STUDY GUIDE FOR POSC 343
AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

General Information on the Study of International Issues
General Reference Works and News Sources
Writing Assignments
Study Questions for Reading Assignments for Each Class Meeting



GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE STUDY OF INTERNATIONAL ISSUES

For U.S. State Department information on major international issues go to: http://www.state.gov/issuesandpress/
For U.S. State Department information on various countries go to: http://www.state.gov/countries/

Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/ 
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues)
Students can also make use of Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs found online at:
http://www.opencrs.com/ Many of these reports are excellent reviews of foreign policy issues.


Amnesty International tracks human rights issues around the world and maintains a site at:
http://amnesty.org

Useful material on the United Nations and many international issues may be found using the UN site:
http://www.un.org/
  The UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights may be found at: http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html
  More information on United Nations Conventions, Treaties, and Agreements on Human Rights may be found at:
http://www.un.org/rights/

Very good articles on international issues and American foreign policy may be found at the site of The Council on Foreign Relations: http://www.foreignaffairs.org/
The Council has also established, in cooperation with The Markle Foundation, a new online encyclopedia on terrorism at:
http://www.terrorismanswers.com/home/

Students may also benefit from reading the online articles and debates on foreign policy issues by going to the online site of The National Interest: http://nationalinterest.org/articles

Very good articles on international issues and America foreign policy (and links to public opinion polls on the views of ordinary Americans and elites on those issues) may be found at the Chicago Council on Foreign Relations site at:
http://www.ccfr.org/

The Brookings Institution (a generally liberal think tank) sponsors a number of studies on international issue and may be located onlline at: http://www.brook.edu/

The Heritage Foundation (a generally conservative think tank) sponsors a site on national security and international issues at:
http://nationalsecurity.org/

Very useful information on international relations and U.S. intelligence and national security issues may be found at the CIA web site at: http://www.cia.gov/  The CIA World Fact Book is quite useful.


FOR GENERAL REFERENCE WORKS AND NEWS STORIES

 

Students are expected to keep up with current foreign policy developments and may follow the news through the following online sites:
http://www.cnn.com/
http://www.nytimes.com/
http://www.washingtonpost.com/

http://www.gallup.com/
http://www.foxnews.com/
http://www.bbc.com/



WRITING ASSIGNMENTS

Part I Format
The papers will be done according to the Turabian format for a research paper. You will be encouraged to relate the issues raised in your research report to the broader themes examined in this course.
 A shorter version of that style manual can be found on the History style manual at the following web address: <http://www.longwood.edu/history/HDPTSTS2.htm>
 The following web site will introduce you to several useful links on how to document sources from the Internet:
<http://www.h-net.msu.edu/about/citation/>
The links found there will give general rules and specific examples of how to document according to the Turabian style manual (University of Chicago Press Manual) used in history and political science.

Part II  Writing Resources
The following are some useful books on how to conduct research and write good papers in political science:
Gregory M. Scott & Stephen M. Garrison. The Political Science Student Writer's Manual.
    Third Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc, 1998.
Kate T. Turabian. A Manual For Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Sixth Edition.
    Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966.
Howard S. Becker. Writing for Social Scientists: How to Start and Finish Your Thesis, Book, or
    Article. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1986.
Diane Hacker. A Pocket Style Manual. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin’s Press, 1993.
Diane E. Schmidt. Expository Writing in Political Science: A Practical Guide. New York: Harper
    Collins College Publishers, 1993.

Part III  Research

While this online Study Guide obviously uses web materials, you will need to read the works (books and articles) written by the scholars who have investigated the subject matter of  your research project. Search the library, use inter-library loan if necessary, and consult with your instructor in order to cover principal primary and secondary works in your topic area.  While encyclopedias, especially the online Britannica service will be a good place for some general background information, one does not document from an encyclopedia in a scholarly paper at the college level. Do not overlook articles in academic journals, and make use of the Social Sciences Index and the Humanities Index.

While you should avoid over relying on internet materials for your projects, and avoid the use of worthless junk often found on the web, there are many excellent sites you will want to become familiar with as you prepare to enter an age in which individuals will have to become comfortable and proficient in finding and making good use of the electronic information resources. If you ever go Longwood University Library web site <http://www.longwood.edu/library/library.htm> you will find a guide with useful links to different information packets available at the library. There are also some excellent listings of good web sites by academic discipline under the Subject Guide <http://www.longwood.edu/library/subj.htm> If you go to the political science listing <http://www.longwood.edu/library/Polysci.htm> you will find great resources, including a listing of web sites.



