FOUNDATIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT
Dr. J. Charles Blauvelt
Office: 106 Willet Hall
Office telephone: (434) 395-2544
Office telephone: (434) 395-2533
Home telephone: (434) 392-9484
Office hours: By appointment (summer only)
hours: MTWR 2:00-4:30 PM
Room: Willet 103
COURSE DESCRIPTION: Survey of the historical/philosophical bases of health and physical education. (writing intensive course).
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American
(6th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.
Coakley, J. (2009). Sport and Society: Issues & controversies (10th. ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Mechikoff, R. & Estes, S. (2010). A history and philosophy of sport and physical education: From ancient civilization to the
modern world (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Throughout the semester various themes will be discussed. These themes relate to many of the content areas and will be examined repeatedly in each of the content areas and in many of the specific objectives. Students should keep these themes in mind and strive to understand how the themes are developed in each area of content and/or specific objective.
* Physical activity and sport are ancient.
* Physical activity and sport are essential, not peripheral, to human existence.
* Sport is a social institution and thus does not stand isolated. It necessarily influences and is influenced by other social institutions.
* Sport and physical activity mean many different things to many different people.
* Each of us, as professionals in fields relating to sport and physical activity participates actively in defining the meaning of sport and physical activity in our particular setting.
* The professions related to kinesiology and sport have always faced and continue to face many challenges to their very existence. We, as professionals, are obligated to work toward overcoming these challenges.
At the completion of the course the students will be able to:
General intellectual Skills
1. accumulate and examine information in an appropriate manner.
2. reconfigure, think about and draw conclusions from that information.
3. present clearly those conclusions and the information and reasoning on which they are based, both orally and through
various forms of writing.
4. use the APA format in preparing formal written papers.
5 locate and use scholarly journals from the field of physical education and sport.
6. locate, analyze, and use electronic resources of scholarly value.
Defining Physical Education, Kinesiology and Sport
identify and explain various definitions of the term
8. discuss the public image of physical education and sport, explain the factors that have contributed to the development of this image, and suggest methods for advocating for a positive public image of sport and physical education.
9. explain what is meant by the phrases "education of the physical" and "education through the physical".
10. identify commonly proposed objectives for physical education for each of the cognitive, affective, and psycho-motor domains.
11. identify and discuss current definitions of what it means to be a physically educated person.
12. discuss the relationship among physical education, health, dance, and recreation.
13. identify and discuss various definitions of sport, games, play and explain differences and similarities among these concepts.
14. reflect on and articulate personal experiences in physical education and sport and explain how these experiences have influenced their own desire to be a professional in this field.
Historical Bases of Physical Education and Sport
15. discuss and explain the purposes of studying history, and in
particular sport history.
16. identify and explain the definitions, methods, and sources used by sport historians.
17. define the perspectives of modernization, urbanization and industrialization, and metaphysics and give examples of their use in the study of sport history.
18. identify the activities and characteristics of physical education and sport in selected periods and societies throughout history.
19. explain how conditions and developments in sport and physical education in previous periods of history have influenced or are related to the current status of sport and physical education.
20. identify selected important persons and their contributions which have had a significant influence on the development of modern sport and physical education.
21. discuss how sport is influenced by the increasingly multicultural society found today in the U.S.A.
22. identify traditional sports and activities as well as current trends in physical education and sport in countries outside the USA.
23. describe the origins and characteristics of the ancient Olympic Games.
24. describe the origins and characteristics of the modern Olympic Games.
25. identify and describe significant social and political issues relating to the modern Olympic Games.
Philosophical Bases of Sport and Physical Education
26. identify the branches of philosophy and the types of
questions explored by each.
27. Define the concepts of dualism and monism and how they approach the mind/body relationship
Sociological Issues in Physical Education
define sport sociology, explain its purposes, and
offer arguments which demonstrate its importance.
29.. cite examples which demonstrate the significance and ubiquity of sport in our society.
30. discuss the relationship between different social institutions and conditions (including politics, religion and ritual, socio-economic status, the military, and systems of formal education) and sport and physical education.
31. identify some of the relevant issues confronting physical education and sport today.
32. develop and competently defend one's own position on at least one of these issues.
