POLITICAL SCIENCE 332
MODERN POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
Spring, 2010

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 Instructor: Dr. Harbour
Office: Ruffner 228
Office telephone: 395-2219
Office hours:
MWF 10:00-11:00  TR 9:30-10:30
harbourwr@longwood.edu
Home phone: 315-0352

Table of Contents
 Course Description
 Texts
 Course Objectives
 Class Schedule
 Course Requirements
 Grading
 Attendance Policy
 Honor Code
 Class Discussion
 Critical Thinking Writing Exercises
 Taking Exams
 Bibliography

Course Description:
Survey of modern political theories and philosophies, including the contributions of Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Burke, and Marx.

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Texts:
Niccolo Machiavelli, Selected Political Writings
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan
John Locke, Treatise of Civil Government & A Letter Concerning Toleration
Jean Jacques Rousseau, The Essential Rousseau. (Collection of major works)
Isaac Kramnick. Editor.  The Portable Enlightenment Reader
Leslie Thiele, Thinking Politics: Perspectives in Ancient, Modern, and Postmodern Political Theory 

Students will also be required to purchase a discounted subscription to the New York Times from the Bookstore.  Being aware of current political developments is important to good citizenship.  Each exam will have at least one essay question requiring students to reflect on current political news as they deal with different points of view advocated by various political theorists.

 

On Reserve: Dante Germino, Modern Western Political Thought: Machiavelli to Marx
 James Wiser, Political Philosophy: A History of the Search for Order
(There will be a few assigned chapters from the above two volumes. Other selections will also be placed on reserve for either required reading or optional background material.)
The On-line Study Guide for this class may be found at: bh332g
Click Here for the on-line Study Guide for this course.  It includes questions to help reading and reflecting upon the weekly and daily assignment as well as useful links to various web sources on the thinkers and issues being addressed in those assignments.

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Course Objectives:
Upon completion of the course, students will be able to:

1. Demonstrate a capacity for critical and analytical thought about issues central to political philosophy.

2. Demonstrate an ability to communicate their knowledge and beliefs about the principal thinkers and central themes found in the Western tradition of political philosophy both orally and in writing.

3. Discuss the ideas which constitute essential features of the Western political tradition.

4. Identify those values found in Western political thought which have helped to define the various notions of useful and responsible citizenship.

5. Discuss important philosophical and ethical issues associated with the political dimension of the human experience.

6. Interpret the meaning and significance of the symbols which influence political thought and action today.

7. Discuss the major ways in which political philosophy has influenced how political scientists try to understand politics.

8. Discuss how the theories and ideas articulated in Western political thought have shaped and been shaped by the dynamic social forces found in Western societies.

9. Identify the main themes and issues addressed by postmodern political theory.

This course satisfies Goal 13 (The Ethics Goal) of the new General Education requirements adopted by the University for students entering Longwood beginning in 2002-2003 as well as Goal 10 (The Ethics Goal) of the general education system existing for current students already in attendance prior to that time.

Goal 13: The ability to make informed, ethical choices and decisions and to weigh the consequences of those
choices (junior or senior course, may be departmentally designated or developed; three credits).

         Outcomes: Students will
          Identify the ethical issues implicit in personal behavior and in the operation of political, social, and economic
          institutions.
          Understand various approaches to making informed and principled choices
          Consider how these approaches might be applied to conflicts in their personal and public lives
          Understand the impact of individual and collective choices in society

General Education courses will have at least nine characteristics in common, reflected in the nine General Education course
criteria. Together, they define what a General Education course is at Longwood.  Courses satisfying all goals except Goals 12
and 15 will:

1. teach a disciplinary mode of inquiry (e.g., literary analysis, statistical analysis, historical interpretation, philosophical
reasoning, aesthetic judgment, the scientific method) and provide students with practice in applying their disciplinary mode of
inquiry, critical thinking, or problem solving strategies.

2. provide examples of how disciplinary knowledge changes through creative applications of the chosen mode of inquiry.

3. consider questions of ethical values.

4. explore past, current, and future implications (e.g., social, political, economic, psychological or philosophical) of disciplinary
knowledge.

5. encourage consideration of course content from diverse perspectives.

6. provide opportunities for students to increase information literacy through contemporary techniques of gathering,
manipulating, and analyzing information and data.

7. require at least one substantive written paper, oral report, or course journal and also require students to articulate information
or ideas in their own words on tests and exams.