STUDY QUESTIONS FOR READING ASSIGNMENTS FOR EACH CLASS MEETING

(This list is a work in progress based on daily assignments for the semester)

Links to Assignments by Week of the Semester

Week 1 Sources of American Foreign Policy; Global Context – the International System
Week 2 Societal Background; American Values, Culture, Democratic Institutions; Economic Forces
Week 3 Historical Background; The Cold War
Week 4 Historical Background; After the Cold War
Week 5 Domestic Forces Influencing Foreign Policy
Week 6 Presidential Primacy versus Congress
Week 7 Institutional Forces; The Bureaucracies
Week 8 Competing Policy Making Models
Week 9 Decision Making; Rational Choice and Game Theory
Week 10 Policy Instruments; Debate over Humanitarian Intervention
Week 11 The United States and the Middle East; Afghanistan and Pakistan
Week 12 Competing Visions of the Future
Week 13 Globalization, Economics, and the Environment; China
Week 14 Military Doctrines and the Use of Force; Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction


Part I     Weeks 1-4    Thinking About American Foreign Policy

Week 1 Sources of American Foreign Policy; Global Context – the International System
Assignment 1 Introduction to American Foreign Policy; The Global Context of American Foreign Policy –the International System
Read: Hastedt, Preface and Chpt. 1, Chpt. 2
           Hook and Spanier, Chpt. 1
Questions for Class Discussion:
1.  What are the key elements of the international system?
2.  How does the international system shape American foreign policy?
3.  What are the key aspects of the national interests?
4.  How has the context for American foreign policy been changing since the end of the cold war?
5.  How does Hastedt describe the six tasks involved in constructing foreign policies?
6.  How should we think about foreign policy problems?
7.  What are the different ways of defining the national interests?
8.  What are some of the major theories or models about the nature of the international system and how the international system shapes the foreign policy behavior of nation states?
9.  What have been some of the competing approaches of the United States to international institutions?

Week 2 Societal Background; American Values, Culture, Democratic Institutions; Economic Forces

Assignment 2 The role of national values and democratic institutions in shaping foreign policy; national style
Read: Hastedt, Chpt. 3
Questions for Class Discussion:
1.  How has political culture influenced American foreign policy?
2.  What are some of the consequences of the American national style?
3.  How do democratic institutions and values shape American foreign policy?
4.  What are some of the consequences of what some observers call the American national style?
5.  To what extent do U.S. foreign policies endanger democratic values?
6.  What are the consequences of trying to promote democracy?
7.  What do Hook and Spanier mean by “American Exceptionalism”?
8.  How do Hook and Spanier distinguish between what they call exemplarist and the vindicationist world views?

Assignment 3 The significance of economic values, institutions, and interests in shaping foreign policy
Read: Hastedt, Chpt. 3
          Hook and Spanier, Chpt. 1
Questions for Class Discussion:
1.  How has the evolution of the American economic system shaped American foreign policy?
2.  How do economic circumstances, forces, institutions, and interest groups shape American foreign policy?
3.  How does capitalism shape U.S. foreign policy?
4.  To what extent does a sound foreign policy involve trade-offs between certain ideals and values?
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 1

Write a three page essay on the role played by national style and core national values in shaping American foreign policy.
This assignment is due on Thursday.

Week 3 Historical Background; The Cold War
Assignment 4 The Cold War, Part I: Containment from Truman to Vietnam
Read:
Hastedt, Chpt. 4
          Hook and Spanier, Chpts. 7, 9
Questions for Class Discussion:
From isolation to WW II and the start of the cold war…
1.  What impact did geography have on the history of American foreign policy?
2.  What was the bases for the isolationist tradition in American foreign policy?
3.  What sort of imperialism became popular in some American quarters at the turn of the century?
3.  What were the goals of Wilsonian idealism during World War I?
4.  What direction did American foreign policy take during the 1920s and 1930s?
5.  What basic changes did WWII bring to the international system?
6.  What had been the expectations of American policy makers and citizens during WWII as to how the world would look after the war?
7.  What went wrong in American-Soviet relations?
8.  What were the causes of the cold war?
9.  What aspects of Soviet behavior did the United States oppose?
10.  Where did the Truman administration confront the Soviet Union?

From the Truman and Eisenhower Years…
1.
What were the key ideas advanced by George Kennan in his famous 1947 article in Foreign Affairs?
2.  What was the Truman Doctrine?
3.  What was the goal of the Marshall Plan?
4.  How did NATO come about?
5. What were the goal of containment?
6. What were the primary elements of the orthodox view about the origins of the cold war?
7. What were the primary elements of the revisionist view about origins of the cold war?
8. Does the fall of Communism is Eastern Europe put the debate about the origins of the cold war in any different light?
9. What events led up to the Communist victory in China?
10. How did the United States get involved in the Korean War?
11. What were the consequences of the Korean War for American foreign policy?
12. How did the Eisenhower administration conduct the cold war?

From the Eisenhower years to the Kennedy years…
1.
  How did the cold war come to the third world?
2.  What were the key points of tension between the United States and the Soviet Union in the third world?
3.  What were the problems faced by the United States in trying to extend the doctrine of containment to third world countries?
4.  What were the most important political developments going on in third world countries between 1945 and 1965?
5.  What were the key events leading up to the Cuban missile crisis?
6.  Why did Khrushchev put the missiles there?
7.  How did the Kennedy administration make decisions during the crisis?
8.  What were the strengths and weaknesses of that decision making process?
9.  What were options seriously considered by President Kennedy?
10.  What factors shaped the outcome of the crisis?
11.  How do you evaluated the decisions made by the Kennedy administration?

