KINS 275-01 .
FALL  2011 


Instructor: Dr. J. Charles Blauvelt
Office: 106 Willet Hall
Office telephone: (434) 395-2544

HRK Office telephone: (434) 395-2533
Home telephone: (434) 392-9484
Office hours: MWF 9:00 AM - 10:00 AM

                            TR   2:00 PM - 3:00 PM
Course hours:  TR 8:00-9:15 AM
Room:  Willet 208


COURSE DESCRIPTION: Survey of the historical/philosophical bases of health and physical education. (writing intensive course).



American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association
       (6th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.


Mechikoff, R. & Estes, S. (2010).  A history and philosophy of sport and physical education: From ancient civilization to the          

     modern world (5th ed.).  New York: McGraw-Hill.




Throughout the semester various themes will be discussed. These themes relate to many of the content areas and will be examined repeatedly in each of the content areas and in many of the specific objectives. Students should keep these themes in mind and strive to understand how the themes are developed in each area of content and/or specific objective.

* Physical activity and sport are ancient.

* Physical activity and sport are essential, not peripheral, to human existence.

* Sport is a social institution and thus does not stand isolated. It necessarily influences and is influenced by other social institutions.  

* Sport and physical activity mean many different things to many different people.

* Each of us, as professionals in fields relating to sport and physical activity participates actively in defining the meaning of sport and physical activity in our particular setting.

* The professions related to kinesiology and sport have always faced and continue to face many challenges to their very existence. We, as professionals, are obligated to work toward overcoming these challenges.




 At the completion of the course the students will be able to:

Writing in an Academic Setting

1. locate, analyze, and use sources of scholarly value accumulate and examine information in an appropriate manner.
2. reconfigure, think about and draw conclusions from that information.
3. present clearly those conclusions and the information and reasoning on which they are based, both orally and through
    various forms of writing.
4. use the APA format in preparing formal written papers.
5. understand the concept of plagiarism and prepare papers without plagiarizing.  

Defining Physical Education, Kinesiology and Sport

7.  identify and explain various definitions of the term "physical education"
8.  discuss the public image of physical education and sport,  explain the factors that have contributed to  the development of this  image, and suggest methods for advocating for a positive public image of sport and physical education.
9. explain what is meant by the phrases "education of the physical" and "education through the physical".
10. identify commonly proposed objectives for physical education for each of the cognitive, affective, and psycho-motor  domains.
11. identify and discuss current definitions of what it means to be a physically educated person.
12. discuss the relationship among physical education, health, dance, and recreation.
13. identify and discuss various definitions of sport, games, play and explain differences and similarities among these  concepts.
14. reflect on and articulate personal experiences in physical education and sport and explain how these experiences have  influenced their own desire to be a professional in this field.

Historical Bases of Physical Education and Sport

15. discuss and explain the purposes of studying history, and in particular sport history.
16.  identify and explain the definitions, methods, and sources used by sport historians.
17.  define the perspectives of modernization, urbanization and industrialization, and metaphysics and give examples of their use in the study of sport history.
18. identify the activities and characteristics of physical education and sport in selected periods and societies throughout  history.
19. explain how conditions and developments in sport and physical education in previous periods of history have influenced or are related to the current status of sport and physical education.
20. identify selected important persons and their contributions which have had a significant influence on the development of modern sport and physical education.
21. discuss how sport is influenced by the increasingly multicultural society found today in the U.S.A.
22. identify traditional sports and activities as well as current  trends in physical education and sport  in countries outside the USA.
23. describe the origins and characteristics of the ancient Olympic Games.
24. describe the origins and characteristics of the modern Olympic Games.
25. identify and describe significant social and political issues relating to the modern Olympic Games.

