POLITICAL SCIENCE 342

AMERICAN POLITICAL THOUGHT

1865 - PRESENT

Fall, 2013

 Instructor: Dr. Harbour
Office: East Ruffner 228
Office telephone: 395-2219
Office hours:
MWF 10:00-11:00  TR 9:30-10:30
bharbour@longwood.edu

Table of Contents
 Course Description
 Texts
 Course Objectives
 Class Schedule
 Course Requirements
 Grading
 Attendance Policy
 Honor Code
 Class Discussion
 Critical Thinking Writing Exercises
 Taking Exams
 Bibliography
 

Course Description:
An introduction to the principal thinkers and the central themes in American political thought.  (1865 to the Present)

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Texts:
Isaac Kramnick and Theodore J. Lowi.  American Political Thought.  A Norton Anthology.  New York:  W. W. Norton & Company, 2009.

Students should also follow ideological debates in contemporary American politics by going to the sites found below.
There are important think tanks on both the left and right and each produce informative research on contemporary political issues.
           You may read studies representing contemporary liberalism by going to the online site of the Center for American Progress at:
           http://www.americanprogress.org/    and Brookings at: http://www.brookings.edu/
           There are important political magazines found on both the left and right that feature stories and editorials on contemporary political issues.
           You may read articles representing different contemporary liberal views by going to the online version of The New Republic at:
            http://www.tnr.com/
           You may read studies representing contemporary conservatism by going to the online site of The Heritage Foundation at:
            http://www.heritage.org/    and the American Enterprise Institute For Public Policy Research at:  http://www.aei.org/
           You may read articles representing different contemporary conservative views by going to the online version of The National Review at:
           http://www.nationalreview.com/#

Students may also keep up with current political events and may follow the news through the following online sites:
http://www.nyt.com/
http://www.cnn.com/
http://www.washingtonpost.com/
http://www.foxnews.com/index.html
http://www.cqpolitics.com/wmspage.cfm?parm1=5

A good nonpartisan source of news may also be found at the National Journal at: http://www.nationaljournal.com/

Every test will have at least one question dealing with current events and the ideological debates surrounding them.

A useful site for checking on the facts presented in public forums:
http://www.factcheck.org/
Many thoughtful students sometimes wonder how much they can trust information about politics they encounter when viewing political ads and reading political editorials. They also worry about the objectivity of media news reports. Both conservatives and liberals complain about the distortion of facts found in the political ads run by the other side and various websites sponsored by opposition ideological groups. Distorting the views and positions of the opposition to make them look as bad as possible is an all too typical campaign technique. As a citizen and a student you not only should consider examining many different perspectives and sources of information but also make use of above site sponsored by the Annenberg Public Policy Center. The experts at this site check out the factual accuracy of many political speeches, ads, and news releases. They take on both the left and the right, finding errors put out by democrats and republicans. This site is especially useful when elections approach in examining current political debates over public policy.

Various optional background readings will be available in Dr. Harbour’s office. 

Thornton Anderson.  Jacobson’s Development of American Political Thought.  New York:
 Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1961.
Sue Davis.  American Political Thought: Four Hundred Years of Ideas and Ideologies.
 Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:  Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1996.
Kenneth M. DolbeareAmerican Political Thought.  Monterey, California:  Duxbury Press,
 1981.
Kenneth M. Dolbeare and Linda J. Medcalf.  American Ideologies Today.  Second Edition.  New
 York:  McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1993. 
Amitai EtzioniRights and the Common Good: The Communitarian Perspective.  New York:
 St. Martin’s Press, Inc., 1995.
Allen Pendleton Grimes.  American Political Thought.  Hinsdale, Illinois:  Drydeen Press,
 1960.
David A. Hollinger and Charles Capper.  Editors.  The American Intellectual Tradition, Vol II
 1865 to the Present.  Third Edition.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1997.
Alpheus Thomas Mason and Gordon E. Baker.   American Political Thought.  Fourth Edition.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1985.
Paul Schumaker, Dwight C Kiel, Thomas W. Heilke. Ideological Voices: An Anthology in Modern Political Ideas. New York:
 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1997.
William Graham Sumner.  What Social Classes Owe to Each Other.  New York:  Caxton, 1947.
Thorstein Veblen.  The Theory of the Leisure Class.  New York:  Penguin Books, 1979.
Gayle Graham Yates.  What Women Want: The Ideas of the MovementCambaridge, Mass:
 Harvard University Press, 1975.

