People, governments, schools and businesses around the world are looking for the answer to decrease littering.
Here are some solutions that have been tried:
1. Pick it up.
Litter can be picked up by volunteers or by paid employees. Hiring people to pick up litter can cost a business, park, or school a great deal of money. Some businesses have their employees pick up litter from parking lots, entrances, and landscaped areas. "Adopt a Spot," "Adopt a Park" and other adoption programs involve volunteers in cleaning certain areas. Some schools encourage student groups to Adopt a Spot on campus that they clean at least twice a year. Cleanups are also organized by nonprofit groups, including the International Coastal Cleanup, an annual worldwide event organized by The Ocean Conservancy. Some states, including Virginia, have prisoners pick up litter along highways.
2. Education-educate people about the need to dispose of waste properly.
Studies show that litter can be decreased by 50 percent or more through educational campaigns. Signs, messages printed on packaging, personal messages, and presentations about the harmful impacts of litter will decrease some littering behavior. However, like any public education campaign, the educational message must be continual. A one-time educational effort will not result in long-term changes in behavior. We as a society must become intolerant of littering behavior.
3. Have a "no smoking" policy or allow smoking only in designated areas.
More and more public beaches, parks, open-air shopping malls, and college campus are trying to concentrate cigarette butt litter by requiring smokers to use only designated areas. These areas should have ash receptacles, lighting, seating, and be safe and convenient. Often the use of these designated smoking areas are promoted for public health reasons (secondhand smoke) and fire prevention, as well as a litter-control mechanism. This approach is sometimes attacked because it restricts smokers' rights (after all, smoking is a legal activity), and it is trying to address one behavior (littering) by restricting another behavior (smoking). Also, beware of unintended consequences. Some college campuses have placed a total ban on smoking, but have found that smokers are forced onto adjoining properties or onto public streets to smoke.
4. Provide ash receptacles and trashcans at all entry/exit points of buildings, at bus stops, and other areas where people frequently need to discard their trash and cigarettes.
According to Keep America Beautiful, which conducted a scientific study on cigarette littering behavior, these "Transition Points" are the places smokers need to discard their cigarettes before entering buildings or getting on a bus.
5. Distribute pocket ashtrays and trash bags for cars.
Many types of pocket ashtrays are on the market. Some are made of foil and are disposable, while others are made of plastics or metals, and can be used for years. These can be purchased in bulk and distributed by community groups or businesses as part of a litter-prevention campaign. Trash bags for cars are also frequently distributed by community groups that are trying to reduce litter.
6. Enforce litter laws.
7. Engage the businesses that make or distribute items that are frequently littered.
Beverage manufacturers, fast food restaurants, tobacco manufacturers, convenience stores and other such businesses could do much more to educate their customers, contribute to anti-litter campaigns, support local cleanup events, and invest in public education on litter issues. They need to take an active and responsible role in educating people about litter prevention, and devote resources to the cleanup of litter.
8. Anti-Litter Taxes
In some states, consumers pay a small "anti-litter tax" every time they purchase a canned or bottled beverage. These funds support anti-litter efforts. A similar tax on cigarettes, fast food and convenience food purchases have been proposed in some communities. Some countries and states have "bottle bills" which discourages littering.
Note: CVW provides this list as a reference only.
Aquatic litter and debris are any manufactured or processed solid waste that enters the aquatic environment from any source. In short, it is our misplaced waste and trash. It is a highly pervasive and visible form of pollution that has harmful impacts on wildlife and human health.
Aquatic ecosystems—streams, rivers, wetlands, and estuaries—are under considerable pressure from human activities, including incorrect disposal of trash. While the world's oceans are vast, they do not have an infinite ability to safely absorb our wastes. Preserving and restoring the quality of freshwater and marine environments requires that we understand how much trash we create, what we do with that trash, and how we can prevent it from entering our waterways.
Impacts on Aquatic Habitat
Habitat destruction or harm is caused when submerged debris (for example, a piece of plastic sheeting) covers seagrass beds, or smothers bottom-dwelling species. Some debris can also cause physical damage.
Impacts on Water Quality
Debris can also affect the water quality by adding chemicals to the water. Construction waste illegally dumped in a stream can include buckets that once held paints, solvents, and other chemicals. Cigarette butts and some other littered items contain toxic chemicals that leach into the water.