Philosophical Bases of Sport and Physical Education

26. identify the branches of philosophy and the types of questions explored by each.
27. Define the concepts of dualism and monism and how they approach the mind/body relationship

Sociological Issues in Physical Education

28.  define sport sociology, explain its purposes, and offer arguments which demonstrate its importance.
29.. cite examples which demonstrate the significance and ubiquity of sport in our society.
30. discuss the relationship between different social institutions and conditions (including politics, religion and ritual, socio-economic status, the military, and systems of formal education) and sport and physical education.
31. identify some of the relevant issues confronting physical education and sport today.
32. develop and competently defend one's own position on at least two of these issues.



I.    Pre-Introduction: Playing, Exploring, Questioning, Changing
II.   Introduction: Policies and Procedures
III.  Writing in an Academic Setting
       A. General considerations
       B. Finding and using resources
       C . Formal writing
            1.  The writing process
            2.  APA format
                 a.  citing sources
                 b. reference list
                c.  plagiarism
       D.  Informal writing
IV.. Defining the Field of Physical Education
      A. Purposes and objectives
      B. The physically educated person
      C. The public image of physical education
      D. Allied areas
      E. Play, sport, and games
V.  Historical Bases
      A. The Field of Sport History
           1.  Definition and purposes
           2.  Methods, concepts, and sources
           3. Perspectives
      B.. Primitive societies
           1. physical survival
           2. social survival - ritual
      C. Ancient cultures
           1. Sumer
           2. China
           3. Egypt

          4. Mesoamerica
          5.. Greece
               a. philosophy, physical education & sport
               b. Athens
               c. Sparta
               d. the Olympics
           7. Rome
      D.  Medieval Europe
      E.   Renaissance and the Reformation
      F.   Seventeenth century Europe
      G.   The Age of Science and the Enlightenment
      H.   Nineteenth century Europe
      I.    Colonial  America
      J.    Nineteenth century America
      K.   Twentieth century
      L.    Mid twentieth century
VI.  Modern Olympics
VII.   International and Multicultural Issues in Physical Education and Sport
VII.  Philosophic Bases
        A. Definition and purposes of philosophy
        B. Branches of philosophy
        C. Philosophy of sport
        D. Ethical issues in sport and physical education
VIII. Sociological Issues in Physical Education and Sport
         A. Definitions,  purposes, and importance of sport  sociology
         B. Role of sport in society
         C.  Sport and other social institutions 
         D.. Current issues in sport and society
              1. Socialization
              2.  Youth sports
              3.  Gender
              4.  Diversity
              5.  Politics
              6.  High school and collegiate sports
              7.   Religion
              8.  Others  



AUG  23    Pre-introduction: Playing, exploring, questioning, changing

                   ASSIGN: Cultural literacy in sport

           25    Pre-introduction: Wrap-up/Introduction: policies and procedures/description of assignments

                    DUE: Assignment: Cultural literacy in sport    
           30    Description of Assignments/Guidelines for Academic Writing
                   DUE: Readings: APA: Introduction, pp.3-7; Chapter 1 pp. 15-16;Chapter 3 pp. 70-77; Chapter 6 (all); Chapter 7 (all);              

SEP     1    General Intellectual Skills: Guest speaker: Liz Kocevar-Weidinger  on “The bibliographic search process”
            6    Defining physical education and sport: Personal meanings and traditional perspectives

                    DUE:  Assignment: "Personal reflections on sport and p.e" paper

                    DUE:  Readings: Mechikoff & Estes, 1-7
            8    Defining physical education and sport

