POLITICAL SCIENCE 343
AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
Spring, 2005

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Instructor: Dr. Harbour
Office: Wynne 104-A
Office telephone: 395-2219
Office hours:
MWF 11:00-12:00  TR 9:30-10:30
harbourwr@longwood.edu

Table of Contents
 Course Description
 Texts
 Course Objectives
 Class Schedule
 Course Requirements
 Grading
 Attendance Policy
 Honor Code
 Class Discussion
 Critical Thinking Writing Exercises
 Taking Exams
 Bibliography
 

Course Description:
A study of U.S. foreign policy with special attention to the policy making process, current problems in foreign affairs, and the development of long-range foreign policy.

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Texts:

Steven W. Hook. U.S. Foreign Policy: The Paradox of World Power. CQ Press: Washington, D.C.,   
                           2005.  
Bruce W. Jentleson, American Foreign Policy: The Dynamics of Choice in the 21st Century. Second      
                           Edition.  W.W. Norton & Company: New York, 2004. 
The 9/11 Commission Report (authorized edition) Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist   
                           Attacks Upon the United States
Foreign Affairs.  January/February 2005 Issue. Published by The Council on Foreign Relations.

Other Reading:
Students are expected to keep up with current foreign policy developments and may follow the news through the following online sites:
http://www.cnn.com/
http://www.nytimes.com/
http://www.gallup.com/
Students should also make use of Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs found online at:
http://fpc.state.gov/fpc/c4763.htm  Many of these reports are excellent reviews of foreign policy issues.

Click HERE  for the Study Guide which contains questions for reading and thinking about the assignments, links to useful web sties containing materials on the topics being explored, and suggestions on developing your research for the critical thinking writing assignments.

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Course Objectives:

Upon completion of the course, students will be able to:

1. Demonstrate a capacity for critical and analytical thought about issues central to
American foreign policy.

2. Demonstrate an ability to communicate their knowledge and beliefs about  American
Foreign policy both orally and in writing.

3. Describe the essential features of American foreign policy.

4.  Identify information regarding American foreign policy that is necessary for useful
and responsible citizenship.

5. Discuss important philosophical and ethical issues associated with the making and
substance of American foreign policy.

6. Discuss the major ways in which political scientists have tried to understand
American foreign policy.

7. Discuss how American foreign policy has shaped and been shaped by the dynamic
social forces contemporary society.

8. Demonstrate an awareness of the diversity of persuasions and interests regarding
various aspects of American foreign policy.

9. Discuss elements of continuity and change within American foreign policy.
 
 

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Class Schedule:

Part I     Weeks 1-4    Historical Review

Week 1 (Jan. 17-21) Sources of American Foreign Policy; The Origins of the Cold War
Read: Jentleson, Chpt. 1 and readings 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4; Chpt. 3 and readings 3.1, 3.2
          Chpt. 4 and readings 4.1, 4.2, 4.3
          Hook, Chpt. 2
Special Topics:
M:  Introduction to American Foreign Policy; Competing Views on the Sources of American Foreign Policy
W:  American Foreign Policy Before and During WWII; The Origins of the Cold War
F:  The Doctrine of Containment; Economic Plans; Alliance Systems; Nuclear Balance of Terror
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 1
Discuss the ideas behind the most important doctrines and policies developed by the Truman administration. Explain how these ideas served as the basis for American foreign policy for the next 40 years.
This assignment is due at the beginning of class on Friday, Jan. 21.

Week 2 (Jan. 24-28) The Third World, Cuba, Vietnam, Détente, and Continued Superpower Competition
Read: Hook, Chpt. 2
          Jentleson, Chpt. 5 and readings 5.1, 5.2
Special Topics:
M: America and the Third World; The Cuban Missile Crisis
W: Vietnam, Nixon, Détente
F:  The Carter Years and the Collapse of Détente
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 2
Write a three page essay on why the United States failed in Vietnam and the various lessons foreign policy analysts drew from that failure.
A good website with links to good research sources on the war in Vietnam may be found at:
          http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/vietnam.htm
This assignment is due at the beginning of class on Friday, Jan. 28.

Week 3 (Jan. 31-Feb. 4) Superpower Confrontation and Conciliation; The End of the Cold War, The 1990s
Read: Jentleson, Chpt. 5 and readings 5.3, 5.4
          Hook, Chpt. 2
Special Topics:
M: The Reagan Years
W: The Bush Years
F: The Clinton Years
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 3
Write a three page essay in which you explain the doctrine of democratic enlargement advanced by the Clinton administration.  How did the Clinton administration try to apply the doctrine and what problems did this doctrine and its applications face?
This assignment is due at the beginning of class on Friday, Feb. 4.

