POLITICAL SCIENCE 343
AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
Fall, 2007

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Instructor: Dr. Harbour
Office: East Ruffner 228
Office telephone: 395-2219
Office hours:
MWF 11:00-12:00  TR 9:30-10:30
harbourwr@longwood.edu

Table of Contents
 Course Description
 Texts
 Course Objectives
 Class Schedule
 Course Requirements
 Grading
 Attendance Policy
 Honor Code
 Class Discussion
 Critical Thinking Writing Exercises
 Taking Exams
 Bibliography

Course Description:
A study of U.S. foreign policy with special attention to the policy making process, current problems in foreign affairs, and the development of long-range foreign policy.

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Texts:

Steven W. Hook and John Spanier.  American Foreign Policy Since World War II.  Seventeenth Edition.  CQ Press: Washington , D.C. , 2007.  

Bruce W. Jentleson, American Foreign Policy: The Dynamics of Choice in the 21st Century. Third Edition.  W.W. Norton & Company: New York , 2007.  

Andrew Bennet and George Shambaugh.  Editors.  Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in American Foreign Policy.  Fourth Edition.  McGraw-Hill/Dushkin: Dubuque , Iowa , 2007.

Foreign Affairs.  (March/April 2007) Issue. Gulf Wars. Published by The Council on Foreign Relations

Students will also be required to purchase a discounted subscription to the New York Times from the Bookstore.

Other Reading:
Students are expected to keep up with current foreign policy developments and may follow the news through the following online sites:
http://www.cnn.com/
http://www.nytimes.com/
http://www.gallup.com/
For U.S. State Department information on major international issues go to: http://www.state.gov/issuesandpress/
For U.S. State Department information on various countries go to: http://www.state.gov/countries/
Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/ 
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues)
Students can also make use of Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs found online at:
http://www.opencrs.com/ Many of these reports are excellent reviews of foreign policy issues.

Click HERE  for the Study Guide which contains questions for reading and thinking about the assignments, links to useful web sties containing materials on the topics being explored, and suggestions on developing your research for the critical thinking writing assignments.

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Course Objectives:

Upon completion of the course, students will be able to:

1. Demonstrate a capacity for critical and analytical thought about issues central to
American foreign policy.

2. Demonstrate an ability to communicate their knowledge and beliefs about  American
Foreign policy both orally and in writing.

3. Describe the essential features of American foreign policy.

4.  Identify information regarding American foreign policy that is necessary for useful
and responsible citizenship.

5. Discuss important philosophical and ethical issues associated with the making and
substance of American foreign policy.

6. Discuss the major ways in which political scientists have tried to understand
American foreign policy.

7. Discuss how American foreign policy has shaped and been shaped by the dynamic
social forces contemporary society.

8. Demonstrate an awareness of the diversity of persuasions and interests regarding
various aspects of American foreign policy.

9. Discuss elements of continuity and change within American foreign policy.

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Class Schedule:

Part I     Weeks 1-4    Historical Review

Week 1 (Aug. 27-31) Sources of American Foreign Policy; The Origins of the Cold War
Read: Jentleson, Chpt. 1 and readings 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4; Chpt. 3 and readings 3.1, 3.2
          Chpt. 4 and readings 4.1, 4.2, 4.3
          Hook and Spanier, Chpts. 1, 2, 3
Special Topics:
M:  Introduction to American Foreign Policy; Competing Views on the Sources of American Foreign Policy
W:  American Foreign Policy Before and During WWII; The Origins of the Cold War
F:  The Doctrine of Containment; Economic Plans; Alliance Systems; Nuclear Balance of Terror
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 1
Discuss the ideas behind the most important doctrines and policies developed by the Truman administration. Explain how these ideas served as the basis for American foreign policy for the next 40 years.
This assignment is due at the beginning of class on Friday, Aug. 31.

Week 2 (Sept. 3-7) The Third World, Cuba, Vietnam, Détente, and Continued Superpower Competition
Read: Hook and Spanier, Chpts. 4, 5, 6
          Jentleson, Chpt. 5 (pages 128-155) and readings 5.1, 5.2
Special Topics:
M: No class on Monday - Labor Day
W: America and the Third World; The Cuban Missile Crisis
W: Vietnam, Nixon, Détente
      The Carter Years and the Collapse of Détente
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 2
Write a three page essay on why the United States failed in Vietnam and the various lessons foreign policy analysts drew from that failure.
A good website with links to good research sources on the war in Vietnam may be found at:
          http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/vietnam.htm
This assignment is due at the beginning of class on Friday, Sept. 7.