          13     Defining physical education and sport
          15    Overview of sport sociology/Introduction to sport history           

                   DUE:  Readings: Mechikoff, Chapter 1

          20    History: Intro to Sport History/Ancient civilizations
                   DUE: Readings: Mechikoff, Chapter 2.

          22    Ancient Civilizations/Greece & Rome   

                   DUE:  Assignments: Annotated Bibliographies

         27     History: Greece & Rome
                   DUE: Readings: Mechikoff, Chapters 3 & 4;

         29    History:  Ancient Olympics - video   

OCT 4     History: Ancient Olympics/Greece & Rome

                 DUE: Assignments: Term paper outline

         6     EXAM 1

      11      NO CLASS – FALL BREAK

      13     Review Exam/Issues:  Issues: Religion & sport

      18     History:  Middle Ages, Renaissance, Reformation
                  DUE: Readings: Mechikoff, Chapters 5 & 6

      20     History:  Middle Ages, Renaissance, Reformation

                  DUE: Assignments: OPTIONAL - 1st Draft of Term Paper 

      25     Issues:   Socialization & Youth Sport

      27     Issues:  Sports in High School & College

NOV 1   History:  Age of Enlightenment & 19th Century Europe
                   DUE: Readings: Mechikoff, Chapters 7 pgs. 158-164 & 8 pgs. 176-189  

                   DUE: Assignment: Book Report/Movie Review/Article review   

        3    History:  Development of American Physical Education: 1885-1900/1900-1930

                   DUE:  Readings:  Mechikoff, Chapters 9 & 10    

          8     History:  Colonial America & 19th Century
                    DUE:  Readings: Mechikoff, Chapters 11 & 12
         10    History:  19th  Century American Sport (cont)

                   DUE: Assignment: Term Paper

        15     Issues:  Diversity and Sport
        17     Issues:  Gender and Sport

        22     History: Modern Olympics

                   DUE: Readings: Mechikoff, Chapters 13,14,15,16

        24      NO CLASS - Thanksgiving

 DEC 1     History: Modern Olympics (cont)

          5      Monday,  FINAL EXAM - 8-10:30 am

          9     Friday, 5 pm    Assignment: OPTIONAL: Rewrite of Term Paper



2 exams
Annotated bibliography
Term paper outline
Term paper
Cultural literacy assignment
Book report/Movie Review/Article review
Reflection paper




For a detailed description of course assignments, please refer to the document entitled "Description of Course Assignments" accessible on the instructor's website.



Exam # 1                                                                                  25
Exam # 2                                                                                  25
Term Paper                                                                               30
annotated bibliography(5)
outline (5)
final draft (20)
Book Report/Movie Review/Article reviews                       10
Reflection paper                                                                          6

Cultural literacy assignment                                                      4

 (Presentation of current issue, participation in university lectures and activities, and other selected assignments - extra credit - up to 4 pts.)


Grading Scale

       A+      98-100

       A        92-98

A-          90-91

B+      87- 89

B        82-86

B-          80-81

C+      77-79
C        72- 76

C-          70-71

D+      67-69

       62- 67

D-          60-61

F        Below 60



Grades will not be lowered due to a specific number of absences as permitted by College policy. However, Regular attendance and active participation is expected of all students.



Academic integrity is the cornerstone of the university.  As such, students are expected to comply with all requirements of the Longwood College Honor Code.  Since this is a writing intensive course, students should take special care in the area of plagiarism.  For guidance in this area, please refer to the Avoiding Plagiarism pamphlet published by the Office of Honor and Judicial Programs.  In addition, the APA Publication Manual provides extensive information about how to avoid plagiarism.  Students suspected of violating the Honor Code will be reported to the Honor Board.



   References required of all students:

Deford, F. (1989, Feb. 6). Of Billie Jean and 73-0. Sports Illustrated, p. 70.

Helion, J. (2009).  Professional responsibility.  JOPERD, 80(6), 5-6, 62.

Leonard, G. (1977). The Ultimate Athlete. (pp. 4-6, 21, 267). New York: Avon.

National Association for Sport and Physical Education. (1995). Moving into the future: National standards for
    physical education: A guide to content and assessment.  (pp. 1-4).

__________________________________________.(2006)  Top 10 ways physical education teachers and sport professionals can be better advocates. Strategies, 20(1), 20.

Rhea, D. (2009).  The physical education deficit in the high schools.  JOPERD, 80(5), 3-5,9.

Wikgren, S. (1996). The necessity of defining physical education. JOPERD, 67(6), 12.


   Other references:

   Defining physical education and sport

American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. (2009)  Should "exergaming", or interactive video technology, be included in physical education?  JOPERD,

        80(1), 11-13.