Pre-Introduction: Playing, Exploring, Questioning, Changing
II. Introduction: Policies and Procedures
III. General Intellectual Skills
C. Finding and using resources
1. The library
2. Traditional search methods
3. Electronic resources
a. using search engines
b. evaluating web-based sources
D . Formal writing
1. The writing process
2. APA format
a. citing sources
b. reference list
E. Informal writing
IV.. Defining the Field of Physical Education
A. Purposes and objectives
B. The physically educated person
C. The public image of physical education
D. Allied areas
E. Play, sport, and games
V. Historical Bases
A. The Field of Sport History
1. Definition and purposes
2. Methods, concepts, and sources
B.. Primitive societies
1. physical survival
2. social survival - ritual
C. Ancient cultures
a. philosophy, physical education & sport
d. the Olympics
D. Medieval Europe
E. Renaissance and the Reformation
F. Seventeenth century Europe
G. The Age of Science and the Enlightenment
H. Nineteenth century Europe
I. Colonial America
J. Nineteenth century America
K. Twentieth century
L. Mid twentieth century
VI. Modern Olympics
VII. International and Multicultural Issues in Physical Education and Sport
VII. Philosophic Bases
A. Definition and purposes of philosophy
B. Branches of philosophy
C. Philosophy of sport
D. Ethical issues in sport and physical education
VIII. Sociological Issues in Physical Education and Sport
A. Definitions, purposes, and importance of sport sociology
B. Role of sport in society
C. Sport and other social institutions
D.. Current issues in sport and society
2. Youth sports
4. Race and ethnicity
6. High school and collegiate sports
TENTATIVE CLASS SCHEDULE:
MAY 17 Establish course structure, plan logistics
Syllabus: general info only
Description of writing intensive course
Term Paper Assignment
Movie review assignment
Article review assignment
Pre-introduction: Playing, exploring, questioning, changing
Cultural literacy assignment
18 Pre-introduction (contd)
Cultural Literacy assignment (contd)
Syllabus: All information
General Intellectual Skills
Defining physical education and sport: Personal meanings and traditional perspectives
19 Defining physical education and sport
DUE: Cultural Literacy assignment
Introduction to sport sociology
Introduction to sport history
Issues: Religion and Sport
History: Ancient civilizations
History: Ancient Civilizations/Greece & Rome
25 History: Greece & Rome – video and
26 EXAM 1
DUE: Annotated Bibliography
Issues: Socialization & Youth Sport
31 NO CLASS: MEMORIAL DAY
JUN 1 History: Middle Ages, Renaissance, Reformation
History: Age of
Enlightenment & 19th Century Europe
2 History: Development of American Physical Education: 1885-1900/1900-1930
Issues: Sports in High School &
3 History: Colonial America & 19th Century
7 Issues: Race and Ethnicity and Sport
Issues: Gender and Sport
DUE: Movie Review
8 History: Modern Olympics
9 Prep for Exam
10 FINAL EXAM
DUE: Term Paper
Term paper outline
Cultural literacy assignment
Book report/Movie Review/Article review
events article presentation
DESCRIPTION OF ASSIGNMENTS
For a detailed description of course assignments, please refer to the document entitled "Description of Course Assignments" accessible on the instructor's website.
Exam # 2 25
Term Paper 30
final draft (20)
Book Report/Movie Review/Article reviews 10
Cultural literacy assignment 5
Current events article presentation 5
B 80- 89
C 70- 79
D 60- 69
F Below 60
The Longwood attendance policy will be enforced in this class. If a student misses 10% or more of the scheduled classes due to unexcused absences, the final earned grade will be lowered on letter grade. If the student misses 25% or more of the scheduled classes for any reason (excused and unexcused) a final grade of “F” will be assigned.
In addition to the above attendance policy, 5% of the final grade will be based on attendance. The student will lose 1 point for each unexcused absence, up to 5 pts.
Academic integrity is the cornerstone of the university. As such, students are expected to comply with all requirements of the Longwood College Honor Code. Since this is a writing intensive course, students should take special care in the area of plagiarism. For guidance in this area, please refer to the Avoiding Plagiarism pamphlet published by the Office of Honor and Judicial Programs. In addition, the APA Publication Manual provides extensive information about how to avoid plagiarism. Students suspected of violating the Honor Code will be reported to the Honor Board.