Learn more about marine debris and how we can prevent it!
Clean Virginia Waterways, together with Boat U.S. Foundation, created this sign that reminds boaters and anglers to "Bring it Back." The signs are laminated for outdoor use. They measure 8" x 8" and have English on one side, and Spanish on the other.
If you know of a marina or boat dock in Virginia that could use a sign, please contact CVW at firstname.lastname@example.org or call 434-395-2602.
Free while supplies last.
About Litter and Debris:
Cigarette Butt Litter—A Special Problem
Article about Aquatic Litter and Debris (written by CVW for school teachers and others)
Litter and Debris in our Waterways - Impacts, Sources and Solutions Page
What Volunteers Found in Virginia's Waterways--Data from past International Coastal Cleanups
How Data from the ICC are used
The International Coastal Cleanup in Virginia
Teacher Professional Development
Course for Middle School Teachers: Summer of 2013
SOLstice: Summer of Learning – Science Teachers Investigating the Chesapeake Environment. This unique and exciting Chesapeake Bay Academy will bring together university faculty, practicing middle-school teachers, and pre-service middle school science teachers to work collaboratively as “teacher-researchers.” Taught by Longwood University faculty in conjunction with Clean Virginia Waterways, Longwood University's Hull Springs Farm and other partners.
Clean Virginia Waterways' other spring and summer workshops for teachers are now being planned. Please send us an email email@example.com if you are interested in being notified!
Virginia's Water Resources—A tool for Teachers curriculum packet
Virginia-specific! This book is full of information and activities for teachers to support interdisciplinary and problem-based teaching about watersheds, water quality, stewardship, and management issues. It supports the Chesapeake 2000 Agreement's goal to "provide a meaningful Bay or stream outdoor experience for every school student in the watershed before graduation from high school."
Virginia's Water Resources—A Tool for Teachers was written by Jeremy M. Lloyd, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Science Education, Longwood University, and Kathleen M. Register, Executive Director of Clean Virginia Waterways. It was developed through a grant from the Virginia Environmental Endowment. Click here for the Table of Contents and PDF files you can print.
World Water Monitoring Day—Virginia-specific guide for educators
The World Water Monitoring Day is an international education and outreach program that builds public awareness and involvement in protecting water resources around the world by engaging citizens to conduct basic monitoring of their local water bodies. Participants sample local water bodies for a core set of water quality parameters including temperature, acidity (pH), clarity (turbidity) and dissolved oxygen (DO). Results are shared with participating communities around the globe through the WWMD website: http://www.worldwatermonitoringday.org/
Clean Virginia Waterways worked with the Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay and the Virginia Water Monitoring Council to create this Virginia-specific guide for educators thanks to a grant from Altria. This on-line guide will help you plan a safe and educational World Water Monitoring Day event on your school grounds, or in a nearby park.
More resources for educators, including how to handle animals in your classroom.
Rain Barrels & Harvesting Rain Water
Clean Virginia Waterways is a leader in water conservation through the use of rain barrels. More than 160 nonprofit organizations and local governments have been trained by CVW to put on Rain Barrel Workshops in their communities. Tens of thousands rain barrels are deployed across Virginia thanks to CVW and its partners.
Conserve water, reduce runoff & save a bit of money
Drought or no drought, we should all conserve water. Virginia's groundwater and fresh water supplies are limited. As more people are using groundwater, we need to use it responsibly. Rainwater is usually free of dissolved minerals and great for your indoor plants, garden and lawn, washing your car, and your birdbaths.
If your roof's area is 1,200 square feet (30 x 40 feet), then 1 inch of rain equals more than 700 gallons! Harvest this rainwater which otherwise would be lost to runoff. To harvest even more rainwater, connect several barrels in a series and have 100s of gallons of water capacity.
Runoff can cause erosion, plus carry fertilizers, pesticides and other chemicals into streams where they are very damaging. Rain barrels help you manage peak storm runoff. If you get your water from the town, why pay to water your gardens when you can collect hundreds of gallons at no cost? Also, if you depend on electricity to run your well pump, water in rain barrels is handy in power outages.