8. foster awareness of the common elements among disciplines and the interconnectedness of disciplines.

9. provide a rationale as to why knowledge of this discipline is important to the development of an educated citizen.
 

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Class Schedule:
Click Here for the on-line Study Guide for this course.  It includes questions to help reading and reflecting upon the weekly and daily assignment as well as useful links to various web sources on the thinkers and issues being addressed in those assignments.

Week 1  Introduction to modern political thought; Machiavelli
Jan. 11-15
     Read:  Machiavelli, The Prince; Thiele, Thinking Politics, Introduction and Chpt. 1; 
                Britannica article on Ideology: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9106294/ideology#230829.hook
        Optional Background Material: Germino, Chpts. 1 and 2; Wiser, Chpt. 6
        Norton Critical Edition on Machiavelli (especially articles by Strauss and Wolin)
     Special Topics:
     M:  Classes do not start today until after 4:00 p.m. so we will not meet until Wednesday at 9:00 a.m.
     W:  What is political philosophy? What sets modern political thought apart from the earlier Western tradition?
            What does Leslie Thiele say about the nature of political theory and the various ways of theorizing? 
            What are political ideologies?
      F:   What “lessons” did Machiavelli advance about how a prince is to achieve and maintain power? 
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 1
After reading Thiele's views on what political philosophy attempts to do, write a three page essay in which you explain what questions political philosophers address and the methods they try to employ in dealing with basic social and political issues. In this essay you need to demonstrate an understanding of how political philosophers undertake their inquiries.
Optional topic:  Write a three page essay in which you define "political ideology."  Explain what political ideologies are all about.  What are their essential characteristics?  What do we mean when we say a mode of political thought is ideological?

Week 2  Machiavelli
Jan. 18-22
     Read:  Machiavelli, The Prince and The Discourses
       Optional Background Material: Germino, Chpts. 1 and 2; Wiser, Chpt. 6
       Norton Critical Edition on Machiavelli (especially articles by Strauss and Wolin)
    Special Topics:
    M:  No classes today for Martin Luther King, Jr. day on campus
    W:  What are the ethical and political implications of Machiavelli’s advice that the prince should “learn how not to be
          good"?
    F:  What does Machiavelli admire about the ancient Roman republic?   
         How do the ideas advanced in The Prince relate to the ideas advanced in The Discourse?  What are his contributions
         to modern political thought? 
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 2
After reading the Prince, write a three page essay in which you explain and evaluate the ethical implications of Machiavelli's assertion that in politics "one must learn how not to be good."  Develop your own position as to whether or not the central claims of what is called "political realism" are ethically defensible.
Optional topic:  Write a three page essay in which you explain what some scholars call Machiavelli’s “republican theory.”

Week 3  Wellsprings of modern political thought; Hobbes
Jan. 25-29
     Read:  Hobbes, Leviathan; Thiele, Chpt. 2
       Optional Background Material:
       Germino, Chpts. 1, 2, 3, 4; Wiser, Chpt. 6, 7, 8, 9
    Special Topics:
    M:  What were some of the basic elements of Reformation political thought?
    W:  From the standpoint of political theory, what were the implications of what Wiser calls the intellectual revolution of the
          Seventeenth century?
     F:  How does Hobbes view human nature? What does Hobbes believe to be the most important laws of nature?
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 3
After reading Hobbes theory about the "laws of nature," write a three page essay in which you explain his argument that these laws constitute the true moral philosophy.  In this essay you should evaluate the claims advanced by Hobbes and develop your own position as to whether or not ethics should rest upon self interest.

Week 4  Hobbes
Feb. 1-5
      Read: Hobbes, Leviathan
        Optional Background Material: Germino, Chpt. 4; Wiser, chpt. 9
     Special  Topics:
     M:   How does Hobbes explain the origin and justification for the existence and legitimate authority of the state?
     W:  What powers does Hobbes believe should belong to any legitimate government? How does Hobbes try to explain
            what causes the dissolution of governments?
      F:   NOTE: Your first test will be given on Friday, Feb.5. It will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

Week 5  Locke
Feb. 8-12
      Read:  Locke, The Second Treatise and A Letter Concerning Toleration
         Optional Background Material: Germino Chpt. 5 and Wiser, Chpt. 10
     Special Topics:
     M:  What does Locke say about toleration?
     W:  What does Locke say about human nature and the origins of government?
      F:   What does Locke say about freedom, property, and the basis of legitimate authority in society?
            Are there natural rights?
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 4
After reading Locke's work on toleration, write a three page essay in which you explain his main arguments for toleration and apply those arguments to important issues in your own life regarding toleration.  In this essay you should also demonstrate how those arguments relate to contemporary issues regarding our political, social, and economic institutions.