Week 4 (Feb. 7-11) Models of Policy Making; Rational Choice and Game Theory
Read:  Take a look at the following web site that provides a good introduction to game theory:
          http://www.econ.rochester.edu/eco108/ch17/micro17/index.htm
          Also go to the Britannic website, click under History & Humanities, search under game theory <http://search.britannica.com/search?query=game+theory> and study material under the following sites: <http://www.britannica.com/bcom/eb/article/5/0,5716,117275+1+109420,00.html?query=game%20theory>
<http://search.britannica.com/frm_redir.jsp?query=game+theory&redir=http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/game-theory/>
<http://www.britannica.com/bcom/magazine/article/print/0,5746,213696,00.html>
Special Topics:
M: Introduction to Rational Choice Theory
W: Applications of Game Theory to Decision Making in Foreign Policy
F: First Test
NOTE: You will have your first test on Friday, Feb. 11. This test will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

Part II    Weeks 5-8   Contemporary Issues After the Cold War

Week 5 (Feb. 14-18) The United States after the Cold War 
Read: Jentleson, Chpt. 7; Readings 10.1, 10.2
          Hook, Chpts. 1, 3
Special Topics:
M: What issues are involved in the debate over what Fukuyama calls the "End of History" and what are the implications for American foreign policy?
W: What issues are involved in the debate over what Huntington calls the "Clash of Civilizations" and what are the implications for American foreign policy?
F: What are the competing world views employed by contemporary defenders and critics of American foreign policy?
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 4
Write a three page essay in which you evaluate Huntington's claims about a "clash of civilizations" and what you think are the implications for American foreign policy that flow from your own assessment of his claims.
This assignment is due by the beginning of class on Friday, Feb. 18.

Week 6 (Feb. 21-25)Terrorism, Islamism, and the Middle East
Read:  The 9/11 Commission Report
           Hook, Chpt. 10
           Jentleson, Chpt. 7
           James Dobbins, "Iraq: Winning the Unwinnable War" in Foreign Affairs Jan./Feb. 2005
           Edward N. Luttwak, "Iraq: The Logic of Disengagement" in Foreign Affairs Jan./Feb. 2005
           Dennis Ross, "The Middle East Predicament" in Foreign Affairs Jan./Feb. 2005
           Mahmood Mamdani, "Whither Political Islam" in Foreign Affairs Jan./Feb. 2005
           The Council On Foreign Relations has established, in cooperation with The Markle Foundation, a new online encyclopedia on terrorism at:
http://www.terrorismanswers.com/home/
Special Topics:
M: What are the issues involved in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?
W: What issues face American foreign policy with the rise of Islamism and the War on Terror?
F: What are the stakes involved in the current war in Iraq?
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 5
Write a three page essay in which you explain why the United States is so hated in much of the Middle East.  Then explain how you would advise President Bush, if asked, as to what should be done about this.
This assignment is due at the beginning of class on Friday, February 25.

Week 7 (Feb. 28-March 4)  Strategic Doctrine and National Security Policy
Read:  Jentleson, Chpt. 7 and Readings 7.1 7.2, 7.3
           Hook, Chpt. 10
           John Lewis Gaddis, "Grand Strategy in the Second Term" in Foreign Affairs Jan./Feb. 2005
           John Deutch, "A Nuclear Posture for Today" in Foreign Affairs Jan./Feb. 2005
           Selig S. Harrison, "Did North Korea Cheat?" in Foreign Affairs Jan./Feb. 2005
           Jon B. Wolfsthal, "The Next Nuclear Wave" in Foreign Affairs Jan./Feb. 2005
           William Drozdiak, "The North Atlantic Drift" in Foreign Affairs Jan./Feb. 2005 
Special Topics:
M: What are the main ideas behind the Bush Doctrine?
      What are the principal arguments advanced by defenders and critics of the Bush Doctrine?
W:  Other Defense Issues:  Nuclear Weapons Policies, Proliferation of WMDs
F:  What are the most important issues involved in American relations with Western Europe?

Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 6.
Evaluate the explanation advanced by Robert Kagan for the current foreign policy differences between the United States and much of Western Europe.  Use his article "Power and Weakness" as a beginning point for your essay.  Is he right?  Does he ignore other causes of those differences?  Does he overstate his case?
This assignment is due at the beginning of class on Friday, March 4.

Week 8 (March 7-11) America and other Major Powers
Read:  Jentleson, Chpt. 7 and Reading 7.1 
           Hook, Chpt. 10
           Francis Fukuyama, "Re-Envisioning Asia" in Foreign Affairs Jan./Feb. 2005
           Asmus, Blinken, Gordon, "Nothing to Fear" in Foreign Affairs Jan./Feb. 2005
Special Topics:
M:  What are the most important issues involved in American-Russian relations?
W:  What are the most important issues involved in American relations with China and Japan?
F: Second Test
Note: You will have your second test on Friday, March 11. This test will count for 1/6 of your semester grade

SPRING BREAK   MARCH 12-20

Part III   Weeks 9-12  Decision Making Institutions and Players

Week 9 (March 21-25) Domestic Forces Influencing Foreign Policy
Read: Jentleson, Chpt. 2 and readings 2.2, Chpt. 6 and reading 6.3
          Hook, Chpts. 7, 8
          The 9/11 Commission Report
Special Topics:
M: The Media and Public Opinion
W: Electoral Politics
F: Interest Groups
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 7
For this assignment you are to write a three page essay in which you explain the impact of elite organizations and think thanks such as the Council on Foreign Relations, the Trilateral Commission, the Brookings Institution, and the Heritage Foundation to the making of American foreign policy.  Go to the web sites of these organizations, find out about their missions, history, and membership, and then look up the backgrounds of the key foreign policy individuals in the current and recent administrations in order to develop some ideas for this essay.
This assignment is due by the beginning of class on Friday, March 25.