In addition, since the Longwood attendance policy is enforced in this class, there is a difference between excused and unexcused classes. Student honesty in reporting excused absences is expected. Any dishonesty in reporting absences will be considered an honor code violation.
References required of all students:
Deford, F. (1989, Feb. 6). Of Billie Jean and 73-0. Sports Illustrated, p. 70.
Helion, J. (2009). Professional responsibility. JOPERD, 80(6), 5-6, 62.
Leonard, G. (1977). The Ultimate Athlete. (pp. 4-6, 21, 267). New York: Avon.
National Association for Sport and Physical Education. (1995). Moving
into the future: National standards for
physical education: A guide to content and assessment. (pp. 1-4).
__________________________________________.(2006) Top 10 ways physical education teachers and sport professionals can be better advocates. Strategies, 20(1), 20.
Rhea, D. (2009). The physical education deficit in the high schools. JOPERD, 80(5), 3-5,9.
Wikgren, S. (1996). The necessity of defining physical education. JOPERD, 67(6), 12.
Defining physical education and sport
American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. (2009) Should "exergaming", or interactive video technology, be included in physical education? JOPERD,
American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. (2008) Should any form of extreme sport or extreme dance be included in the curriculum? JOPERD, 79(2), 9-10.
Cavallini, M.F. (2006). Who needs philosophy in physical education? JOPERD, 77(8), 28-30.
Connor, B. (2009). What is a physical educator? JOPERD, 80(2), 6-7.
Doolittle, S. (2007). Is the extinction of high school physical education inevitable? JOPERD, 78(4), 7-9.
Intrator, S. & Siegel, D. (2008). Project coach: Youth development and academic achievement through sport. JOPERD, 79(7), 17-23.
Lumpkin, A. (2007). Teachers as role models: Teaching character and moral virtues. JOPERD, 79(2), 45-49.
Mitchell, M. (2007). Choosing an active lifestyle. JOPERD, 78(4), 4-7, 56.
Morrow, J., Zhu, W., Franks, B.D., Meredith, M. & Spain. (2009). 1958-2008: 50 years of youth fitness tests in the United States. RQES, 80(1), 1-11.
Spencer, A. (1998). Physical educator: Role model or roll the ball out? JOPERD, 69(6), 58-63.
Athletes with Disabilities
AAHPERD. (2009). Should disability sports be included in the general physical education curriculum? JOPERD, 80(5), 13-14.
Lieberman, L. (2010). The status of physical education for children with disabilities in the United States. JOPERD, 81(4), 3,4.
Lieberman, L.; Lytle, R.; & Clarcq, J. (2008). Getting it right from the start: Employing the universal design for learning approach to your curriculum.[inclusion]. JOPERD, 79(2), 32-
Petersen, J. & Ivan, E. (2007). Reasonable accommodation in competitive sport. JOPERD, 78(5), 9-10.
Class and Sport
Swanson, L. (2009). Complicating the “Soccer Mom:” The cultural politics of forming class-based identity, distinction, and necessity. RQES, 80, 345-354.
Drugs and Sport
Ivan, E. & Jutte, L. (2009). (Un)reasonable search in high school athletics. JOPERD, 80(2),8-9.
Martin, N. (2007). Drug testing in interscholastic athletics. JOPERD, 78(3), 8-9.
Ransdell, L.; Hildebrand, K.; Spear, C.; & Lucas, S. (2007). Higher, faster, stronger, drunker: The need for effective strategies to prevent alcohol abuse among female athletes.
JOPERD, 78(3), 5-7, 11.
Education and Sport
Batista, P. (2007). Free speech or illegal recruiting? JOPERD, 78(9), 7-8,12.
Harrison, C.K.; Comeaus; & Plecha, M. (2006). Faculty and male football and basketball players on university campuses: An empirical investigation of the intellectual as mentor to
the student athlete. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 77(2), 277-284.
Sawyer, T. (2009). Do students have the right to participate in interscholastic sports? JOPERD, 80(7), 10-11.
Film and Sport
Lee, O.; Ravissa, D. & Lee, M. (2009). Lights, camera, action: Facilitating PETE student’s reflection through film. JOPERD, 80(7), 36-41.
Nelson, T.; LaBrie, R; LaPlante, D.; Stanton, M.; Shaffer, H. & Wechsler, H. (2007). Sports betting and other gambling in athletes, fans, and other college students. RQES, 78(4), 271- 283.