Week 6  Locke and the Enlightenment
Feb. 15-19
      Read:  Locke, The Second  Treatise; Kramnick, The Portable Enlightenment Reader
Examine these various listings of rights:
1776 The Virginia Declaration of Rights: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/virginia.asp 
1776 Declaration of Independence: http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/document/index.htm
1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: http://www.constitution.org/fr/fr_drm.htm
1789-1791 Bill of Rights of the U.S. Constitution: http://www.archives.gov/national-archives-experience/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html
1791 Declaration of the Rights of Woman: http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/dept/americanstudies/lavender/decwom2.html
1941 Four Freedoms: http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/ralph/workbook/ralprs36b.htm
1944 The Economic Bill of Rights: http://worldpolicy.org/projects/globalrights/econrights/fdr-econbill.html
1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights: http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html
Optional Background Material: Germino, Chpt. 6; Wiser, Chpt. 11
     Special Topics:
     M:  What is Locke’s vision of a good society?  What are the purposes of government?  What are the rightful
            powers of government?  What are the limits on the authority of government?
     W:   How did the Enlightenment challenge traditional patterns of thought?
      F:   The Emergence of Feminist Thought During the Enlightenment
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 5
After reading the works of some important 18th century feminists, write a three page essay in which you explain the critique they advance regarding the ideas of other Enlightenment thinkers and their society.  In this essay you should also develop your own position as to the merits of their critique and the alternative ideas they advanced.

Week 7  The Enlightenment and Modern Liberalism
Feb. 22-26
     Read:  Kramnick, The Portable Enlightenment Reader
               Also read:  Dr. Peale’s Essay on Ethics On-line
              Optional Background Material: Mill, Utilitarianism: http://www.utilitarianism.com/mill1.htm  and On Liberty: http://www.bartleby.com/130/
              Germino, Chpts. 6 and 9; Wiser, Chpts. 11 and 14
     Special Topics:
     M:  What are some of the most important political implications of Enlightenment thinking?
            What claims were advanced by 18th century materialism and sensationalism?
     W:  What ideas about justice and the nature of the good society were advanced by utilitarian thinkers such as Bentham
            and Mill?  What ideas about ethics were advanced by these thinkers?
     F:    What were the most important economic ideas advanced during the Enlightenment?
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 6
After reading Bentham and Mill, write a three page essay in which you explain the how utilitarianism suggests we should go about making ethical decisions in own personal lives and in our social, economic, and political systems.  In this essay you should clearly state the criteria used by the utilitarian approach and develop you own position as to whether or not you think this theory is justifiable as a way to resolve ethical conflicts in our personal and public lives.

Week 8  Modern Liberalism and Contemporary Liberalism
March 1-5
     Read:  Kramnick, The Portable Enlightenment Reader
                Thiele, Chpt. 5 pp. 100-118
                Article on John Dewey: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/dewey-political/
                Martin Luther King, Jr. "Letter from Birmingham Jail" http://www.stanford.edu/group/King/frequentdocs/birmingham.pdf
                John Rawls, "A Kantian Conception of Equality" http://princetonindependent.com/issue01.03/item10c.html             
                Optional Background Material: Germino, Chpt. 10
     Special Topics:
     M:  What contributions did Kant make to the discussion of ethics?  What were his contributions to modern liberalism?
            How does the Kantian approach to ethical and political issues differ from the utilitarian approach to those issues?
     W:  What contributions did John Dewey, Martin Luther King, Jr., and John Rawls make to contemporary
            liberalism?
      F:  NOTE:  Your second test will be given on Friday, March 5.  It will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