Other Reading:
A good online source for articles on topics concerning American political thought is the Britannica site found at:
http://www.britannica.com/

Click HERE  for the Study Guide which contains questions for reading and thinking about the assignments, links to useful web sites containing materials on the topics being explored, and suggestions on developing your research for the critical thinking writing assignments.

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Course Objectives:

Upon completion of the course, students will be able to:

1. Demonstrate a capacity for critical and analytical thought about issues central to the American political tradition.

2. Demonstrate an ability to communicate their knowledge and beliefs about the principal thinkers and central themes in the   tradition of American political thought.

3. Discuss the ideas that constitute essential features of the American political system.

4.  Identify information regarding American political thought necessary and useful for responsible citizenship.

5. Discuss important philosophical and ethical issues associated with American political thought.

6. Interpret the meaning and significance of the symbols that influence American political thinking today.

7. Describe the major ways in which political scientists have tried to understand American political thought.

8. Discuss how American political beliefs have shaped and been shaped by the dynamic social forces found in our society.

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Class Schedule:

Week 1 (Aug. 20-30)  Introduction to American Political Thought;  The Emergence of Social Darwinism
Read: Kramnick & Lowi – Articles by Sumner, Carnegie, Conwell, Ward
A good site with material on William Graham Sumner and other defenders of laissez-faire liberalism is maintained by The Online Library of Liberty found at: http://oll.libertyfund.org/index.php?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Fperson=236&Itemid=27
His What Social Classes Owe to Each Other may be found at: http://oll.libertyfund.org/index.php?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=346&layout=html
Special Topics:

M:  Introduction to American political thought
W:  What were the claims advanced by 19th century advocates of laissez-faire liberalism and social Darwinism?
F:  How does the debate over the claims of laissez-faire liberalism and social Darwinism continue to this day?
     (Student presentation on William Graham Sumner by Walter Culbertson)
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 1
Write a three page essay in which you explain the ideas advanced by 19th century advocates of laissez-faire liberalism and social Darwinism.  Also show how Sumner’s ideas are still alive in current public policy debates.
This assignment is due on Friday.

Week 2 (Sept. 2-6)  Populism, Social Protest, and Alternative Visions
Read:  Kramnick & Lowi, Articles by George, Bellamy, Lloyd, Ward, Donnelly, Weaver, Watson, Lewelling, Bryan
            For a contemporary site with left-wing populist articles, one can go to Salon at: http://www.salon.com
            For a critique of how the financial elites practice nepotism one can read the following: http://www.salon.com/2013/08/21/the_rich_summed_up_nepotism_cronyism_narcissism/
Special Topics:
M:  No classes on Monday:  Labor Day
W:  What were some of the chief criticisms of social and economic conditions advanced by the populists?
       What were some of the alternative visions for society advanced by social critics such as George and Bellamy?
       (Student report on William Jennings Bryan by Laura Jefferson)
F:   How do some populist themes continue to this day?
    
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 2
Write a three page essay in which you explain the main arguments advanced by the populists.  Evaluate their ideas.
This assignment is due on Friday.

Week 3 (Sept. 9-13) American Socialism; Anarchism
Read:  Kramnick & Lowi, Articles by Tucker, Goldman, Rauschenbusch, De Leon, and Debs
One may access articles on democratic socialism at the site maintained by the Democratic Socialists of America at: http://www.dsausa.org/  and Marxism at: https://www.marxists.org/
A good site with material on a wide variety of anarchist thinkers may be found at the Anarchy Archives found at: http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/index.html
Emma Goldman’s classic “Anarchism:  What It Really Stands For” may be found at: http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/goldman/aando/anarchism.html 
Special Topics:
M:   Democratic Socialism in America
W:  Marxist Socialism in America
F:  American Anarchists        
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 3
Write a three page essay explaining and evaluating the ideas advanced by Emma Goldman.
This assignment is due on Friday.