Rain Barrel Workshops
Every spring, CVW works with partners across the state in offering rain barrel workshops. Workshops cover water conservation, how to prevent polluted runoff, the benefits of rain barrels, how to install and maintain a rain barrel, and how to prevent mosquitoes from breeding. Send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org to learn about upcoming workshops. Please put "Rain Barrel Workshop" in the subject line.
Would your organization or park like to co-sponsor a Rain Barrel Workshop with CVW? Call CVW at 434-395-2602 to learn more about workshops and supplies for workshops (barrels, faucet kits, etc.).
How to make a rain barrel from a food-grade barrel: Directions here
Virginia Waterways Cleanup
Part of the International Coastal Cleanup
September 1 through October 31 annually
Sites for the 2014 Virginia Waterways Cleanups (September and October) will soon be registering volunteers! It is as easy as 1, 2, 3!
1. Find a cleanup site near you. (2014 cleanup sites will be posted later this summer)
2. Contact the Site Captain to register and get details on where to meet.
3. Show up, cleanup & fill out a data card! Bring some friends & family members too! Your actions = cleaner water!
This annual cleanup of trash and litter in our rivers and on our beaches is part of the International Coastal Cleanup and is the largest event held by Clean Virginia Waterways.
Thousands of volunteers gather along the shorelines of Virginia’s rivers, lakes, bays, and beaches in September and October to cleanup litter and debris, and recycle found items. They also complete Data Cards, supplied by Ocean Conservancy, to collect valuable information about the amounts and types of litter and debris. Please participate in this statewide and international effort dedicated to cleaning the world’s waterways.
If you would like to be a LEADER of a cleanup, please signup to be a Site Captain or call Clean Virginia Waterways at 434-395-2602, or send an email to email@example.com
Cigarette butts as litter
Clean Virginia Waterways was a pioneer in researching cigarette butt litter -- the most common type of litter in Virginia, in the U.S.A. and in the world according to data collected by International Coastal Cleanup Volunteers.
Learn all about cigarette butt litter, and the simple steps that we can take to reduce this form of litter.
VIRGINIA WATERWAYS CLEANUP
BALLOONS AS LITTER
CIGARETTE BUTTS AS LITTER
Balloons as litter: a problem we can solve
Balloons become litter when released into the air. Guess you can say there is a "down side" to balloons.
Help us collect information about balloons as litter!
Citizen scientists are being asked to help collect data about balloons found in Virginia between April 22, 2012 and April 22, 2014. This "Earth Day to Earth Day" study is co-sponsored by Clean Virginia Waterways and the Virginia Aquarium and Marine Science Center. Learn More about this ground-breaking study, or click here if you are ready to enter data about balloons you have found.
What goes up must come down! Balloons return to the land and sea where they can be mistaken for prey and eaten by animals. Balloons are hazards when they enter the aquatic environment because they can look a great deal like jellyfish—a major source of food for many animals. Sea turtles, dolphins, whales, fish, and seabirds have been reported with balloons in their stomachs. In 1985, an infant sperm whale was found dead of starvation as a result of ingestion of an inflated Mylar balloon which had lodged in its intestines. Ribbons and strings tied to balloons can lead to entanglement.
Instead of balloon releases...
- Plant a tree or flowering bush.
- Create a wildlife garden that will attract butterflies and birds.
- Blow bubbles.
- DROP balloons (non-helium filled) from a tall building. Watch people have fun kicking and playing with the balloons. Then, pop them and dispose of correctly.
- Release balloons INSIDE a church, gym or ballroom.
- Memorial service -- Give everyone a balloon and a sewing pin, and tell them to make a wish for their loved one. On the count of three -- everyone bursts their balloons, sending wishes to heaven.
- Cancer-free celebrations -- Give everyone a balloon, a pin and a marking pen. Tell them to write on the balloon the number of years they have been cancer-free. On the count of three -- everyone bursts their balloons. Messages on small pieces of paper can be inserted into each balloon with an inspirational message. After the fun, dispose of the trash correctly.
- Outdoor sporting events -- use bands, lights, banners, singers, crowd give-a-ways (towels, noise makers, etc.) to build excitement, but don't release balloons!
- Donate books to a local library, food to a local food bank, or pet food to a local animal shelter to celebrate your group's achievement or to honor a loved one.
We can celebrate with balloons! Just don't let them go!
Learn more about the impacts of balloon litter...and the solutions!