General Intellectual Skills
Strean, W. (1997). Ideology critique: Improving instruction by thinking about your thinking. JOPERD, 68(4), 53-56.
History of sport
Mandell, R. (1984). Sport: A cultural history. New York: Columbia University Press.
National Endowment for the Humanties & Mint Museum for Art. (n.d.) The sport of life and death: The Mesoamerican ballgame. THE MESOAMERICAN BALLGAME
Multi-cultural and International Sport
American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. (2008) Should any form of extreme sport or extreme dance be included in the curriculum? JOPERD, 79(2), 9-10.
Bian, W.; Wang, J. & McKinley, B. (2009). Integrating multicultural education: Activities to celebrate the Chinese New Year. JOPERD, 80(5), 40-46.
Berrigan, D.; Dodd, K.; Troiano, R.; Reeve, B.; & Ballard-Barbash, R. (2006). Physical activity and acculturation among adult Hispanics in the United States. Research Quarterly for
Exercise and Sport, 77(2), 147-157.
Chunlei, Lu. (2008). How to integrate Tai Ji Quan into physical education programs. (2008). JOPERD, 79(2), 20-25.
Carr, T. (2001). Games from long ago and far away. West Nyack, NY: Parker.
Clancy, M; Portman, P.; & Bowersock. (2007). Successfully integrating novel games into the curriculum: Netball for all. Strategies, 20(6), 11-16.
Crabtree, K. (feature editor), (2009). The Native American dance legacy. (special feature). JOPERD, 80(6), 13-30.
Cronin, M. (1999). Sport and nationalism in Ireland: Gaelic games,
soccer and Irish identity since 1884. Dublin, Ireland:
Four Courts Press.
Giulianotti, R. (1999). Football: A sociology of the global game. Padstow, Cornwall, UK: Polity Press.
Healy, P. (1998). Gaelic games and the Gaelic Athletic Association. Cork, Ireland: Mercier Press.
Johnson, T.; Kulinna, P.; Darst, P. & Pangrazi, R. (2007). School day physical activity patterns of Pima Indian children in two communities. RQES, 78(4), 364-368.
Kahan, D. (2009). Quantitiy, type, and correlates of physical activity among American Middle Eastern university students. RQES, 80(3), 412-424.
Koval, B. (2007). That team sport called ballroom dance. JOPERD, 78(9), 5-6.
Levy, F.; Ranjbar, A. & Hearn Dean, C. (2006). Dance movement as a way to help children affected by war. JOPERD, 77(5), 5-9, 12.
Lieberman, L.; Columna, L.; Martinez, P. & Taylor, C. (2010). Infusing sign language and Spanish into physical education. JOPERD, 81(4), 45-49.
Mittlestaedt, R.; Hianton, J.; Rana, S.; Cade, D.; & Xue, S. (2005). Qigong and the older adult: an exercise to improve health and vitality. JOPERD 76(4), 36-44.
Murgia, C. & McCullick (feature eds.) (2009) NASPE Symposium: Engaging urban youth in physical education and physical activity. JOPERD 80(8), 25-45.
Ninham, D. (2002). The games of life: Integrating multicultural games in physical education. JOPERD, 73(2), 12-14.
Perlman, D. & Goc Karp, G. (2006). Celtic throwing games for physical education. Strategies, 20(2), 29-34.
Rattigan, P.; Hickson, C.; & Blair, P. (January/February 2009). National approaches to physical education curriculum and instruction: A brief comparison between New Zealand
and Scotland. UpdatePlus, 5, 28.
Smith, Nina & Owens, A. (2000). Multicultural games: Embracing technology and
Strategies, 13(5), 18-21.
Spaulding, C.; Gottlieb, N. & Jensen, J. (2008) Promoting physical activity in low-income preschool children children. JOPERD, 79(5), 42-46.
Tritschler, K. (2008). Cultural competence: a 21st-century leadership skill. JOPERD, 79(1), 7-8.
Ward, S. (2007). Why we all should learn to dance: Reflecting on the African cultural Heritage. JOPERD, 78(5), 3-5, 47-48.
Williams, E; Fomar, J; & Hartman, M. (2010) Britsih and Finnish baseball: International variations on an American pastime. Strategies, 23(3), 24-27.