Week 4 (Sept. 16-20) Union Protests
Read: Kramnick & Lowi, Articles by Debs and Gompers
For articles representing the views of the contemporary American labor movement, one can go to the site maintained by the AFL/CIO at: http://www.aflcio.org/
Special Topics:
Monday:  What were the conditions that helped to pave the way for union movements?
Wednesday:  What were some of the principal political and economic ideas advanced by the union movement?
                      (Student presentation on Eugene Debs by William Coster)
Friday: NOTE: You will have your first test on Friday, Sept. 20. This test will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

Week 5 (Sept. 23-27) Pragmatism, Social Reform, and the Progressives
Read: Kramnick & Lowi, Articles by Steffens, Sinclair, Ryan, Addams, Rauschenbusch, Veblen, James, Dewey, Beard, Croly, T. Roosevelt, Wilson
You may read articles representing contemporary progressive thinking by going to the online site of the Center for American Progress at:
           http://www.americanprogress.org/

Special Topics:
M:  Pragmatism
       (Student presentation on John Dewey by Ellen Farmer)
W:  The Progressives
       (Student presentation on Upton Sinclair by Caitlin Payne)
       (Student presentation on Herbert Croly by Dakota Canipe)
F:  How do some of the themes of the Progressives continue to this day?
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 4
Write a three page essay in which you explain the meaning of pragmatism and then discuss what the progressives owed to pragmatism.
This assignment is due on Friday.

Week 6 (Sept. 30- Oct. 4) New Deal and Great Society Liberalism; Contemporary Liberalism
Read: Kramnick & Lowi, Articles by Hoover, Beard, Dewey, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Tugwell, Wallace, Lippmann
1941 Four Freedoms: http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/fdrthefourfreedoms.htm
1944 The Economic Bill of Rights: http://www.apj.us/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=130&Itemid
1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights: http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html
Kramnick & Lowi, Articles by Rawls, Sandel, Walzer, Rorty, Etzioni
           There are important think tanks on both the left and right and each produce informative research on contemporary political issues.
           You may read studies representing contemporary liberalism by going to the online site of the Center for American Progress at:
           http://www.americanprogress.org/    and Brookings at: http://www.brookings.edu/
           There are important political magazines found on both the left and right that feature stories and editorials on contemporary political issues.
           You may read articles representing different contemporary liberal views by going to the online version of The New Republic at:
            http://www.tnr.com/

Special Topics:
M:  New Deal Liberalism
      (Student presentation on Eleanor Roosevelt by Michael Thomas)
W:  Great Society Liberalism
      (Student presentation on John Rawls by Andrew Turner)
F:  How do the debates over New Deal Liberalism and Great Society Liberalism continue to this day?
     (Student presentation on Walter Lippmann by Morgan Teeple)
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 5
Write a three page essay in which you explain the theoretical underpinnings of the liberalism represented by the New Deal and Great Society.
This assignment is due on Friday.
 
Week 7 (Oct. 7-11)  Environmentalism
Read:  Kramnick & Lowi, Article by McKibben
One may look up useful studies in this area by going to the website of The National Council of Environmental Defense (EDF Environmental Defense Fund) at:
http://www.edf.org/people/national-council
One may read about one of the most important theorists of the environmental movement by going to the Aldo Leopold Archives and access some of his works at:  http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/AldoLeopold/
And one may read brief selections from his works at: http://home.btconnect.com/tipiglen/landethic.html
The National Audobon Society has informative articles at: http://www.audubon.org/
You may also find useful information at the Green Party USA website at: http://www.greenparty.org/
One may read many articles on the contemporary environmental movement by going to the Greenpeace/USA website at: http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/
For a perspective on the Earth as a complete unit, one can go to the following site about James Lovelock’s Gaia hypothesis: http://erg.ucd.ie/arupa/references/gaia.html
For a view of Earth in spiritual terms, one can go to the following site representing pantheism: http://www.pantheism.net/earth.htm
The following site gives a view of Deep Ecology: http://www.deepecology.org/mission.htm  and at: http://www.deepecology.org/deepecology.htm and at: http://www.deepecology.org/platform.htm
For articles on animal rights, on can go to one of the sites maintained by PETA at: http://www.peta.org/features/default.aspx
For more articles and lectures on animal rights, one can go to the Nonhuman Rights Project at: http://www.nonhumanrightsproject.org/?gclid=CPyK_4XbiboCFfFj7Aod-B8AJg
Special Topics:

M:  Mainstream environmentalism
       (Student presentation on Aldo Leopold by Sarah Donaghue)
W:  Radical environmentalism
F:  The treatment of animals
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 6
Write a three page essay on the ethical theory regarding the environment advanced by Aldo Leopold.
 
