentals of marketing is a survey course designed for the nonbusiness major. This course will introduce the student to a broad range of marketing concepts, ideas, and topics for a variety of perspectives. 3 credits.

MARKETING 295. Special Topics. Selected topics in marketing. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 1-3 credits.

MARKETING 380. Principles of Marketing. An introduction to the functions of marketing in our economy with particular attention to the influence of social, economic, ethical, legal, and technological forces on marketing activities. Problems and policies involved in the marketing of goods and services. Prerequisite: ACCT 242 and ECON 217. 3 credits.

MARKETING 381. Marketing Research. An application of scientific research methodology to marketing problems. The systematic gathering, recording, processing, and analyzing of marketing data are applied to studies of market structure, market segmentation, positioning, concept and product testing, name and package testing, advertising pre-testing and tracking, and test marketing. Students will complete an individual research project. Prerequisite: MARK 380. 3 credits.

MARKETING 382. Professional Selling and Sales Force Management. This class will focus on the fundamental principles of personal selling. Topics include the economic problems connected with personal selling, an analysis of products and markets, the interview and the selling process, and building relationships and goodwill. The class will also focus on a strategic approach to the process of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling the activities of the sale force. Prerequisite: MARK 380. 3 credits.

MARKETING 383. Consumer Behavior. A study of consumer purchasing behavior and the environmental factors that affect that behavior. Cultural, social, and psychological determinants of consumer behavior are examined. The implications of these determinants for market segmentation and marketing strategy are stressed. Prerequisite: MARK 380. 3 credits.

MARKETING 385. Marketing Channels Management. Application of marketing and managerial strategies and functions to the activities involved in operating an organization’s channel of distribution. Areas to be covered include channel strategies, objectives, and design; channel organization and maintenance; and logistics, including physical distribution and material management. Prerequisite: MARK 380. 3 credits.

MARKETING 386. Direct Marketing. Survey course designed to provide an overview of direct marketing approaches, presenting direct marketing essentials, emphasizing retailing and advertising on line, and including other direct marketing media. The course will cover both consumer and business perspectives as well as on-line marketing research. Prerequisite: MARK 380. 3 credits.

MARKETING 387. Principles of Retailing. Study of the marketing role of retailing in the economy. Special emphasis will be placed on careers in retailing, retail market segmentation, location theory, buying, pricing, and promotion in the retail industry. Prerequisite: MARK 380. 3 credits.

MARKETING 388. Services Marketing. This class will focus on current developments in the services marketing area. It will focus on topics such as service encounters, marketing mixes for services, managing, delivering, evaluating the service process, and customer relationship management. Prerequisites: MARK 380 and 383. 3 credits.

MARKETING 389. Retail Merchandising. This class will focus on merchandising. Topics include the merchandising cycle, buying techniques, inventory systems, and display principles. The dynamics of fashion and consumer buying behavior are also explored. Prerequisites: MARK 380, 383, and 387. 3 credits.

MARKETING 390. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as 391. 1-18 credits.

MARKETING 480. Advertising. Principles underlying advertising, economic and social aspects of advertising, policies and objectives, selection and use of various media, advertising organizations, campaigns, displays and copy. Prerequisite: MARK 380. 3 credits.

MARKETING 481. International Business. A study of successful business practices in the global marketplace. Areas of coverage include: levels of international involvement, organizational behavior across cultures, the environment of global marketing, identifying global opportunities, and international market planning and strategy. Prerequisite: MARK 380 & MANG 360. 3 credits.

MARKETING 482. Marketing Strategy. Policymaking and operating decisions of the marketing manager and tools available to aid in solving marketing problems. Prerequisites: FINA 350, MANG 360, MARK 381, MARK 383, plus senior standing. 3 credits. ***

MARKETING 489. Retail Strategy. This class will integrate the elements of product and services marketing with a focus on strategy, operating decisions, and problem solving from the perspective of the retail-marketing manager. The case study methods will be utilized. Prerequisites: MARK 380, 383, 387, and MANG 360. 3 credits.

MARKETING 490. Independent Study: Marketing. Advanced topics in marketing. An individually designed course that allows the student to pursue advanced topics in specific marketing areas. Prerequisites: Senior standing and permission of instructor. 1-3 credits.

MARKETING 492. Internship: Marketing. An on-the-job learning experience designed to give students an opportunity to apply their technical and professional skills and to observe organizations in action. Prerequisites: Cumulative GPA of 2.33 or greater, 60 credits, declared business or economics major, a declared concentration, and permission of internship director. 1-3 credits per internship placement; limited to a maximum of 6 credits.