From Kennedy and Johnson and the War in Vietnam…
1.
How did and why did America get involved in Vietnam?
2. Why did LBJ decide to escalate the war in Vietnam?
3.  How did he go about his policy of escalation?
4. What were the consequences of his policies?
5. What should be learned from American failure in Vietnam?
6. What consequences did failure in Vietnam have for American foreign policy?

Assignment 5 The Cold War, Part II: From Détente to the End of the Soviet Union
Read:
Hastedt, Chpt. 4
          Hook and Spanier, Chpts. 7, 9
Questions for Class Discussion:
On the Nixon Years…
1.  What were the chief foreign policy challenges confronting the Nixon administration?
2.  What was détente all about?
3.  How did Nixon change U.S. policy regarding China?  Why?
4.  What were the most important agreements arranged between the U.S. and the Soviet Union during the Nixon-Ford years?
5.  How did Nixon deal with the war in Vietnam?
6.  What were the strengths and weaknesses of Nixon's policy of détente?

On the Carter Years…
1.
How did Carter try to change U.S. foreign policy?
2. What did he try to achieve in the area of Arms control?
3. How did he approach relations with China and the Soviet Union?
4. How did Carter's policies change over time?
5. What was the Iranian hostage crisis all about?

On the Reagan Years…
1.
How did Reagan approach relations with the Soviet Union during his first term in office?
2. How did Reagan change defense policies?
3. Where did he apply the Reagan doctrine?
4. What went wrong for the Reagan administration with the Iran-Contra scandal?
5. What was the significance of the INF agreement with the Soviet Union?
6.  How did Gorbachev help to change the nature of Soviet-American relations?
7.  How did the Reagan administration respond to new developments in Soviet policy?

On the Bush Years…
1.
  How did the cold war come to an end?  Why?
2.  How did the Bush administration respond to developments in Eastern Europe and in the Soviet Union?
3.  Was the outcome of the cold war due to wise American policies or foolish Soviet policies?
4.  What were the key events leading up to the Gulf War?
5.  What factors drove policies pursued by the Bush administration regarding the Gulf War?
6.  What were the key challenges facing the U.S. after the collapse of the Soviet Union?

Week 4 Historical Background; After the Cold War
Assignment 6 Foreign policies issues since the end of the cold war; 9/11 and the War on Terror
Read:
Hastedt, Chpt. 4
          Hook and Spanier, Chpts. 10-14
Questions for Class Discussion:
On the Clinton Years…
1.  What were the key challenges facing the Clinton administration?
2.  How did the Clinton administration become involved with humanitarian intervention in Haiti and the Balkans?
3.  What did Clinton administration mean be democratic enlargement?
4.  What international economic policies did the Clinton administration pursue?
5.  How did the Clinton administration deal with China?

On the George W. Bush Years and after…
1.
  How did the United States react to the 9/11 attacks?
2.  What were the most important doctrines advanced by the Bush administration?
3.  How did George W. Bush try to change the doctrines underlying American foreign policy?
4.  What policies have been developed in dealing with the threats posed by terrorism and the spread of weapons of mass destruction?

5.  What was the role in the ideology in the foreign policy of the Bush administration?
6.  Who were the key players in the decision making processes?
7.  What were some of the characteristics of those decision making processes?
8.  How do you evaluate the policies of the Bush administration?
9.  How did the Obama administration try to change the direction of U.S. foreign policy?
10.  What previous policies has the Obama administration pretty much kept in place?
11.  How do you evaluate the policies of the Obama administration?

What foreign policy agenda has been advanced by the Obama administration?

Assignment 7 NOTE: You will have your first test on Thursday. This test will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 3
Write a three page essay in which you discuss how key features of the international state system have influenced the competing world views that have shaped the evolution of American foreign policy.  Discuss different beliefs about national interests and how the world works that shape the competing views about whether or not the United States should be actively involved in world affairs. What forces and circumstances seem to shape which beliefs become dominant in different period of our national history?
This assignment is due on Friday.

Part II    Weeks 4-8    Domestic Forces; Decision Making Institutions and Players

Week 5 Domestic Forces Influencing Foreign Policy
Assignment 8 Public Opinion and the Media
Read:  Hastedt, Chpt. 5
Go to the websites for various think tanks.
Very good articles on international issues and American foreign policy may be found at the site of The Council on Foreign Relations: http://www.foreignaffairs.org/
Very good articles on international issues and America foreign policy (and links to public opinion polls on the views of ordinary Americans and elites on those issues) may be found at the Chicago Council on Global Affairs site at:
http://www.ccfr.org/
You may find useful material at the Trilateral Commission website at:
http://www.trilateral.org/
You may read studies representing contemporary liberalism by going to the online site of the Center for American Progress at:
           http://www.americanprogress.org/    and Brookings at: http://www.brookings.edu/
           You may read studies representing contemporary conservatism by going to the online site of The Heritage Foundation at:
            http://www.heritage.org/    and the American Enterprise Institute For Public Policy Research at:  http://www.aei.org/
Neoconservative views may be found at the website for the Project for a New American Century at:
http://www.newamericancentury.org/
Libertarian and neo-isolationist views may be found at the website of the Cato Institute at: http://www.cato.org/
Questions for Class Discussion:
1. How does the media influence foreign policy?
2. What is the so-called "CNN Effect"?
3. Is there such a thing?
4. How do decision makers try to use the media?
5. What sort of circumstances favor media influence in foreign policy?
6. What sort of circumstances limit media influence in foreign policy?
7. What role does public opinion play in shaping foreign policy?
8. What forces shape public opinion of foreign policy issues?
9. What does a review of public opinion polls tell us about the key characteristics of public opinion
    on foreign policy issues?
10. How do public opinion and elite opinion interact?