American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. (2008)  Should any form of extreme sport or extreme dance be included in the curriculum?  JOPERD, 79(2), 9-10.

Cavallini, M.F. (2006).  Who needs philosophy in physical education?  JOPERD, 77(8), 28-30.

Connor, B. (2009).  What is a physical educator? JOPERD, 80(2), 6-7.

 Doolittle, S. (2007).  Is the extinction of high school physical education inevitable?  JOPERD, 78(4), 7-9.

Intrator, S. & Siegel, D. (2008).  Project coach:  Youth development and academic achievement through sport.  JOPERD, 79(7), 17-23. 

Lumpkin, A. (2007).  Teachers as role models: Teaching character and moral virtues. JOPERD, 79(2), 45-49.

Mitchell, M. (2007). Choosing an active lifestyle.  JOPERD, 78(4), 4-7, 56.

Morrow, J., Zhu, W., Franks,  B.D., Meredith, M. & Spain. (2009).  1958-2008:  50 years of youth fitness tests in the United States.  RQES, 80(1), 1-11.


Art, Film, Literature.

Fingon, J. (2011).  Integrating children’s books and literacy into the physical education curriculum.  Strategies, 24(4), 10-13.

Lee, O.; Ravissa, D. & Lee, M. (2009).  Lights, camera, action: Facilitating PETE student’s reflection through film. JOPERD, 80(7), 36-41.


Athletes with Disabilities

AAHPERD. (2009).  Should disability sports be included in the general physical education curriculum?  JOPERD, 80(5), 13-14.

Jeong, M. & Block, M. (2011).  Physical education teachers’ beliefs and intentions toward teaching students with disabilities.  RQES, 82(2), 239-246.

Lieberman, L. (2010).  The status of physical education for children with disabilities in the United States.  JOPERD, 81(4), 3,4.

Lieberman, L.; Lytle, R.; & Clarcq, J. (2008).  Getting it right from the start: Employing the universal design for learning approach to your curriculum.[inclusion].  JOPERD, 79(2), 32-    


Petersen, J. & Ivan, E. (2007).  Reasonable accommodation in competitive sport.  JOPERD, 78(5), 9-10.


 Class and Sport

Martin, J.; McCaughtry, N.; Flory, S.; Murphy, A. & Wisdom, K. (2011).  Using social cognitive theory to predict physical activity and fitness in underserved middle school    

      children.  RQES, 82(2), 247-255.

Swanson, L. (2009). Complicating the “Soccer Mom:” The cultural politics of forming class-based identity, distinction, and necessity.  RQES, 80, 345-354.


Drugs and Sport

Ivan, E. & Jutte, L. (2009).  (Un)reasonable search in high school athletics.  JOPERD, 80(2),8-9.

Martin, N. (2007).  Drug testing in interscholastic athletics.  JOPERD, 78(3), 8-9.

Ransdell, L.; Hildebrand, K.; Spear, C.; & Lucas, S. (2007).  Higher, faster, stronger, drunker:  The need for effective strategies to prevent alcohol abuse among female athletes.

     JOPERD, 78(3), 5-7, 11.


   Education and Sport

Batista, P. (2007).  Free speech or illegal recruiting?  JOPERD, 78(9), 7-8,12.

Harrison, C.K.; Comeaus; & Plecha, M. (2006).  Faculty and male football and basketball players on university campuses: An empirical investigation of the intellectual as mentor to

     the student athlete. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 77(2), 277-284.

Sawyer, T. (2009).  Do students have the right to participate in interscholastic sports?  JOPERD, 80(7), 10-11.



Nelson, T.; LaBrie, R; LaPlante, D.; Stanton, M.; Shaffer, H. & Wechsler, H. (2007).  Sports betting and other gambling in athletes, fans, and other college students.  RQES, 78(4), 271-      283.


 History of sport

Mandell, R. (1984). Sport: A cultural history. New York: Columbia University Press.