Older Adults and Sport
Termethick, M.J.; Hogan, P.; Coleman, B. & Adams, K. (2010). Understanding arthritis: Promoting healthy lifestyles for older adults. JOPERD, 81(4), 34-37.
Bachrach, S. (2000). The Nazi Olympics: Berlin 1936. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Washington, D.C.
S. (1996). The games of '36: A pictorial history of
the 1936 Olympics in Germany. Missoula, MN: Pictorial
Crane, G. (Ed.) (2003). The Perseus project. Retrieved January 22 from Tufts University Web site: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/Olympics/
Philosophy of sport
Drewe, S.B. (2003). Why sport? An introduction to the philosophy of sport. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing.
Estes, S. & Mechicoff, R. (1999). Knowing human movement. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Kretchmar, R.S. (2005). Practical philosophy of sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Lumpkin, A. & Cuneen. (2001) Developing a personal philosophy of sport. JOPERD, 72(8), 40-43.
Shields, D. & Bredemeier, B. (1995). Character development and physical activity. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Race and Ethnicity and Sport
Bruening, J.; Armstrong, K.; & Pastore, D. (2005). Listening to the voices: The experiences of African American female student athletes. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,
Bruening, J.; Dover, K. & Clark, B. (2009). Preadolescent female development through sport and physical activity: A case study of an urban after-school program. RQES, 80(1), 87-101.
Brooks, D. & Althouse,
R. (Eds.). (2000).
Racism in college athletics. (2nd ed.).
Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information
Eichner, E.R. (2006). Sickle cell trait and the athlete. Sports Science Exchange, 19(4), 1-5.
McCaughtry, N., Barnard, J., Shen, B. & Hodges, P. (2006). Teachers' perspectives on the challenges of teaching physical education in urban schools: The student emotional filter.
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 77(4), 486-497.
Meaney, K., Hart, M, & Griffin, K. (2009). Fun & fit, phase I: A program for overweight African American and Hispanic American children from low-income families. JOPERD,
Singer, J. (2009). African-American footbal athletes' perspectives on institutional integrity in college sport. RQES, 80(1), 102-116.
Ward, S. (2008). African-centered dance: An intervention tool in HIV/AIDS prevention. JOPERD, 79(7), 4-5.
Socialization and Sport
Breuer, C. & Wicker, P. (2009). Decreasing sports activity with inceasing age? Findings from a 20-year longitudinal and cohort sequence analysis. RQES, 80(1) 22-31.
Sociology of Sport
Egendorf, L. (Ed.). (1999). Sports and athletes: Opposing viewpoints. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven.
Yiannakis, A & Melnick, J. (Eds.). (2001). Contemporary issues in sociology of sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Violence and sport
Pittman, A. (2005). Fighting in sports: Criminal or not? JOPERD, 76(4), 10-11, 15.
Staffo, D. (2001). Strategies for reducing criminal violence among athletes. JOPERD, 72(6), 38-42.
Waldron, J. & Kowalski, C. (2009) Crossing the lines: Rites of passage, team aspects, & ambiguity of hazing. RQES, 80, 291-302.
Young, S. & Lawson-Lloyd, M. (2007). Beanballs - An inherent risk in baseball. JOPERD, 78(4), 10-11, 15.
Women in sport /Gender Issues
Acosta, R.V. & carpenter, L.J. (1997). Courtside: Seven questions regarding Title IX. Strategies, 11(1), 31-33.
Barber, H. & Krane, V. (2007). Creating a positive climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youths. JOPERD, 78(7),6-7.
Blinde, E & McCallister, S. (2003). Observations in the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum: Doing gender in Cooperstown. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,
74(3) , 301-312.
Capranica, L., Tessitore, A., D'Artibale, E., Cortis, C., Casella, R. Camilleri, E, & Pesce, C. (2008). Italian women's television coverage and audience during the 2004 Athens Olympic
games. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,79(1), 101-115.
Capranica, L.; Minganti, C.; Billat, V.; Hanghoj, S.; Piacentini, M.; Cumps, E.; & Meeusen, R. (2005). Newspaper coverage of women's sports during the 2000 Sydney Olympic
Games: Belgium, Denmark, France, and Italy. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 76(2), 212-223.
Carpenter, L.J. (1998). Courtside: The United States Supreme Court and
Clarification of issues. Strategies, 12(2), 8-10.