Week 3 (Sept. 10-14) Superpower Confrontation and Conciliation; The End of the Cold War, The 1990s
Read: Jentleson, Chpt. 5 (pages 155-174) and readings 5.3, 5.4
          Hook and Spanier, Chpts. 7, 8, 9, 10
Special Topics:
M: The Reagan Years
W: The Bush Years
F: The Clinton Years
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 3
Write a three page essay in which you explain how and why the cold war ended?  What were the most important factors at work?
This assignment is due at the beginning of class on Friday, Sept. 14.

Week 4 (Sept. 17-21 ) Models of Policy Making; Rational Choice and Game Theory
Read:  Take a look at the following web site that provides a good introduction to game theory:
          http://www.econ.rochester.edu/eco108/ch17/micro17/index.htm
          Also go to the Britannic website, click under History & Humanities, search under game theory <http://search.britannica.com/search?query=game+theory> and study material under the following sites: <http://www.britannica.com/bcom/eb/article/5/0,5716,117275+1+109420,00.html?query=game%20theory>
<http://search.britannica.com/frm_redir.jsp?query=game+theory&redir=http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/game-theory/>
<http://www.britannica.com/bcom/magazine/article/print/0,5746,213696,00.html>
Special Topics:
M: Introduction to Rational Choice Theory
W: Applications of Game Theory to Decision Making in Foreign Policy
F: First Test
NOTE: You will have your first test on Friday, Sept. 21. This test will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

Part II    Weeks 5-8   Contemporary Issues After the Cold War

Week 5 (Sept. 24-28) The United States after the Cold War 
Read: Jentleson, Chpt. 7 (pages 309-310, 339-348); Readings 11.1, 11.2
          Hook and Spanier, Chpts. 10, 14
          Bennet and Shambaugh, Issues 1, 2, 8, 11 
          Ray Takeyh, "Time for Detente with Iran" in Foreign Affairs March/April 2007.
Special Topics:
M: What issues are involved in the debate over what Fukuyama calls the "End of History" and what are the implications for American foreign policy?
What issues are involved in the debate over what Huntington calls the "Clash of Civilizations" and what are the implications for American foreign policy?
W: What are the most important WMD proliferation issues facing the United States today?
F:  What are the issues at stake involving Iran? 
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 4
Write a three page essay in which you evaluate Huntington's claims about a "clash of civilizations" and what you think are the implications for American foreign policy that flow from your own assessment of his claims.
This assignment is due by the beginning of class on Friday, Feb. 28.

Week 6 (Oct. 1-5)Terrorism, Islamism, and the Middle East
Read:  Hook and Spanier, Chpts. 12, 13, 14
           Jentleson, Chpt. 8; Reading 8.3
           Bennet and Shambaugh, Issues 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 19
           Mary Crane, "Does the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood Have Ties to Terrorism?" at Council on Foreign Relations website at:
           http://www.cfr.org/publication/9248/
           James D. Fearon, "Iraq's Civil War" in Foreign Affairs March/April 2007.
           Robert S. Leiken and Steven Brooke, "The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood" in Foreign Affairs March/April 2007.
           Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues) where you then can do a search for the following articles:  
Jost, K. (2006, November 3). Understanding Islam. CQ Researcher, 16, 913-936.  From CQ Researcher Online, http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2006110301  
Katel, P. (2006, October 27). Middle East Tensions. CQ Researcher, 16, 889-912. From CQ Researcher Online, http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2006102701           
The Council On Foreign Relations has established, in cooperation with The Markle Foundation, a new online encyclopedia on terrorism at:
http://www.terrorismanswers.com/home/
            Students interesting in background information on various terrorist organizations may look at the following online sites: http://www.cfr.org/issue/135/terrorism.html and http://www.tkb.org/Home.jsp
Special Topics:
M: What are the issues involved in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?
W: What issues face American foreign policy with the rise of Islamism and the War on Terror?
F: What are the stakes involved in the current war in Iraq?
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 5
Write a three page essay in which you explain why the United States is so hated in much of the Middle East.  Then explain how you would advise President Bush, if asked, as to what should be done about this.
This assignment is due at the beginning of class on Friday, October 5..