National Endowment for the Humanties & Mint Museum for Art. (n.d.)  The sport of life and death: The Mesoamerican ballgame. THE MESOAMERICAN BALLGAME


Masculinity and Sport 

Tischler, A. & McCaughtry, N. (2011).  PE is not for me: When boys’ masculinities are threatened.  RQES, 82(1), 37-48.


   Multi-cultural and International Sport

American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. (2008)  Should any form of extreme sport or extreme dance be included in the curriculum?  JOPERD, 79(2), 9-10.

Bian, W.; Wang, J. & McKinley, B. (2009).  Integrating multicultural education:  Activities to celebrate the Chinese New Year.  JOPERD, 80(5), 40-46.

Berrigan, D.; Dodd, K.; Troiano, R.; Reeve, B.; & Ballard-Barbash, R. (2006).  Physical activity and acculturation among adult Hispanics in the United States.  Research Quarterly for

     Exercise and Sport, 77(2), 147-157.

Chunlei, Lu. (2008).  How to integrate Tai Ji Quan into physical education programs. (2008).  JOPERD, 79(2), 20-25.

Carr, T. (2001). Games from long ago and far away.  West Nyack, NY: Parker.

Clancy, M; Portman, P.; & Bowersock. (2007).  Successfully integrating novel games into the curriculum:  Netball for all.  Strategies, 20(6), 11-16.

Crabtree, K. (feature editor), (2009).  The Native American dance legacy. (special feature).  JOPERD, 80(6), 13-30.

Cronin, M. (1999). Sport and nationalism in Ireland: Gaelic games, soccer and Irish identity since 1884.  Dublin, Ireland:
     Four Courts Press.

Culp, B. (2010).  Are your S’s in effect? Ensuring culturally responsive physical education environments. Strategies, 24(2), 10-14.

Flory, S. & Mccaughtry. (2011).  Cultrurally relevant physical education urban schools: Reflecting cultural knowledge.  RQES, 82(1), 49-60.

Giulianotti, R. (1999). Football: A sociology of the global game.  Padstow, Cornwall, UK: Polity Press.

Healy, P. (1998). Gaelic games and the Gaelic Athletic Association. Cork, Ireland: Mercier Press.

Johnson, T.; Kulinna, P.; Darst, P. & Pangrazi, R. (2007).  School day physical activity patterns of Pima Indian children in two communities.  RQES, 78(4), 364-368.

Kahan, D. (2011). Arab-American college students’ physical activity and body compostion: Reconciling Middle East-West differences using the socioecological model.. RQES, 82(1),       


Kahan, D. (2009). Quantitiy, type, and correlates of physical activity among American Middle Eastern university students. RQES, 80(3), 412-424.

Koval, B. (2007).  That team sport called ballroom dance.  JOPERD, 78(9), 5-6.

Levy, F.; Ranjbar, A. & Hearn Dean, C. (2006).  Dance movement as a way to help children affected by war. JOPERD, 77(5), 5-9, 12.

Lieberman, L.; Columna, L.; Martinez, P. & Taylor, C. (2010).  Infusing sign language and Spanish into physical education.  JOPERD, 81(4), 45-49.

Mittlestaedt, R.; Hianton, J.; Rana, S.; Cade, D.; & Xue, S.  (2005).  Qigong and the older adult: an exercise to improve health and vitality.  JOPERD 76(4), 36-44.

Murgia, C. & McCullick (feature eds.) (2009)  NASPE Symposium: Engaging urban youth in physical education and physical activity. JOPERD 80(8), 25-45.

Ninham, D. (2002).  The games of life: Integrating multicultural games in physical education. JOPERD, 73(2), 12-14.

Perlman, D. & Goc Karp, G. (2006). Celtic throwing games for physical education. Strategies, 20(2), 29-34.

Rattigan, P.; Hickson, C.; & Blair, P. (January/February 2009).  National approaches to physical education curriculum and instruction: A brief comparison between New Zealand

     and Scotland.  UpdatePlus, 5, 28.