Constantinou, P. (2008). Heightening our awareness of gender stereotypes. Strategies, 21(3), 28-34.
K. (2000). Sexual harassment prevention training for
coaches and athletes.
Strategies, 13(6), 19-23.
J. (1998). Female athletes and the media: Strides and stalemates. JOPERD,
Griffin, P. (1998). Strong women, deep closets: Lesbians and homophobia in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Hannon, J. & Williams, S. (2008). Should secondary physical education be codeucational or single-sex? JOPERD, 79(2), 6-8.
Hultstrand, B. (1993). The growth of collegiate women's sports:: The 1960's. JOPERD, 64(3), 41-43.
Johnson, J. & Holman, M. (2009). Gender and hazing: The same but different. JOPERD, 80(5), 6-9.
Krane, V. & Barber, H. (2005), Identity tensions in lesbian intercollegiate coaches. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 76(1), 67-81.
Ladda, S. (2009). The National Association for Girls and Women in Sport: 110 years of promoting social justice and change. JOPERD, 80(7), 48-51.
Masengale, D. & Lough, N. (2010). Women leaders in sport: Where’s the gender equity? JOPERD, 81(4), 6-8.
Miner, M.J. (1993). Women in sport: A reflection of the greater society? JOPERD. 64(3), 44-48.
Motley, M. & LaVine, M. (2001). Century marathon: A race for equality in girls' and women's sports. JOPERD, 72(6), 56-59.
C. (1993). Changed times or different times: What's happening with
ways" of sport? JOPERD, 64(3), 60-62.
Park, R. & Hult, J.
(1993). Women as
leaders in physical education and school-based
sports, 1865 to the 1930's. JOPERD, 64(3), 35-40.
Pittman, A. (2007a). Sport scheduling and Title IX compliance. JOPERD, 78(7), 8-9.
Pittman, A. (2007b). Title IX: Red-carding a coach. JOPERD, 78(6), 8-9.
Ransdell, L.; Hildebrand, K.; Spear, C.; & Lucas, S. (2007). Higher, faster, stronger, drunker: The need for effective strategies to prevent alcohol abuse among female athletes. JOPERD,
78(3), 5-7, 11.
Schaefer, G. (2008). Mismatch, sovereign immunity, and negligence [the use of male practice players for female basketball teams and liability issues]. JOPERD, 79(2), 11-12.
Shimon, J. (2007). Activity choice and Title IX. JOPERD, 78(9), 3-4,12.
Waldron, J. (2007). Looking at the past to understand the present: Women and sport. JOPERD, 78(3), 3-4, 9.
White, E. & Sheets, C. (2001). If you let them play, they will... JOPERD, 72(4), 27-28, 33.
J. (1995). Title IX and sexual harassment of student athletes. JOPERD, 66(3),
Young, S.; Deaner, H. & Marks, D. (2006). Girls on your wrestling team: Coaches get ready. Strategies, 19(6), 33-36.
Bach, G. (2006). The parents association for youth sports: a proactive method of spectator behavior management. JOPERD, 77(6), 16-19.
Burton, L. (2008). Rethinking a commitment to Olympic sports for girls. JOPERD, 79(9), 5-6.
Ellis, G. (2006). Introduction: Sportsmanship in youth sports. JOPERD, 77(6), 15,19.
Farrey, T. (2008). Game On: The All-American race to make champions of our children. ESPN Books.
Goldstein, J & Iso-Ahola, S. (2006). Promoting sportsmanship in Youth sports: Perspectives from sport psychology. JOPERD, 77(7), 18-24.
Hensch, L. (2006). Specialization or diversification in youth sport? Strategies, 19(5), 21-27.
National Association for Sport and Physical Education Staff (Eds.) Ideas exchange: What are the advantages and/or disadvantages to specializing in one sport at an early age?
Strategies, 19(6), 5-6.
Raakman, E. (2006). Justplay: A revolutionary approach to youth sport administration and sportsmanship. JOPERD, 77(6), 20-24.
Weiss, M. (2008). Field of dreams: Sport as a context for youth development. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 79(4), 434-449.
Wells, M.; Ruddell, E.;
& Paisley, K. (2006). Creating an environment for sportsmanship outcomes: A systems
perspective. JOPERD, 77(7), 13-17.