SPRING BREAK   MARCH 6-14

Week 9  Rousseau
March 15-19
     Read the following online versions of these works by Rousseau:
           For combined versions of The Social Contract, Discourse on the Arts and Sciences, and Discourse on the Origin of Inequality:
           http://oll.libertyfund.org/index.php?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=638&layout=html
           Or for the individual works:      
           The Discourse on the Origins of Inequalityhttp://www.constitution.org/jjr/ineq.htm
           The Social Contacthttp://www.constitution.org/jjr/socon.htm
           The Creed of a Savoyard Priest:http://www.e-text.org/text/Rousseau%20-%20THE%20CREED%20OF%20A%20SAVOYARD%20PRIEST.txt
           (From Emile
        Optional Background Material: Germino, Chpt. 7 and Wiser, Chpt. 12
     Special Topics:
     M:  What does Rousseau have to say about human nature?  How does he explain the origin of inequality?  Are some
            inequalities justifiable?
     W:  What is he trying to prove in his use of the social contract theory?  What is his picture of the good society and the
            best form of government?
      F:  What kind of critique does Rousseau offer of existing societies and forms of government?
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 7
After reading Rousseau's account of the origins of inequality and injustice in the world, write a three page essay in which you explain Rousseau's view that evil in the world is caused by faulty social, economic, and political structures.  In this essay you must also develop your own position on his account of injustice.  Basically you need to engage in the debate as to whether evil in society is caused by bad people or by bad social systems. Do bad choices by individuals cause social evils or do unjust social structures create bad people?

Week 10  Utopian Socialism, Marx, Marxism, Nineteen Century Radicalism, Communism, and Social Democracy
March 22-26
     Read:  Marx & Engels, The Communist Manifesto: http://www.anu.edu.au/polsci/marx/classics/manifesto.html
                Thiele, Chpt. 5 pp. 139-154                
                Britannica Article on Saint-Simon: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9064947/Henri-de-Saint-Simon
                Britannica Article on Auguste Comte: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9025064/Auguste-Comte
                Britannica Article on Robert Owen: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9057793/Robert-Owen
                Britannica Article on Charles Fourier: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9035043/Charles-Fourier
                Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Article on Hegel: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hegel/
                Eduard Berstein:  Evolutionary Socialism:  http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/bernstein-revsoc.html
                Britannica Article on Eduard Bernstein: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9078867/Eduard-Bernstein               
                Britannica Article on Lenin: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9108666/Vladimir-Ilich-Lenin
               Optional Background Material: Germino, Chpt. 14; Wiser, Chpt. 16, Wiser, Chpt. 17, pp. 400-406
     Special Topics:
     M:  What were the main claims of utopian socialism and nineteenth century radicalism?
           How does Marx understand society?  What is his method of analysis?  What are the central elements of historical
           materialism?  How does Marx go about developing his critique of capitalism? What is the vision of the good society put
           forth by Marx?
     W:  How have some later thinkers modified the theory advanced by Marx?  What did Lenin contribute to the Marxist
           tradition?  What are the main claims of Communism?
      F:  What are the principal ideas advanced by social democratic theorists? How does the social democratic tradition
           differ from revolutionary socialism?
      Extra topic for the entire week:  What did various nineteenth and twentieth century radicals say about social and economic
           inequalities, the nature of justice, and the best form of government?  How do these political theorists link together
           fundamental concerns of many different social sciences and provide insights that reveal the connections between
           thinkers in all the social sciences and humanities?
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 8
After reading Marx, write a three page essay in which you explain his method (historical materialism) of analyzing society and how that method has influenced different disciplines in the social sciences and humanities. How does his mode of inquiry add to our understanding of social, economic, and political developments?  In this essay you must also demonstrate an understanding of what his theory suggests about our moral and political beliefs.

Week 11  Burkean Conservatism, Contemporary Conservatism, and Fundamentalism
March 29-April 2
     Read:  Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France:  http://www.constitution.org/eb/rev_fran.htm
                Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Article on Edmund Burke: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/burke/
                Michael Oakeshott: "Rationalism in Politics" http://www.conservativeforum.org/EssaysForm.asp?ID=6102
                Essay on Communitarian Theory by Amitai Etzioni: http://www.conservativeforum.org/EssaysForm.asp?ID=12542     
                George Will, "The Case for Conservatism" http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/30/AR2007053002026.html
                Do additional web-based research on contemporary conservative ideologies
                Optional Background Material: Germino, Chpt. 8; Wiser, Chpt. 13; Harbour volume
     Special Topics:
     M:  How did Burke critique the Enlightenment and the French Revolution?  What was Burke’s vision of the good society?
     W:  How has conservative thought evolved?  What are the principal ideas advanced by contemporary schools of
           conservative thought?
      F:   What are the main criticisms of existing societies advanced by rival versions of religious fundamentalism?
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 9
After reading the selections by Burke and some contemporary conservatives, and doing additional web-based research on contemporary conservative ideologies, write a three page essay on the place of Burkean ideas among conservatives today.  Explain the extent to which his ideas are still important to conservatives and the extent to which some on the political right today have abandoned his ideas.