Assignment 9 Interest Groups and Think Tanks
Read:  Hastedt, Chpt. 5
Go to the websites for various think tanks.
Very good articles on international issues and American foreign policy may be found at the site of The Council on Foreign Relations: http://www.foreignaffairs.org/
Very good articles on international issues and America foreign policy (and links to public opinion polls on the views of ordinary Americans and elites on those issues) may be found at the Chicago Council on Global Affairs site at:
http://www.ccfr.org/
You may find useful material at the Trilateral Commission website at:
http://www.trilateral.org/
You may read studies representing contemporary liberalism by going to the online site of the Center for American Progress at:
           http://www.americanprogress.org/    and Brookings at: http://www.brookings.edu/
           You may read studies representing contemporary conservatism by going to the online site of The Heritage Foundation at:
            http://www.heritage.org/    and the American Enterprise Institute For Public Policy Research at:  http://www.aei.org/
Neoconservative views may be found at the website for the Project for a New American Century at:
http://www.newamericancentury.org/
Libertarian and neo-isolationist views may be found at the website of the Cato Institute at: http://www.cato.org/
Questions for Class Discussion:
1. What is the role of interest groups in shaping American foreign policy?
2. Which interests groups have a greater voice in foreign policy?
3. What sort of circumstances favor interest group influence in foreign policy?
4. What sort of circumstances limit interest group influence in foreign policy?
5. What are some of the core domestic values that shape foreign policy?
6. What domestic political realities shape foreign policy?
7. What domestic institutional realities shape foreign policy?
8. What is the role played by major elite organizations in shaping foreign policy?
9. What is the role played by the Council on Foreign Relations and other such groups?
10. How do ethnic groups influence American foreign policy?

Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 4
For this assignment you are to write a three page essay in which you explain the impact of interest groups, elite organizations, and think thanks such as the Council on Foreign Relations and the Heritage Foundation to the making of American foreign policy.  Go to the web sites of these and other organizations, find out about their missions, history, and membership, and then look up the backgrounds of the key foreign policy individuals in the current and recent administrations in order to develop some ideas for this essay.
This assignment is due by the beginning of class on Friday.

Week 6 Presidential Primacy versus Congress
Assignment 10 The Constitution and the Debate over War Making Powers:  Presidential Dominance
Read: Hastedt, Chpts. 6, 7
          Go to the following online site for a Congressional Research Service Report on 
          the War Powers Act and Presidential Compliance: http://www.fas.org/man/crs/IB81050.pdf  
          Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues) where you then can do a search for the following article: Jost, K. (2006, February 24). Presidential power. CQ Researcher, 16, 169-192. From CQ Researcher Online, http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2006022401
Questions for Class Discussion:
1.  How does the Constitution assign responsibilities for foreign policy?
2.  How does the Constitution assign responsibilities for defense policy questions of going to war?
3.  How have practices challenged some of intentions of the framers of the Constitution?
4.  What issues are involved in the debate over presidential war powers?
5.  How does one see the debate over war powers being played out since the end of the Cold War?
6.  How is that debate being played out right now?
7.  What are the bases for the president's role in foreign policy?
8.  What factors and circumstances favor presidential leadership over foreign policy?
9.  What factors and circumstances limit presidential leadership in foreign policy?
10.  How does the current president see his role in this area?
11. What is the role played by the large foreign affairs bureaucracy that has grown up around the president?
12. What are the key institutions available to the president in making foreign policy?
13. How do electoral politics effect foreign policy?
14. Are there some typical patterns in how the party in power and the out party approach certain foreign policy issues?
15. How does the election cycle and electoral politics in general influence foreign policy?
16. What are some common, institutionally inherent problems facing first term presidents?
17. What are some common, institutionally inherent problems facing second term presidents?
18. What problems for our foreign policy are created by electoral politics and the election cycle?

Assignment 11 The Role of Congress
Read: Hastedt, Chpts. 6, 7
          Go to the following online site for a Congressional Research Service Report on 
          the War Powers Act and Presidential Compliance: http://www.fas.org/man/crs/IB81050.pdf  
          Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues) where you then can do a search for the following article: Jost, K. (2006, February 24). Presidential power. CQ Researcher, 16, 169-192. From CQ Researcher Online, http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2006022401
Questions for Class Discussion:
1.  What are the resources available to Congress when it tries to influence foreign policy?
2.  What are the disadvantages Congress has in trying to influence foreign policy?
3.  How has Congress tried to assert itself in foreign policy in the past ten years?
4.  Is Congress a responsible player in foreign policy?
5. What circumstances favor a strong Congressional role in foreign policy?
6.  What circumstances limit the role of Congress in foreign policy?

Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 5
Write a three page essay in which you discuss the basic issues at stake in the debate over presidential war making powers.
This assignment is due on Thursday.

Week 7 Institutional Forces; The Bureaucracies
Assignment 12 The Role of the State Department; The Role of the Defense Department
Read: Hastedt, Chpt. 8
Questions for Class Discussion:
1.  What is the role of the State Department in foreign policy?
2.  What resources are available to the State Department?
3.  How has the role of the department increased and decrease over recent decades?
4.  What circumstances help the department play a strong role in foreign policy?
5.  What circumstances limit the role of the department?
6.  What factors help make diplomacy effective?
7.  What factors limit the effectiveness of diplomacy?
8.  What economic tools are important policy instruments?
9.  Under what circumstances are economic tools effective instruments of foreign policy?
10.  What circumstances limit the effectiveness of economic tools?
11.  What is the role of the Pentagon in foreign policy?
12.  What resources are available to the Department of Defense in influencing foreign policy?
13.  How has the role of the department increased and decrease over recent decades?
14.  What circumstances help the department play a strong role in foreign policy?
15.  What circumstances limit the role of the department?
16.  What circumstances favor the use of force in foreign policy?
17.  What circumstances limit the use of force to advance foreign policy objectives?

Assignment 13 The Role of the Intelligence Community; The Role of Domestic Departments
Read: Hastedt, Chpt. 8
Questions for Class Discussion:
1. What are the inherent problems facing intelligence agencies?
2.  What problems face the consumers of the reports of these agencies?
3.  Should these agencies be restructured or abolished?
4.  What are the problems for presidential leadership in this area?
5.  How does the bureaucratic politics model apply to this area?
6. Under what circumstances would covert action by most appropriate?
7  Under what circumstances would covert action be a mistake?
8. What were the shortcomings of intelligence agencies prior to 9/11?
9. What changes have been made in regard to intelligence agencies since 9/11?
10.  What are the roles played by the Treasury, Commerce, and Agriculture Department in American foreign policy?

Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 6
Write a three page essay on the extent and limits of the State Department as an important player in the making of United States foreign policy.  Discuss the conditions under which the State Department is useful and has a good chance for having influence and the conditions under which the State Department sees it influence as diminished.
This assignment is due on Thursday.

Week 8 Competing Policy Making Models
Assignment 14 Competing models that try to explain how foreign policy should or does get made
Read: Hastedt, Chpt. 9
Questions for Class Discussion:


Assignment 15 Second Test
Note: You will have your second test on Thursday. This test will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.  

Part III - Weeks 8-12 - Decision Making; Policy Instruments; Contemporary Issues; Alternative Futures

Week 9 Decision Making; Rational Choice and Game Theory
Special Topics:
Assignment 16 Decision Making and the Role of Individuals
Read:  Hastedt, Chpt. 9
           Take a look at the following web site that provides a good introduction to game theory:
          http://www.econ.rochester.edu/eco108/ch17/micro17/index.htm
          Also go to the Britannic website, click under History & Humanities, search under game theory <http://search.britannica.com/search?query=game+theory> and study material under the following sites: <http://www.britannica.com/bcom/eb/article/5/0,5716,117275+1+109420,00.html?query=game%20theory>
<http://search.britannica.com/frm_redir.jsp?query=game+theory&redir=http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/game-theory/>
<http://www.britannica.com/bcom/magazine/article/print/0,5746,213696,00.html>
Questions for Class Discussion:
1. What are the main assumptions behind rational choice theory and game theory?
2. What are the strengths of these two models?
3. What are the weaknesses of these two models?
4. What are some of the key characteristics of two person games?
5. What are some of the key characteristics of two person zero sum games?
6. What are some of the key characteristics of two person non-zero sum games?
7. What political implications are found in the "prisoner's dilemma"?
8. How do those implications relate to foreign policy issues?

Assignment 17 Introduction to Rational Choice Theory;  Applications of Game Theory to Decision Making in Foreign Policy
Read:  Hastedt, Chpt. 9
           Take a look at the following web site that provides a good introduction to game theory:
          http://www.econ.rochester.edu/eco108/ch17/micro17/index.htm
          Also go to the Britannic website, click under History & Humanities, search under game theory <http://search.britannica.com/search?query=game+theory> and study material under the following sites: <http://www.britannica.com/bcom/eb/article/5/0,5716,117275+1+109420,00.html?query=game%20theory>
<http://search.britannica.com/frm_redir.jsp?query=game+theory&redir=http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/game-theory/>
<http://www.britannica.com/bcom/magazine/article/print/0,5746,213696,00.html>
Questions for Class Discussion:
1.. What political implications are found in the "prisoner's dilemma" as applied to arms control and arms races?
2.  What other lessons does game theory offer to foreign policy analysts and practitioners?
3. What sort of circumstances support the strengths of rational choice and game theory  models?
3. What sort of circumstances show the weaknesses of these models?
4. What could presidents learn from these models and apply to their own decision making?