Fall Break:  October 14-15

Week 8 (Oct. 14-18) Debating the Constitution; Second Test
Read: Kramnick & Lowi, Articles by Louis Brandeis
For William Brennan’s view on interpreting the Constitution, one may go to: http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/constitutional-interpretation/
For Antonin Scalia’s view on interpreting the Constitution, one may go to: http://www.cfif.org/htdocs/freedomline/current/guest_commentary/scalia-constitutional-speech.htm
For Stephen Breyer’s view on interpreting the Constitution, one may go to: http://www.acslaw.org/acsblog/justice-breyer-on-constitutional-principles-and-methods-of-interpretation and http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=129702855
Students interested in a generally liberal approach to interpreting the Constitution, especially on First Amendment issues can find interesting material at the website of the American Civil Liberties Union: http://www.aclu.org/
Students interest in a generally conservative approach to interpreting the Constitution can find interesting material at the website of the Federalist Society:
http://www.fed-soc.org/aboutus/
Special Topics:
M:  No classes – fall break
W:  Debates over how to interpret the Constitution
F:  Note:
You will have your second test on Friday, October 18. This test will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

Week 9 (Oct. 21-25) America and the World
Read:  Kramnick & Lowi, Articles by George Washington, Strong, Beveridge, Sumner, Platform of the American Anti-Imperialist League, Niebuhr, Kennan
           George Washington’s Farewell Address may be found at: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/washing.asp
          
William Graham Sumner’s The Conquest of the United States by Spain may be found at: http://files.libertyfund.org/files/2485/Sumner_ConquestUS1898.pdf
           Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points may be found at: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/wilson14.asp
           Hans Morgenthau’s six principles of political realism may be found at: https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/morg6.htm
           The statement of principles of the Project for The New American Century (associated with neoconservative foreign policy views) may be found at: http://www.newamericancentury.org/statementofprinciples.htm
Special Topics:

M:  What role should America play in the world?
       (Student presentation on Albert J. Beveridge by Logan Ragsdale)
W:  Liberalism and Realism
F:  Libertarian and Neoconservative Views
     (Student presentation on Robert Kagan by Chris Gordon)
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 7
Write a three page essay in which you explain the differences between those who disagree over America’s role in the world.
This assignment is due on Friday.

Week 10 (Oct. 28-Nov. 1) Immigration, Race, the Civil Rights Movement
Read: Kramnick & Lowi, Articles by Slater and George, Strong, T. Roosevelt, Lodge, Amendments 13, 14, 15, Chief Joseph, Crazy Horse, Smohalla, Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896 (Brown and Harlan), Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois, Garvey, Evans, Hughes, King, SNCC, Malcolm X, Rustin, Carmichael, Thurgood Marshall, Cornel West 
One may read articles about contemporary civil rights issues at the website of the NAACP at:  http://www.naacp.org/home/index.htm
and access informative articles on civil rights issues and hate groups at the website of the Southern Poverty Law Center at:  http://www.splcenter.org/index.jsp
Special Topics:
M:  On what Basis did Du Bois and others Challenge Racism early in the 20th Century? 
       (Student presentation on Marcus Garvey by Zachary Pittard)
       (Student presentation on Langston Hughes by Queen Burrell)
W:  What were the Central Issues Surrounding the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960?
       (Student presentation on Malcolm X by Brandon Branch)
F:  Contemporary debates over Immigration
      (Student presentation on Michael Walzer by Kellie Marsh)
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 8.
Write a three page essay in which you explain the theoretical justification advanced by Martin Luther King, Jr. for his views on civil disobedience.  Explain whether or not you find his arguments convincing.
This assignment is due on Friday.

Week 11 (Nov. 4-8) Liberalism and the challenge from The New Left
Read:  Kramnick & Lowi, Articles by Robert Dahl,  Daniel Bell, C. Wright Mills, SDS (The Port Huron Statement), Savio, Rubin, McKibben, Rubin
One of the most influential thinkers who influenced “critical theory” and New Left theorists was Herbert Marcuse, and one may get access to his works and commentaries on them at the Herbert Marcuse official homepage at: http://www.marcuse.org/herbert/
One may read many articles on the contemporary environmental movement by going to the Greenpeace/USA website at: http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/
One may read about one of the most important theorists of the environmental movement by going to the Aldo Leopold Archives and access some of his works at:  http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/AldoLeopold/
And one may read brief selections from his works at: http://gargravarr.cc.utexas.edu/chrisj/leopold-quotes.html
Special Topics:
M:  The New Left’s critique of American society
       (Student presentation on C. Wright Mills by Tyler Webb)
W:  The New Left alternatives
F: How do some of the debates surrounding the ideas of the New Left continue today?
      (Student presentation on Noam Chomsky by Osten Morris)
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 9
Write a three page essay in which you explain and evaluate the critique of American society advanced by the New Left.
This assignment is due on Friday.