Week 7 (Oct. 8-12)  American Relations with Russia, China, India and Japan
Read:  Jentleson, Chpt. 7 (pages 310-328, 335-339)
           Hook and Spanier, Chpt. 14
           Bennet and Shambaugh, Issue 10
           Warren I. Cohen, "Chinese Lessons" in Foreign Affairs March/April 2007.
           Michael J. Green, "Japan is Back" in Foreign Affairs March/April 2007.
           Richard Katz and Peter Ennis, "How Able is Abe?" in Foreign Affairs March/April 2007.
           Ashutosh Varshney, "India's Democratic Challenge" in Foreign Affairs March/April 2007.
           Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues) where you then can do a search for the following article:  Katel, P. (2005, November 11). Emerging China. CQ Researcher, 15, 957-980. From CQ Researcher Online, http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2005111101
Special Topics:
M: What are the most important issues at stake in American relations with Russia?
W:  What are the most important issues at stake in American relations with China?
F:  What are the most important issues at stake in American relations with India and Japan?
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 6.
Write a three page essay in which you discuss the most important issues at stake in American relations with China.  Explain how you would advise President Bush, if asked, as to what policies we should have regarding China.
This assignment is due at the beginning of class on Friday, October 12.

Fall  Break  October 15-16  No Classes

Week 8 (Oct. 17-19) America and Western Europe
Read:  Jentleson, Chpt. 7 (pages 328-335) 
           Hook and Spanier, Chpt. 11
Special Topics:
W:  What are the most important issues involved in American relations with Western Europe?
F:    Second Test
Note: You will have your second test on Friday, Oct. 19. This test will count for 1/6 of your semester grade

Part III   Weeks 9-13 Decision Making Institutions and Players

Week 9 (Oct. 22-26) Domestic Forces Influencing Foreign Policy
Read: Jentleson, Chpt. 2 (pages 40-60) and Reading 2.3; Chpt. 6 (pages 294-307); Reading 9.2
Special Topics:
M: The Media and Public Opinion
W: Electoral Politics
F: Interest Groups
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 7
For this assignment you are to write a three page essay in which you explain the impact of interest groups, elite organizations, and think thanks such as the Council on Foreign Relations, the Trilateral Commission, the Brookings Institution, and the Heritage Foundation to the making of American foreign policy.  Go to the web sites of these and other organizations, find out about their missions, history, and membership, and then look up the backgrounds of the key foreign policy individuals in the current and recent administrations in order to develop some ideas for this essay.
This assignment is due by the beginning of class on Friday, Oct. 26.

Week 10 (Oct. 29-Nov. 2) Presidential Primacy versus Congress
Read: Jentleson, Chpt. 2 (pages 25-35) and Reading 2.1; Chpt. 6 (pages 280-287)
          Go to the following online site for a Congressional Research Service Report on 
          the War Powers Act and Presidential Compliance: http://www.fas.org/man/crs/IB81050.pdf  
          Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues) where you then can do a search for the following article: Jost, K. (2006, February 24). Presidential power. CQ Researcher, 16, 169-192. From CQ Researcher Online, http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2006022401
Special Topics:

M: The Constitution and the Debate over War Making Powers
W: The Role of the Presidency
F: The Role of Congress
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 8
Write a three page essay in which you discuss the basic issues at stake in the debate over presidential war making powers.
This assignment is due by the beginning of class on Nov. 2.

Week 11 (Nov. 5-9) Institutional Forces; The Bureaucracies; Policy Instruments
Read: Jentleson, Chpt. 2 (pages 35-40), Reading 2.2; Chpt. 6 (pages 287-294)
         Bennet and Shambaugh, Issues 13, 14
         Martin Feldstein, "The Underfunded Pentagon" in Foreign Affairs March/April 2007.
         Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues) where you then can do a search for the following article:  Katel, P. (2007, February 23). New strategy in Iraq. CQ Researcher, 17, 169-192.  From CQ Researcher Online, http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2007022301
Special Topics:
M: The State Department, Diplomacy, and Economic Tools
W: Intelligence Agencies and Covert Action
F: The Pentagon and Use of Force
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 9
How should the United States deal with the situation in Iraq?  Explain how you would advise President Bush, if asked, as to what should be done about the problems there.
This assignment is due at the beginning of class on Friday, Nov. 9.