Spaulding, C.; Gottlieb, N. & Jensen, J. (2008)  Promoting physical activity in low-income preschool children children.  JOPERD, 79(5), 42-46.

Thomas, J.; Alderson, J.; Thomas, K.; Campbell, A.; & Elliott, B. (2010).  Developmental gender differences for overhand throwing in Aborginal Australian Children.  RQES, 81(4),   


Tritschler, K. (2008).  Cultural competence: a 21st-century leadership skill.  JOPERD, 79(1), 7-8.

Ward, S. (2007).  Why we all should learn to dance: Reflecting on the African cultural Heritage. JOPERD, 78(5), 3-5, 47-48.

Williams, E; Fomar, J; & Hartman, M. (2010) Britsih and Finnish baseball: International variations on an American pastime. Strategies, 23(3), 24-27.


Older Adults and Sport

Strawbridge, M. (2011).  Just because you are older doesn’t mean you have to give up sport.  JOPERD, 82(2), 8,14.

Termethick, M.J.; Hogan, P.; Coleman, B. & Adams, K. (2010).  Understanding arthritis: Promoting healthy lifestyles for older adults.  JOPERD, 81(4), 34-37.



Bachrach, S. (2000). The Nazi Olympics: Berlin 1936.  United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Washington, D.C.

Cohen, S. (1996). The games of '36: A pictorial history of the 1936 Olympics in Germany.  Missoula, MN: Pictorial

Crane, G. (Ed.)  (2003).  The Perseus project.  Retrieved January 22 from Tufts University Web site:


Philosophy of sport

Drewe, S.B. (2003).  Why sport? An introduction to the philosophy of sport.  Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing.

Kretchmar, R.S. (2005). Practical philosophy of sport. Champaign, IL: Human  Kinetics.

Lumpkin, A. & Cuneen. (2001)  Developing a personal philosophy of sport. JOPERD, 72(8), 40-43.

Shields, D. & Bredemeier, B. (1995). Character development and physical activity. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.


Politics and Sport

Greenberg, J. (2011).  Let’s move Miami.  Strategies, 24(4) , 6-7.

Moreno, T. (2011).  Physical education IS affordable healthcare.  Strategies, 24(6), 36-37.


Race and Ethnicity and Sport

Bruening, J.; Armstrong, K.; & Pastore, D. (2005). Listening to the voices:  The experiences of African American female student athletes.  Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,

      76(1), 82-100.

Bruening, J.; Dover, K. & Clark, B. (2009).  Preadolescent female development through sport and physical activity:  A case study of an urban after-school program.  RQES, 80(1), 87-101.

Brooks, D. & Althouse, R. (Eds.). (2000). Racism in college athletics. (2nd ed.). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information

Eichner, E.R. (2006).  Sickle cell trait and the athlete.  Sports Science Exchange, 19(4), 1-5.

Forster-Scott, L. (2011).  Understanding colorism and how it relates to sport and physical education.  JOPERD, 82(2), 48-52.

McCaughtry, N., Barnard, J., Shen, B. & Hodges, P. (2006).  Teachers' perspectives on the challenges of teaching physical education in urban schools:  The student emotional filter.       

     Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 77(4), 486-497.

Meaney, K., Hart, M, & Griffin, K. (2009).  Fun & fit, phase I: A program for overweight African American and Hispanic American children from low-income families.  JOPERD,    

     80(6), 35-39.

Singer, J. (2009).  African-American footbal athletes' perspectives on institutional integrity in college sport.  RQES, 80(1), 102-116.

Ward, S. (2008).  African-centered dance:  An intervention tool in HIV/AIDS prevention.  JOPERD, 79(7), 4-5.

Wiggins, D. & Wiggins, B. (2011).  Striving to be in the profession and of it: The African-American experience in physical education and kinesiology.  RQES, 82(2), 320-333.


Religion and Sport

Kahan, D. (2011).  AAA roadmap for navigating religion in physical education.  Strategies, 24(4), 20-24.