Week 12   Fascism and Anarchism
April 5-9
    Read: Mussolini, "The Doctrine of Fascism" http://www.worldfuturefund.org/wffmaster/Reading/Germany/mussolini.htm
              On-line statement by Aryan Nations: http://www.aryan-nations.org/about.htm
              Emma Goldman, "Anarchism: What It Really Stands For" http://sunsite3.berkeley.edu/Goldman/Writings/Anarchism/anarchism.html
              Peter Kropotkin, "Anarchism: Its Philosophy and Ideal" http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/kropotkin-peter/1890s/x01.htm
              Mikhail Bakunin, "Marxism, Freedom, and the State" http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/anarchist_Archives/bakunin/marxnfree.html#chap3
     Special Topics:
     M:  What ideas about society were put forth by fascism and nazism?
     W:  How did anarchists critique existing societies?
      F:   NOTE: You will have your third test on Friday, April 9.  It will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

Week 13   Feminism, Environmentalism, Beyond Ideology, and Friedrich Nietzsche
April 12-16
     Read:  Thiele, Chpt. 5 pp. 118-139
                Also check out the material found at the following sites and its links:
                Senaca Falls Declaration of Sentiments: http://www.closeup.org/sentimnt.htm
                Petra Kelly: http://peopleinaction.com/petrakelly/
                Aldo Leopold, The Land Ethic: http://home.btconnect.com/tipiglen/landethic.html
                Green Party Platform: http://www.gp.org/platform/2004/intro.html#998204
                Betty Friedan, excerpts: http://womenshistory.about.com/od/quotes/a/betty_friedan.htm
                Kate Millett, Sexual Politics: http://www.marxists.org/subject/women/authors/millett-kate/sexual-politics.htm
                Betty Friedan, Interview: http://www.pbs.org/fmc/interviews/friedan.htm
                Betty Friedan, The Problem That Has No Name: http://www.h-net.org/~hst203/documents/friedan1.html    
                Shulamith Firestone, The Dialectic of Sex: http://www.marxists.org/subject/women/authors/firestone-shulamith/dialectic-sex.htm
                Friedrich Nietzsche:  http://www.pitt.edu/~wbcurry/nietzsche.html
                                                  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/nietzsche/    
                                                  http://www.geocities.com/thenietzschechannel/
     Special Topics:
     M:  What are the most important ideas advanced by modern feminism?
     W:  How do environmentalist theories challenge modern society?
      F:   How do "beyond ideology" theorists challenge all modern ideologies?
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 10 (Option A)
Write a three page essay on what Betty Friedan means when she discusses "the problem that has no name" and how her arguments were central to what some call liberal feminism.  Then explain how the radical feminism of Kate Millett and Shulamith Firestone goes beyond what Friedan was doing.

Week 14   Postmodern Political Theory
April 19-23
     Read:  Thiele, Thinking Politics, Chpts. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
     Special Topics:
     M:  What does Thiele say about politics, power, and the public good?  How does Thiele distinguish modern from
            postmodern political theory?
    W:   What does postmodern political theory say about identity and difference?  What is the role of feminist theory in
            debates over identity and difference?
     F:    What does Thiele mean by terms like “statecraft” and “soulcraft?" What does postmodern theory say about
             irony and ideology?
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 10 (Option B)
After spending the entire semester studying modern political philosophy and reading this week's material on postmodernist ideas regarding identify and the power of social institutions to shape our lives, write a three page essay on the importance of what political philosophy offers to a person who wants to be an educated and effective citizen.

April 23   Last day of Classes
April 24   Reading Day
April 26-30 Final Exam Period
Your final exam will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.  It will be a comprehensive essay examination.                                                                                     

May 8   Commencement

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Course Requirements:
Three Tests
Total scores on ten critical thinking writing exercise
Contribution to class discussion
Final comprehensive exam

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Grading:
Your grade will be based upon three tests given during the course of the semester, your total score on ten three page critical thinking writing exercises, your contribution to class discussion, and a final exam.  Each of these will count for 1/6 of your grade.  Each of the exams will involve an essay format.  The final examination will be comprehensive.

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Attendance Policy:
The attendance policy for this course is the University policy found in the University Catalog and Student Handbook.

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Honor Code:
Students are expected to live by the Longwood University Honor Code. All work done for the class must be pledged. Your instructor will not tolerate any form of cheating.