Week 12 (Nov. 12-16) International Institutions, Multilateralism, Unilateralism
Read: Jentleson, Chpt. 6 (pages 258-281) and readings 6.1, 6.2, 7.1, 7.2, 8.1, 8.2
          Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues) where you then can do a search for the following article:  Jost, K. (2007, February 2). Rethinking foreign policy. CQ Researcher, 5, 97-120. From CQ Researcher Online, http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2007020201
Special Topics:
M:  The United States and International Institutions
W:  Multilateralism vs. Unilateralism
R:  The Bush Administration
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 10
Write a three page essay in which you discuss the most important issues involved in the debate over unilateralism and multilateralism in American foreign policy.  How do you evaluate the approach of the current administration on this matter?

Week 13  (Nov. 19-20)  Third Test
NOTE: You will have your third test on Monday, November 19. This test will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

Thanksgiving Vacation  Nov. 21-25  No Classes

Part IV    Weeks 14-15   The Future

Week 14 (Nov. 26-30) Globalization, Economics, and the Environment
Read: Jentleson, Chpt. 10 and Readings 10.1, 10.2, 10.3
          Bennet and Shambaugh, Issues 15, 16, 17, 18
          William S. Brody, "College Goes Global" in Foreign Affairs March/April 2007.
          Paul Farmer  "From 'Marvelous Momentum' to Health Care for All" in Foreign Affairs March/April 2007.
          Daniel W. Drezner, "The New World Order" in Foreign Affairs March/April 2007.
          Michael T. Osterholm, "Unprepared for a Pandemic" in Foreign Affairs March/April 2007.
Katel, P. (2006, July 21). Change in Latin America. CQ Researcher, 16, 601-624. From CQ Researcher Online, http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2006072101        
Special Topics:
M: Globalization, American Policy, and The World Economy
W: Globalization, Economic Growth, and Poverty (Look at particular issues in Latin America and Africa)
F: Globalization, Environmental and Health Issues (Look at particular issues in Latin America and Africa)

Week 15 (Dec. 3-7) Democratization, Human Rights, Humanitarian Intervention
Read: Jentleson, Chpts. 9, 11 and Readings 9.1, 9.2; 10.3; 11.3
         Bennet and Shambaugh, Issues 3, 9, 20, 21
          John Predergast and Colin Thomas-Jensen, "Blowing the Horn" in Foreign Affairs March/April 2007.
Special Topics:
M: Human Rights and Humanitarian Intervention (Look at special issues in Africa)
W: Should American foreign policy attempt to promote democracy?
F: Alternative Futures

Classes end Dec. 7
Reading Day:  Dec. 8
Exam Period:  Dec. 10-14
Final Exam: The final exam will be on Thursday, Dec. 13 at 3:00 P.M. - 5:30 P.M. The final exam will be worth 1/6 of your semester grade.

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Course Requirements:
Three tests
Ten Critical Thinking Writing Exercises
Final comprehensive examination
Class discussion

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Grading:
Your semester grade will be based on three tests, the combined score on 10 critical thinking writing exercises, the final exam, and your contribution to class discussion.  Each will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

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Attendance Policy:
The attendance policy for this course is the University policy found in the University Catalog and Student Handbook:
 Students are expected to attend all classes. Failure to attend class regularly impairs academic performance. Absences are disruptive to the educational process for others. This is especially true when absences cause interruptions for clarification of material previously covered, failure to assume assigned responsibilities for class presentations, or failure to adjust to changes in assigned material or due dates.  It is the responsibility of each instructor to give students a copy of his or her attendance policy in the course syllabus. Instructors may assign a grade of “0” or “F” on work missed because of unexcused absences. Instructors have the right to lower a student's course grade, but no more than one letter grade, if the student misses 10 percent of the scheduled class meeting times for unexcused absences.  Instructors have the right to assign a course grade of “F” when the student has missed a total (excused and unexcused) of 25 percent of the scheduled class meeting times. Students must assume full responsibility for any loss incurred because of absence, whether excused or unexcused. Instructors should permit students to make up work when the absence is excused. Excused absences are those resulting from the student's participation in a University sponsored activity, from recognizable emergencies, or from serious illness. Faculty may require documentation for excused absences in their attendance policy. Student Health Services can provide documentation only for students hospitalized locally or absent at the direction of Student Health Services personnel.

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Honor Code:
Students are expected to live by the Longwood University Honor Code. All work done for the class must be pledged. Your instructor will not tolerate any form of cheating.