Socialization and Sport

Breuer, C. & Wicker, P. (2009).  Decreasing sports activity with inceasing age?  Findings from a 20-year longitudinal and cohort sequence analysis.  RQES, 80(1)  22-31.


Sociology of Sport

Coakley, J. (2009).  Sports in Society: Issues and Controversies (10th ed.).  New York: McGraw-Hill

Yiannakis, A  & Melnick, J. (Eds.).  (2001). Contemporary issues in sociology of sport.  Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.


Violence and sport


Pittman, A. (2005).  Fighting in sports: Criminal or not?  JOPERD, 76(4), 10-11, 15.

Staffo, D. (2001).  Strategies for reducing criminal violence among athletes.  JOPERD, 72(6), 38-42.

Waldron, J. & Kowalski, C. (2009) Crossing the lines: Rites of passage, team aspects, & ambiguity of hazing.  RQES, 80, 291-302.

Young, S. & Lawson-Lloyd, M. (2007).  Beanballs - An inherent risk in baseball.  JOPERD, 78(4), 10-11, 15.


Women in sport /Gender Issues

Acosta, R.V. & carpenter, L.J. (1997). Courtside: Seven questions regarding Title IX. Strategies, 11(1), 31-33.

Barber, H. & Krane, V. (2007).  Creating a positive climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youths.  JOPERD, 78(7),6-7.

Blinde, E & McCallister, S. (2003).  Observations in the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum:  Doing gender in Cooperstown.  Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,

     74(3) , 301-312.

Capranica, L., Tessitore, A., D'Artibale, E., Cortis, C., Casella, R. Camilleri, E, & Pesce, C. (2008).  Italian women's television coverage and audience            

    during the 2004 Athens Olympic  Games.  Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,79(1), 101-115.

Capranica, L.; Minganti, C.; Billat, V.; Hanghoj, S.; Piacentini, M.; Cumps, E.; & Meeusen, R. (2005).  Newspaper coverage of women's sports during the 2000 Sydney Olympic

     Games: Belgium, Denmark, France, and Italy.  Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 76(2), 212-223.

Carpenter, L.J. (1998).  Courtside: The United States Supreme Court and sexual harassment:
     Clarification of issues.  Strategies, 12(2), 8-10.

Constantinou, P. (2008).  Heightening our awareness of gender stereotypes.  Strategies, 21(3), 28-34.

Darnell, C. & Petersen, J. (2011). Eliminating sports for Title IX compliance.  JOPERD, 82(2)9,10,56.

Edwards, K. (2000).  Sexual harassment prevention training for coaches and athletes.
   Strategies, 13(6), 19-23.

Fink, J. (1998).  Female athletes and the media: Strides and stalemates.  JOPERD, 69(6),

Griffin, P. (1998). Strong women, deep closets: Lesbians and homophobia in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Hannon, J. & Williams, S. (2008).  Should secondary physical education be codeucational or single-sex?  JOPERD, 79(2), 6-8.

Hultstrand, B. (1993). The growth of collegiate women's sports:: The 1960's. JOPERD, 64(3), 41-43.

Johnson, J. & Holman, M. (2009).  Gender and hazing:  The same but different.  JOPERD, 80(5), 6-9.

Kammphof, C. (2010).  Batgaining with patriarchy: Former female coaches’ experiences and their decision to leave collegiate coaching.  Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,    

     81(3), 360-372.

Krane, V. & Barber, H. (2005),  Identity tensions in lesbian intercollegiate coaches.  Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 76(1), 67-81.

Ladda, S. (2011).  Where is our herstory?  JOPERD, 82(2) 9-10.

_______. (2009).  The National Association for Girls and Women in Sport:  110 years of promoting social justice and change.  JOPERD, 80(7), 48-51.

Masengale, D. & Lough, N. (2010).  Women leaders in sport:  Where’s the gender equity?  JOPERD, 81(4), 6-8.