Week 12 (Nov. 11-15) Conservatism in America
Read:  Kramnick & Lowi, Articles by Adams, Twelve Southerners, Buckley, Chambers, Hartz, Lippmann, Goldwater, YAF (The Sharon Statement), Kristol, Bloom, Robertson, Nozick, Freidman
       There are important think tanks on both the left and right and each produce informative research on contemporary political issues.
           You may read studies representing contemporary conservatism by going to the online site of The Heritage Foundation at:
            http://www.heritage.org/    and the American Enterprise Institute For Public Policy Research at:  http://www.aei.org/
       There are important political magazines found on both the left and right that feature stories and editorials on contemporary political issues.
           You may read articles representing different contemporary conservative views by going to the online version of The National Review at:
           http://www.nationalreview.com/#
Special Topics:

M:  What are the principal schools of thought within American conservatism?
       (Student presentation on William F. Buckley Jr. by Zamara Lopez)
       (Student presentation on Russell Kirk by Kayla Atkins)
W:  What are the most important ideas advanced by contemporary conservatives?
       (Student presentation on Leo Strauss by E.J. Dowling)
       (Student presentation on Phyllis Schlafly by Nicole Lee)
Friday: NOTE: You will have your third test on Friday, November 15.  This test will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

Week 13 (Nov. 18-22) Feminism

Read:  Kramnick & Lowi, Articles by Adams, Murray, Grimke, Beecher, Stanton, Brownson, Woodhull, Anthony, Gilman, Addams, Friedan, NOW Bill of Rights, Redstockings Manifesto, Millett, Schaffly, Hooks
    Many feminist organizations have informative web sites containing articles advancing their positions on contemporary issues.  One useful site is that of  
    The National Organization of Women found at: http://www.now.org/
Special Topics:
M:  What were the main themes of the Feminism found in the 19th and early 20th Centuries?
W:  What were some of the main themes and competing schools of thought developed within Feminism in the second half of
       the 20th Century?
       (Student presentation on Iris Marion Young by Logan Miller)
F:  What are the most Important Challenges facing Feminism today? 
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 10
Write a three page essay in which you explain the most important claims advanced by feminist theory.  How do you assess the strengths of these claims? You are quite justified in developing this essay if you wish to point out the problems with the question being asked.
This assignment is due on Friday.

Week 14
Libertarianism
Read:  The Cato Institute maintains a popular libertarian site at: http://www.cato.org/
            Articles supporting the libertarian defense of classical liberalism may also be found in Reason at: http://reason.com/
            The Ludwig von Mises Institute advances the principles of laissez-faire liberalism at: http://mises.org/ 
Special Topics:

M: What are the principles of contemporary laissez-faire liberalism?
      (Student presentation on Ron Paul by Bethany Drury)

Wednesday and Friday:  No classes

Thanksgiving Vacation    No Classes

Week 15 (Dec. 2-6) Contemporary Populism of the Left and Right; Communitarianism and Civil Society Theory
Read: Kramnick & Lowi, Articles by Allan Bloom, Michael J. Sandel, Amitai Etzioni
          For data on income and wealth inequality often used by those on the left, you may go to: http://www2.ucsc.edu/whorulesamerica/power/wealth.html and for an article using the power-elite perspective you can go to: http://www2.ucsc.edu/whorulesamerica/power/wealth.html
          You can also get current and historical date on income at the U.S. Census Bureau site at: http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/household/
          A major sponsor of the Tea Party movement, Freedom Works, has a site you can access at: http://www.freedomworks.org/
          You can access the Tea Party Patriots site at: http://www.teapartypatriots.org/ and another Tea Party group at Americans for Prosperity: http://americansforprosperity.org/
Special Topics:
M:  Left-wing Populist Critique of Corporate Power in America; Occupy Wall Street
W:  Right-wing Populist Critique of Big Government; The Tea Party Movement
F:    Debates over the Founders of the Republic;  Competing Claims
Classes end Dec. 6

Reading Day:  Dec. 7
Exam Period:  Dec. 9-13
Final Exam: The final exam will be on Thursday, Dec. 12 at 3:00 P.M. – 5:30 PM.. The final exam will be worth 1/6 of your semester grade.