Week 10 Policy Instruments; Debate over Humanitarian Intervention
Assignment 18 The Role of Diplomacy; Economic Statecraft
Read: Hastedt, Chpts. 10, 11
Go to the Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues) where you then can do a search for the following article: “Human Rights Issues” in the October 30, 2009 Volume 19, Issue 38 at: http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2009103000


Assignment 19
Human Rights and Humanitarian Intervention; Should American foreign policy attempt to promote democracy?
Read: Hastedt, Chpts. 10, 11
Go to the Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues) where you then can do a search for the following article: “Human Rights Issues” in the October 30, 2009 Volume 19, Issue 38 at: http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2009103000
Questions for Class Discussion:
1.  How has American foreign policy in the past tried to promote human rights?
2.  Where have such efforts been most successful?
3.  Where have such efforts most often failed?
4.  How can human rights best be promoted?
5.  Should the protection of human rights be a principal objective of U.S. foreign policy?
6. What problems do such efforts create?
7.  Where are these issues most in dispute today?
8. What are some of the main characteristics of peacekeeping missions?
9. What are the political advantages and disadvantages facing presidents when they try to conduct such missions?
10. What factors and circumstances make for successful peacekeeping missions?
11. What factors and circumstances make for unsuccessful peacekeeping missions?
12. Which of these missions have been relatively successful?
13. Which of these missions have failed?
14
.  How has American foreign policy in the past tried to promote democratization?
15.  Where have such efforts been most successful?
16.  Where have such efforts most often failed?
17.  How can democracy best be promoted?
18.  Should the promotion of democracy be a principal objective of U.S. foreign policy?
19.  What problems do such efforts create?
20.  Where are these issues most in dispute today?

Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 7
Write a three page essay on whether advancing human rights, the promotion of democracy, and humanitarian intervention ought to be important aspects of American foreign policy.

Week 11 The United States and the Middle East; Afghanistan and Pakistan
Assignment 20 The United States and the Israeli/Palestinian Conflict
Read: 
Hook and Spanier, Chpts. 11 pp 269-288, 12, 13 pp 328-331
Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues) where you then can do a search for the following articles: “America at War” by Peter Katel in the July 23, 2010 Volume 20, Issue 26 (Updated August 13, 2010) at:
http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2010072300#Update
         “Afghanistan Dilemma” by Thomas J. Billitteri in online CQ Researcher article found in August 7, 2009 Volume 19, Issue 28. Go to http://library.cqpress.com/ and access article at:  http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2009080700
Jost, K. (2006, November 3). Understanding Islam. CQ Researcher, 16, 913-936.  From CQ Researcher Online, http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2006110301  
Katel, P. (2006, October 27).
Middle East Tensions. CQ Researcher, 16, 889-912. From CQ Researcher Online, http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2006102701           
Questions for Class Discussion:
1.  What have been the issues behind the Arab-Israeli and Israeli-Palestinian conflicts?
2.  What policies have been pursued by the United States in these conflicts?
3.  What are the consequences of these conflicts for American interests?
4.  What factors shape American policy in the Middle East?
5.  How should the United States address the current conflict between Israel and the Palestinians?


Assignment 21 The United States, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Pakistan
Read: 
Hook and Spanier, Chpts. 11 pp 269-288, 12, 13 pp 328-331
Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues) where you then can do a search for the following articles: “America at War” by Peter Katel in the July 23, 2010 Volume 20, Issue 26 (Updated August 13, 2010) at:
http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2010072300#Update
         “Afghanistan Dilemma” by Thomas J. Billitteri in online CQ Researcher article found in August 7, 2009 Volume 19, Issue 28. Go to http://library.cqpress.com/ and access article at:  http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2009080700
Jost, K. (2006, November 3). Understanding Islam. CQ Researcher, 16, 913-936.  From CQ Researcher Online, http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2006110301  
Katel, P. (2006, October 27).
Middle East Tensions. CQ Researcher, 16, 889-912. From CQ Researcher Online, http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2006102701           
Questions for Class Discussion:
1.  Why did the United States invade Iraq?
2.  What arguments were advanced for and against that decision?
3.  What has happened since the invasion?
4.  What premises behind the invasion have since been challenged?
5.  What has gone wrong since the invasion?
6.  What has happened in Iraq since the “surge” ordered by President Bush?
7.  How has the Obama administration approached the situation in Iraq?
8.  How has the Obama administration approached the war in Afghanistan?
9.  How has the Obama administration approached the situation in Pakistan as it bears on Afghanistan?

Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 8
Write a three page essay on the problems the Obama administration faces in trying to advance the Israeli/Palestinian peace process.
This assignment is due on Thursday.

Week 12 Competing Visions of the Future
Assignment 22 Alternative visions of the direction American foreign policy should take in the future.
Read:  Hastedt, Chpt. 14
Questions for Class Discussion:
1.  What are the most important challenges currently confronting U.S. foreign policy?
2.  What are the most appropriate solutions to those problems.
3.  What major foreign policy problems do you see facing the country in the next 20 years?
4.  How should the country prepare to deal with those problems?
5.  How should American orient itself to the rest of the word?