MARKETING 495. Special Topics: Marketing. Selected topics in marketing. The topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated for credit when topics change. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 1-3 credits.

MARKETING 498. Honors Research in Marketing. Students conduct research in marketing under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits.


MILITARY SCIENCE COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

MILITARY SCIENCE 101. Foundations of Officership. The course introduces students to fundamental components of service as an officer in the United States Army. These initial lessons form the building blocks of progressive lessons in values, fitness, leadership and officership. Additionally, the semester addresses life skills, including fitness, communications theory and practice (written and oral), and interpersonal relationships. Prerequisite: Freshmen or sophomore class standing, or permission of the department chair. 1 credit.

MILITARY SCIENCE 102. Basic Leadership. This course introduces the 'life skills' of problem solving, decision-making, and leadership designed to help students in the near-term as leaders on campus. The class will help students be more effective leaders and managers in the long-term, whether they serve in the military or as leaders in civilian life. Topics addressed include critical thinking, problem solving methods, leadership theory, followership, group cohesion, goal-setting and feedback mechanisms. Lessons are taught in a seminar format, emphasizing student discussions and practical exercises. Prerequisite: Freshman or sophomore class standing, or permission of the department chair. 1 credit.

MILITARY SCIENCE 201. Military Leadership I: Individual Leadership Studies. This course is designed to develop leadership through activities that focus on self-knowledge, self-confidence, individual leadership skills, teamwork skills, and leadership concepts. Topics include, but are not limited to, personal development, goal setting, communication, problem solving and decision-making. In-class activities include orienting and ropes classes. Prerequisite: Military Science 101 or permission of departmental chair. 2 credits.

MILITARY SCIENCE 202. Military Leadership II: Leadership & Teamwork. This course builds on the foundations set in MISC 201 and is designed to develop leadership through activities that focus on self-knowledge, self-confidence, and individual leadership skills, teamwork skills, and leadership concepts. Topics include, but are not limited to, personal development, goal setting, communication, problem solving, and decision-making. In-class activities include orienteering and leadership reaction course. Prerequisite: MISC 201 or permission of the departmental chair. 2 credits.

MILITARY SCIENCE 204. Leader’s Training Course. Five-week summer course consisting of leadership training at Fort Knox, Kentucky. Completion of this course equates to completion of MISC 101-202 and enables students to enroll in the advanced military leadership courses. Amount of academic credit awarded depends upon the amount of basic military leadership credit previously earned. Travel pay and salary provided through Department of Military Science and Leadership. Graded pass/fail. Prerequisite: Enrollment into the ROTC Program, military service obligation and permission of the departmental chair required. 0-6 semester hours. 6 credits.

MILITARY SCIENCE 295. Special Topics. Selected topics in military science. The topics may vary from semester to semester. Military Science Program approval required prior to registration. May be repeated for credit when topics change. 1-3 credits.

MILITARY SCIENCE 301 and 302. Fundamentals of Military Leadership and Training I & II. Instruction and case studies which build leadership competencies and military skills in preparation for future responsibilities as army officers. Specific instruction in the principles of war, decision-making processes, planning models, and risk assessment. Advanced leadership instruction focuses on motivational theory, the role and actions of leaders, and organizational communications. Specific instruction is given in individual leader development, planning and execution of small unit operations, individual and team development, and the army as a career choice. Prerequisite: Completion of MISC 202, MISC 204, or permission of the departmental chair. 4 credits.

MILITARY SCIENCE 305. ROTC Advanced Camp Summer Practicum. Six weeks of intensive leadership application. Students are exposed to varying leadership situations requiring problem-solving and decision-making skills under physically and mentally stressful conditions. Prerequisites: MISC 301 and 302 and approval of Military Science Program. 3 credits.

MILITARY SCIENCE 401. Advanced Military Leadership I. Command and staff operations and procedures, military briefings, and military correspondence are studied in detail. Prerequisites: MISC 302 and approval of Military Science Program. 4 credits.

MILITARY SCIENCE 402. Advanced Military Leadership II. Study of military justice, the Law of Warfare, professionalism and ethics. Prerequisite: MISC 401 and permission of instructor. 4 credits.
MILITARY SCIENCE 495. Special Topics. Selected topics in military science. The topics may vary from semester to semester. Military Science approval required prior to registration. May be repeated for credit when topics change. 1-3 credits

 
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