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Class Discussion:
Students are expected to make contributions to class discussion.  Your grade in this regard will be based upon participation during the semester.

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Ten Critical Thinking Writing Exercises: You will write ten 3 page essays during the course of the semester. The topics for these short essays are listed in the course outline.  Each paper is worth 10 points and is due at the begining of class on the Friday of each week for which a paper is due. Late papers will lose points.
 The papers will follow the Turabian format.
 A shorter version of that style manual can be found on the History style manual at the following web address: <http://www.longwood.edu/history/HDPTSTS2.htm>
There will be more help on developing these papers found in the Study Guide for the course. Click HERE for the online Study Guide for this course.

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Taking Exams:
Exams must be taken on time.
  You are expected to provide proof for any legitimate reason (illness, participation in a University-sponsored activity, or recognizable emergency) you have for missing an exam.  Having another test on the dame day or having problems with the person you are dating are not valid reasons for missing a test.

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Bibliography:
Required Reading:

Machiavelli, Selected Political Writings
Hobbes, Leviathan
Locke, Treatise of Civil Government & A Letter Concerning Toleration
Rousseau, The Essential Rousseau
Kramnick, The Portable Enlightenment Reader
Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France
Marx, Selected Writings in Sociology & Social Philosophy
Thiele, Thinking Politics: Perspectives in Ancient, Modern, and Postmodern Political Theory

On Reserve:
   Dante Germino, Modern Western Political Thought: Machiavelli to Marx
     James Wiser, Political Philosophy: A History of the Search for Order
     (There will be a few assigned chapters from the above two volumes.  Other selections will also be placed on
      reserve for either required reading or optional background material.)

Suggested Reading or Reference:

Hannah Arendt.  The Human Condition
Cesare Beccaria.
  On Crimes and Punishments
Eduard Bernstein.
  Evolutionary Socialism
Edmund Burke.
  Reflections on the Revolution in France
Jeremy Bentham.
  Fragment on Government; An Introduction to the Principles of Morals And Legislation
William E. Connolly.  Identity and Difference
Marquis de Condorcet.
  Sketch of a Historical Portrait of the Human Mind
Simone de Beauvoir.
  The Second Sex
Betty Friedan.
  The Feminine Mystique
Georg Hegel.
  Philosophy of Right
Thomas Hobbes.
  Leviathan
Immanuel Kant.
  Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals; The Metaphysical Elements of Justice
John Locke.  Essay Concerning Human Understanding; Letter Concerning Toleration; Second Treatise of Government
James Lovelock.
  Gaia: A New Look At Life On Earth
Jean-Francois LyotardThe Postmodern Condition
Niccolo Machiavelli.
  The Discourse; The Prince
Herbert Marcuse.  One-Dimentional Man
Karl Marx.
  The Communist Manifesto
John Stuart Mill.
  On Liberty; Utilitarianism
Baron De Montesquieu.
  The Spirit of the Laws
Thomas More.
  Utopia
Friedrich Nietzsche.
On the Genealogy of Morals
Lenin.
  What Is To Be Done?
John Rawls.  A Theory of Justice
Jean Jacques Rousseau.
A Discourse on the Origin of InequalityAmong Men; The Social Contract
Adam Smith.  The Wealth of Nations
Herbert Spencer.
  Man Versus The State
Eric VoegelinThe New Science of Politics
Mary Wollstonecraft.
  A Vindication of the Rights of Women

Some Secondary Sources and Collections of Readings of Primary Sources:

Robert Audi.  General Editor.  The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy.  Second Edition. New York: Cambridge U
  University Press, 1999.
Lawrence Cahaoone.  Editor. From Modernism to Postmodernism  An Anthology.  Malden, Mass.: Blackwell
  Publishers, Ltd., 1996.
Steven M. Cahn.  Editor. Classics of Political and Moral Philosophy.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Robert C. Cummins, Thomas D. Christiano. Editors. Modern Moral and Political Philosophy. Mountain View,
  California: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1999.
Dante Germino. Modern Western Political Thought: Machiavelli to Marx
Steven LuperEditor.  Social Ideals and Policies: Readings in Social and Political Philosophy. London: Mayfield
  Publishing Company, 1999.
Louis P. Pojman, Robert T. Westmorland. Editors. Equality: Selected Readings. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
George H. Sabine.  A History of Political Theory.  Revised Edition.  New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1958.
James Wiser. Political Philosophy: A History of the Search for Order
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