Assignment 23 You will have your third test on Thursday. This test will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.
Read:  Hastedt, Chpt. 14

Part IV    Weeks 13-14   Contemporary Issues

Week 13 Globalization, Economics, and the Environment: China
Assignment 24 Globalization, Economics, and the Environment
Read:  Hook and Spanier Chpt. 13 pp 334-345
Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues) where you then can do a search for the following articles:  “U.S. – China Relations” by Roland Flamini in the May 7, 2010 Volume 20, Issue 18 at: http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2010050700 and “Emerging China” by Peter Katel in the November 11, 2005 Volume 15, Issue 40 at: http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2005111101
Questions for Class Discussion:
1. What are the classic arguments for free trade?
2.  Who are the supporters of that view?
3.  What are the arguments usually advanced for different forms of protectionism?
4.  Who are the supporters of those policies?
5.  What institutions are used by advocates of free trade?
6.  Which direction is best for the United States?
7. What is meant by globalization?
8.  Who are the supporters and opponents of globalization?
9.  What are their arguments?
10. What are the functions and basic policies of the World Bank, INF, and WTO?
11. Do these institutions serve American national interests?
12. Does globalization lead to a better world or make things worse?
13. Why is poverty around the world an important foreign policy issue?
14.  How should American policy address issues of extreme poverty around the world?
15.  What are the intermestic issues involved in the immigration debate in the United States?
16.  What are the factors that lead to failed states?
17.  What problems do failed states pose to the United States?
18.  Do environmental issues make a serious impact on foreign policy?
19.  Should they?
20.  Should the United States adhere to recent international agreements on the environment?
21.  What were those agreements?
22.  Are those agreements in this nation's best interest?

Assignment 25 China
Read:  Hook and Spanier Chpt. 13 pp 334-345
Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues) where you then can do a search for the following articles:  “U.S. – China Relations” by Roland Flamini in the May 7, 2010 Volume 20, Issue 18 at: http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2010050700 and “Emerging China” by Peter Katel in the November 11, 2005 Volume 15, Issue 40 at: http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2005111101
Questions for Class Discussion:
1. What are the most important issues facing U.S.-Chinese relations?
2. What are the most important issues facing U.S.-Japanese relations?
3. How does Fukuyama suggest the U.S. should modify in approach to Asia?
4. How do you evaluate Fukuyama's arguments?
5. How should the U.S. respond to human rights issues in China?
6. What should or could the U.S. do about its trade deficit with China and Japan?

Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 9
Write a three page essay on the principal problems facing American foreign policy in dealing with China.
Explain how you would advise President Obama, if asked, as to what policies we should have regarding China.
This assignment is due on Thursday.


Week 14 Military Doctrines and the Use of Force; Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction
Assignment 26 Military Doctrines, Application of Power, the Use of Force
Read:  Hastedt, Chpts. 12, 13


Assignment 27 Iran and North Korea
Read:  Hastedt, Chpts. 12, 13


Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 10
Write a three page essay on the issues at stake as the United States tries to deal with the Iranian nuclear program.  What are the problems facing the various options being discussed?
This assignment is due on Thursday.

Classes end April 29

Reading Day:  April 30
Exam Period:  May 2-6

 

 


What follows is material from previous study guides yet to be incorporated into the new study guide.

 




The United States after the Cold War 
Assignment 13  What issues are involved in the debate over what Fukuyama calls the "End of History" and what are the implications for American foreign policy?  What issues are involved in the debate over what Huntington calls the "Clash of Civilizations" and what are the implications for American foreign policy?
Monday
Read:  Jentleson, Chpt. 7 (pages 309-310, 339-348); Readings 11.1, 11.2
          Hook and Spanier, Chpts. 10, 14
          Bennet and Shambaugh, Issue 1
Questions for Class Discussion:
1.  What does Fukuyama mean when he talks about the end of history?
2.  What are the arguments he gives for his thesis?
3.  How does he view history in general?
4.  How do you assess his claims?
5.  To the extent he might be right, what are the consequences for American foreign policy?
6.  How does Huntington challenge Fukuyama's thesis?
7.  What are the implications of Huntington's critique of Fukuyama?
8  What does Huntington mean by the clash of civilizations?
9.  What evidence and arguments are presented for his thesis?
10.  What are the foreign policy implications of his views?
11   What are the most important criticisms of his views?

Assignment 14  What are the most important WMD proliferation issues facing the United States today?
Wednesday
Read:  Jentleson, Chpt. 7 (pages 309-310, 339-348); Readings 11.1, 11.2
          Hook and Spanier, Chpts. 10, 14
          Bennet and Shambaugh, Issues 2, 8, 11
Questions for Class Discussion:
1.  How has the Bush administration approached issues involving nuclear doctrine and policies?
2.  How has the administration approached issues dealing with proliferation of nuclear weapons?
3.  How has the administration dealt with WMD issues?
4.  What have been the strengths and weaknesses of such policies?
5.  How do you think the U.S. should approach these issues as they relate to Iran and North Korea?  