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Class Discussion:
Your instructor values class participation. Students are encouraged to ask questions and to express their knowledge and beliefs about the material and issues being dealt with in class. Students are expected to make contributions to class discussion.
Your grade in this regard (which is worth 1/6 of your semester grade)  will be based upon your daily contributions during the semester.
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Critical Thinking Writing Exercises:
There will be 10 critical thinking writing exercises. These papers will usually be 3 pages in length and be handed in at the beginning of class on the day they are due.  They are not to be sent as an email attachment.  Late papers will lose points. They will be done in Microsoft Word with a Font size 12 and double spaced. Any documentation for these exercises will be done according to the Turabian format for a research paper. Failure to cite sources properly will cost points and may result in a 0 for the paper. A shorter version of that style manual can be found on the History style manual at the following web address: <http://www.longwood.edu/history/HDPTSTS2.htm>

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Taking Exams:
All tests and exams must be taken on time. You are expected to provide proof for any legitimate reason (illness, participation in a University sponsored activity, or recognizable emergency) you have for missing a test or exam.  Critical thinking writing exercises handed in past the time they are due will lose points.

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Bibliography:

Required Texts:

Steven W. Hook. U.S. Foreign Policy: The Paradox of World Power. CQ Press: Washington, D.C.,   2005.  
Bruce W. Jentleson, American Foreign Policy: The Dynamics of Choice in the 21st Century. Second      Edition.  W.W. Norton & Company: New York, 2004. 
The 9/11 Commission Report (authorized edition) Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist   Attacks Upon the United States

Additional Material:

Graham T. Allison, Albert Carnesale & Joseph S. Nye, Jr. Editors. Hawks, Doves, and
 Owls: An agenda for avoiding nuclear war.  New York: W. W. Norton, 1985.
Graham Allison and Gregory F. Treverton. Rethinking America’s Security. Editors.
 New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1992.
Gar Alperovitz.  Atomic Diplomacy.  New York:  Vintage Books, 1967.
Richard Betts.  Conflicts After the Cold War: Arguments on the Causes of War and
 Peace.  New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1994.
Zbigniew Brzezinski.  Power and Principle.  New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1983.
Colton C. Campbell, Nicol C. Rae, John F. Stack, Jr.  Congress and the Politics of Foreign
 Policy.  Upper Saddle River, Jew Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 2003.
David Louis Cingranelli.  Ethics, American Foreign Policy, and the Third World.
 New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993.
Cecil V. Crabb, Jr. The Doctrines of American Foreign Policy.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana
 State University, 1982.
David A. Deese.  The New Politics of American Foreign Policy. New York: St. Martin’s
 Press, Inc., 1994.
From Foreign AffairsAmerica and the World: Debating the New Shape of International Politics.  Introduction by Foreign Affairs Managing Editor Gideon Rose.
William J. Fulbright. Arrogance of Power. New York: Random House, 1966.
Morton H. Halperin. Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy. Washington, D.C.:
 Brookings Institution, 1974.
Harvard Nuclear Study Group. Living with Nuclear Weapons. Cambridge Mass.:
 Harvard University Press, 1983.
Irving Janis. Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes.
 Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1983.
Bruce W. Jentleson. Editor.  Perspectives on American Foreign Policy: Readings and
 Cases.  New York:  W. W. Norton & Company, 2000.
Robert Kennedy. Thirteen Days. New York: W. W. Norton, 1971.
Henry A. Kissinger. Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy. New York: Harper &
 Brothers, 1957.
Henry A. Kissinger. The White House Years. Boston: Little, Brown, 1979.
Walter Laqueur. The Age of Terrorism. Boston: Little, Brown, 1987.
Robert J. Maddox. The New Left and the Origins of the Cold War. Princeton, N.J.:
 Princeton University Press, 1973.
Richard Nixon. RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon. New York: Grosset & Dunlap,
 1978.
Joseph S. Nye. Nuclear Ethics. New York: The Free Press, 1986
Joseph S. Nye, Jr.  The Paradox of American Power.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2003..
Richard Smoke. National Security and the Nuclear Dilemma. Third Edition, New York:
 Random House, 1993.
Donald M. Snow. National Security: Defense Policy for a New International Order.
 Third Edition. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.
John Spanier and Eric M. Uslaner. American Foreign Policy and the Democratic
 Dilemmas. Sixth Edition. Pacific Grove, California: Brooks/Cole Publishing
 Company, 1994. Richard Smoke.
Eugene R. Wittkopf and James M. McCormick.  The Domestic Sources of American
 Foreign Policy: Insights and Evidence.  Third Edition.  Lantham, MD:  1998.
 
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