 
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Course Requirements:
Three tests
Ten Critical Thinking Writing Exercises (This will address the writing intensive aspects of this course.)
Final comprehensive examination
Class discussion (This is a speaking intensive course; students will make special oral presentations to the class to be scheduled throughout the semester.   These special presentations will be viewed as part of your total participation in class discussion.  Students will select a particular thinker to make a report on, and once everyone has selected a thinker the dates of the presentations will be posted on the syllabus.)

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Grading:
Your semester grade will be based on three tests, the combined score on 10 critical thinking writing exercises, the final exam, and your contribution to class discussion.  Each will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.
Grading: This course uses the + and – grading scale.

            The total possible number of points to earn for the course is 600.  Grades will be assigned according to the following percentages: 

A+ = 98-100%

A = 92-97%

A-    = 90-91%

B+ = 88-89%

B = 82-87%

B-    = 80-81%

C+ = 78-79%

C = 72-77%

C-    = 70-71%

D+ = 68-69%

D = 62-67%

D- = 60-61%

F = 59% and below

 

Students with Disabilities:

            If you have a documented disability and require accommodations to obtain equal access in this course, please let me know at the beginning of the semester or when given an assignment for which an accommodation is required.  The Director of Disability Support Services can be reached at x2391. 

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Attendance Policy:
The attendance policy for this course is the University policy found in the University Catalog and Student Handbook:
 Students are expected to attend all classes. Failure to attend class regularly impairs academic performance. Absences are disruptive to the educational process for others. This is especially true when absences cause interruptions for clarification of material previously covered, failure to assume assigned responsibilities for class presentations, or failure to adjust to changes in assigned material or due dates.  It is the responsibility of each instructor to give students a copy of his or her attendance policy in the course syllabus. Instructors may assign a grade of “0” or “F” on work missed because of unexcused absences. Instructors have the right to lower a student's course grade, but no more than one letter grade, if the student misses 10 percent of the scheduled class meeting times for unexcused absences.  Instructors have the right to assign a course grade of “F” when the student has missed a total (excused and unexcused) of 25 percent of the scheduled class meeting times. Students must assume full responsibility for any loss incurred because of absence, whether excused or unexcused. Instructors should permit students to make up work when the absence is excused. Excused absences are those resulting from the student's participation in a University sponsored activity, from recognizable emergencies, or from serious illness. Faculty may require documentation for excused absences in their attendance policy. Student Health Services can provide documentation only for students hospitalized locally or absent at the direction of Student Health Services personnel.

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Honor Code:
Students are expected to live by the Longwood University Honor Code. All work done for the class must be pledged. Your instructor will not tolerate any form of cheating.

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Class Discussion:
Your instructor values class participation. Students are encouraged to ask questions and to express their knowledge and beliefs about the material and issues being dealt with in class. Students are expected to make contributions to class discussion.
Your grade in this regard (which is worth 1/6 of your semester grade) will be based upon your daily contributions during the semester.  Since this is a speaking intensive course, part of the class participation grade will be based on the formal presentations students make to the class.
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Critical Thinking Writing Exercises:
There will be 10 critical thinking writing exercises. These assignments will be three pages in length. They will be done in Microsoft Word with a Font size 12 and double spaced.  For students majoring in either history or political science, documentation for these exercises will be done according to the Turabian format for a research paper. A shorter version of that style manual can be found on the History style manual at the following web address: http://www.longwood.edu/philpolhist/resources.htm
Students majoring in other disciplines may follow the documentation style they are use to employing in their disciplines.  All of these essays will also be turned in at: http://www.turnitin.com/  When you go to this site you must first establish your own identification and password.  You then go to this course entitled American Political Thought, use the course ID 6828952 and the course password Posc342 
Students will turn in a hard copy of the essay on the day the essays are due, and must also submit an electronic copy to the turnitin.com site or receive a 0 on the assignment.
Your essays also must demonstrate reading beyond what is required for class assignments and must reflect knowledge of current political events.  Each essay is worth 10 points.  There are 10 essays due during the semester.
Late papers will lose points.

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Taking Exams:
All tests and exams must be taken on time.
You are expected to provide proof for any legitimate reason (illness, participation in a University sponsored activity, or recognizable emergency) you have for missing a test or exam.  Critical thinking writing exercises handed in past the time they are due will lose points.

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Bibliography:
 
 

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