Assignment 15  What are the issues at stake involving Iran? 
Friday
Read:  Jentleson, Chpt. 7 (pages 309-310, 339-348); Readings 11.1, 11.2
          Hook and Spanier, Chpts. 10, 14
          Bennet and Shambaugh, Issues 2, 8
          Ray Takeyh, "Time for Detente with Iran" in Foreign Affairs March/April 2007.
Questions for Class Discussion:
1.  What are the main points of contention between the United States and Iran?
2.  What should the U.S. do about the Iranian nuclear program?
3.  What policies should the U.S. pursue in terms of Iran's role in Iraq?
4.  What policies should the U.S. pursue in terms of Iran's role elsewhere in the Middle East?

Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 4
Write a three page essay in which you evaluate Huntington's claims about a "clash of civilizations" and what you think are the implications for American foreign policy that flow from your own assessment of his claims.
This assignment is due by the beginning of class on Friday.


Terrorism, Islamism, and the Middle East


Assignment 17 What issues face American foreign policy with the rise of Islamism and the War on Terror?
Wednesday
Read: Hook and Spanier, Chpts. 12, 13, 14
           Jentleson, Chpt. 8; Reading 8.3
           Bennet and Shambaugh, Issue 7
           Mary Crane, "Does the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood Have Ties to Terrorism?" at Council on Foreign Relations website at:
           http://www.cfr.org/publication/9248/
           James D. Fearon, "Iraq's Civil War" in Foreign Affairs March/April 2007.
           Robert S. Leiken and Steven Brooke, "The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood" in Foreign Affairs March/April 2007.
           Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues) where you then can do a search for the following articles:  
Jost, K. (2006, November 3). Understanding Islam. CQ Researcher, 16, 913-936.  From CQ Researcher Online, http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2006110301  
Katel, P. (2006, October 27).
Middle East Tensions. CQ Researcher, 16, 889-912. From CQ Researcher Online, http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2006102701           
The Council On Foreign Relations has established, in cooperation with The Markle Foundation, a new online encyclopedia on terrorism at:
http://www.terrorismanswers.com/home/
            Students interesting in background information on various terrorist organizations may look at the following online sites: http://www.cfr.org/issue/135/terrorism.html and http://www.tkb.org/Home.jsp
Questions for Class Discussion:
1.  What factors have contributed to the rise of Islamism?
2.  What challenges does radical Islamic fundamentalism pose to the Middle East and the world?
3.  Why is America so hated in so many places in the Middle East?
4.  Why do so many people in the Middle East attack American policy there?
5.  What should the United States do about these problems?
6.  What are the sources of contemporary terrorism?
7.  Why are so many people drawn to such tactics?
8.  What threat are posed by terrorism?
9.  How should the United States best deal with terrorism in the wake of 9/11?

 


Week 7 American Relations with Russia, China, India and Japan
Assignment 19  What are the most important issues at stake in American relations with Russia?
Monday
Read:  Jentleson, Chpt. 7 (pages 310-328, 335-339)
           Hook and Spanier, Chpt. 14
Questions for Class Discussion:
1.  What are the major areas where the U.S. and Russia share common interests?
2.  What is at stake in American-Russian relations?
3.  What are the major disagreements between the U.S. and Russia?
4.  How should the U.S. respond to recent political developments in Russia? 



 


Fall  Break    Monday & Tuesday    No Classes



Week 8 America and Western Europe
Assignment 22 
Wednesday
Read:  Jentleson, Chpt. 7
           Hook, Chpt. 10
           Francis Fukuyama, "Re-Envisioning Asia" in Foreign Affairs Jan./Feb. 2005
Questions for Class Discussion:
1. Where do American and European interests converge?
2.  Where do those interests diverge?
3.  What are the most important disagreements between the U.S. and Western Europe?
4.  What drives criticisms made by each side to these disputes?
5.  Why is president Bush so disliked in Western Europe?
6.  How should or could American relations with Western Europe be improved?



 



 


Week 12 International Institutions, Multilateralism, Unilateralism
Assignment 33  The United States and International Institutions
Monday
Read: Jentleson, Chpt. 6 (pages 258-281) and readings 6.1, 6.2, 7.1, 7.2, 8.1, 8.2
          Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues) where you then can do a search for the following article:  Jost, K. (2007, February 2). Rethinking foreign policy. CQ Researcher, 5, 97-120. From CQ Researcher Online, http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2007020201
Questions for Class Discussion:
1. How did the U.S. promote international institutions after World War II?
2. What has been the nature of the relationship of the U.S. with the UN?
3. Why are some Americans very suspicious of international institutions?
4. Why are some critics so upset with the Bush Administration's approaches to international law and international institutions?
5.  Should the U.S. do more to support international institutions or be skeptical of such organizations? 

Assignment 34  Multilateralism vs. Unilateralism
Wednesday
Read: Jentleson, Chpt. 6 (pages 258-281) and readings 6.1, 6.2, 7.1, 7.2, 8.1, 8.2
          Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues) where you then can do a search for the following article:  Jost, K. (2007, February 2). Rethinking foreign policy. CQ Researcher, 5, 97-120. From CQ Researcher Online, http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2007020201
Questions for Class Discussion:
1.  What is meant by unilateralism?
2.  What is meant by multilateralism?
3.  What are the advantages and disadvantages of each?
4.  What factors might shape which is the better approach under various circumstances?
5.  What factors shape the debate between the two approaches?