Miner, M.J. (1993). Women in sport: A reflection of the greater society? JOPERD. 64(3), 44-48.

Moran-Miller, K & Flores, L. (2011).  Where are the women in women’s sports?  Predictors of female athletes’ interest in a coaching career.  RQES, 82(2), 109-117.

Motley, M. & LaVine, M. (2001).  Century marathon: A race for equality in girls' and women's sports. JOPERD, 72(6), 56-59.

Norman, L. (2010). A cross-cultural perspective of parental influence on female adolescents’ achievement beliefs and behaviors in sport and school domains.  RQES, 81(4), 494-505.

Oglesby, C. (1993). Changed times or different times: What's happening with "women's
     ways" of sport? JOPERD, 64(3), 60-62.

Park, R. & Hult, J. (1993). Women as leaders in physical education and school-based  sports, 1865 to the 1930's. JOPERD, 64(3), 35-40.

Pittman, A. (2007a).   Sport scheduling and Title IX compliance.  JOPERD, 78(7), 8-9.

Pittman, A. (2007b).  Title IX: Red-carding a coach.  JOPERD, 78(6), 8-9.

Ransdell, L.; Hildebrand, K.; Spear, C.; & Lucas, S. (2007).  Higher, faster, stronger, drunker:  The need for effective strategies to prevent alcohol abuse among female athletes. JOPERD,   

   78(3), 5-7, 11.

Schaefer, G. (2008).  Mismatch, sovereign immunity, and negligence [the use of male practice players for female basketball teams and liability issues].  JOPERD, 79(2), 11-12.

Shimon, J. (2007).  Activity choice and Title IX.  JOPERD, 78(9), 3-4,12.

Strecker, L. (2010).  Women in men’s sports.  Update Plus, July/August, 29, 31.

VanSickle, J. (2011). Staving off complacency concerning Title IX.  JOPERD, 82(4), 5-6.

Waldron, J. (2007).  Looking at the past to understand the present: Women and sport. JOPERD, 78(3), 3-4, 9.

White, E. & Sheets, C. (2001).  If you let them play, they will...   JOPERD, 72(4), 27-28, 33.

Young, S.; Deaner, H. & Marks, D. (2006).  Girls on your wrestling team: Coaches get ready. Strategies, 19(6), 33-36.


Youth Sport

Bach, G. (2006). The parents association for youth sports: a proactive method of spectator behavior management.  JOPERD, 77(6), 16-19.

Burton, L. (2008).  Rethinking a commitment to Olympic sports for girls.  JOPERD, 79(9), 5-6.

Ellis, G.  (2006).  Introduction: Sportsmanship in youth sports.  JOPERD, 77(6), 15,19.

Farrey, T. (2008).  Game On: The All-American race to make champions of our children.  ESPN Books.

Goldstein, J & Iso-Ahola, S. (2006).  Promoting sportsmanship in youth sports: Perspectives from sport psychology.  JOPERD, 77(7), 18-24.

Hensch, L. (2006).  Specialization or diversification in youth sport?  Strategies, 19(5), 21-27.

Landers, R; Carson, R.; Tjeerdsma, B. (Eds.).  The promises and pitfalls of sport specialization in youth sport: Special feature.  JOPERD, 81(8), 14-39.

National Association for Sport and Physical Education Staff (Eds.)  Ideas exchange: What are the advantages and/or disadvantages to specializing in one sport at an early age?      

    Strategies, 19(6), 5-6.

Raakman, E.  (2006).  Justplay: A revolutionary approach to youth sport administration and sportsmanship.  JOPERD, 77(6), 20-24.

Shields, D. & Funk, C. (2011).  Teach to compete. Strategies, 24(4), 8-11.

Weiss, M. (2008).  Field of dreams: Sport as a context for youth development.  Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 79(4), 434-449.

Wells, M.; Ruddell, E.; & Paisley, K. (2006).  Creating an environment for sportsmanship outcomes: A systems perspective. JOPERD, 77(7), 13-17.