Week 10 (March 28-April 1) Presidential Primacy versus Congress
Read: Hook, Chpts. 4, 5
          Jentleson, Chpt. 2, Reading 2.1
          The 9/11 Commission Report 
          Go to the following online site for a Congressional Research Service Report on 
          the War Powers Act and Presidential Compliance: http://www.fas.org/man/crs/IB81050.pdf
Special Topics:
M: The Constitution and the Debate over War Making Powers
W: The Role of the Presidency
F: The Role of Congress
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 8
Write a three page essay in which you explain the most important intelligence and policy failures made by the United States government prior to the 9/11 terrorist attack. 
This assignment is due by the beginning of class on Friday, April 1.

Week 11 (March 4-8) Institutional Forces; The Bureaucracies; Policy Instruments
Read: Hook, Chpt. 6
          The 9/11 Commission Report
Special Topics:
M: The State Department, Diplomacy, and Economic Tools
W: Intelligence Agencies and Covert Action
F: The Pentagon and Use of Force
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 9
Write a three page essay in which you explain and evaluate the key recommendations of the 9/11 Commission on how to improve protection of the United States from terrorist attacks.
This assignment is due at the beginning of class on Friday, April 8.

Week 12 (April 11-15) International Institutions, Multilateralism, Unilateralism
Read: Hook, Chpt. 9
          Jentleson, Chpt. 8 and readings 6.1, 6.2, 8.1, 8.2
          Robert Kagan, "A Matter of Record" in Foreign Affairs Jan./Feb. 2005
Special Topics:
M:  The United States and International Institutions
W:  Multilateralism vs. Unilateralism
R: Third test
NOTE: You will have your third test on Friday, April 15. This test will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

Part IV    Weeks 13-14   The Future

Week 13 (April 18-22) Globalization and the Environment
Read: Jentleson, Chpt. 9 and readings 9.1, 9.2, 9.3
          Hook, Chpt. 11, 12
          Jeffrey E. Garten, "The Global Economic Challenge" in Foreign Affairs Jan./Feb. 2005
Special Topics:
M: American Policy and The World Economy
W: Information Revolution and Globalization
F: Environmental Issues
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 10
There has been much written about globalization.  Write a three page essay in which you discuss the most important consequences of this phenomenon for American foreign policy.
This assignment is due at the beginning of class on Friday, April 22.

Week 14 (April 25-29) Democratization and Human Rights
Read: Jentleson, Chpt. 10 and reading 10.3; Chpt. 8 (pp.461-477)
          Hook, Chpt. 12
          Scott Straus, "Darfur and the Genocide Debate" in Foreign Affairs Jan./Feb. 2005
          Edward P. Joseph, "Back to the Balkans" in Foreign Affairs Jan./Feb. 2005
          Eizenstadt, Porter, Weinstein, "Rebuilding Weak States" in Foreign Affairs Jan./Feb. 2005
          Salman Ahmed, "No Size Fits All" in Foreign Affairs Jan./Feb. 2005
Special Topics:
M: Human Rights and Humanitarian Intervention
W: Should American foreign policy attempt to promote democracy?
F: Alternative Futures

Classes end April 29
Reading Day:  April 30
Exam Period:  May 2-6
Final Exam: The final exam will be on Monday, May 2 at 11:30 A.M. - 2:00 P.M. The final exam will be worth 1/6 of your semester grade.
Commencement:  May 14

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Course Requirements:
Three tests
Ten Critical Thinking Writing Exercises
Final comprehensive examination
Class discussion

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Grading:
Your semester grade will be based on three tests, the combined score on 10 critical thinking writing exercises, the final exam, and your contribution to class discussion.  Each will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

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Attendance Policy:
The attendance policy for this course is the University policy found in the University Catalog and Student Handbook:
 Students are expected to attend all classes. Failure to attend class regularly impairs academic performance. Absences are disruptive to the educational process for others. This is especially true when absences cause interruptions for clarification of material previously covered, failure to assume assigned responsibilities for class presentations, or failure to adjust to changes in assigned material or due dates.  It is the responsibility of each instructor to give students a copy of his or her attendance policy in the course syllabus. Instructors may assign a grade of “0” or “F” on work missed because of unexcused absences. Instructors have the right to lower a student's course grade, but no more than one letter grade, if the student misses 10 percent of the scheduled class meeting times for unexcused absences.  Instructors have the right to assign a course grade of “F” when the student has missed a total (excused and unexcused) of 25 percent of the scheduled class meeting times. Students must assume full responsibility for any loss incurred because of absence, whether excused or unexcused. Instructors should permit students to make up work when the absence is excused. Excused absences are those resulting from the student's participation in a University sponsored activity, from recognizable emergencies, or from serious illness. Faculty may require documentation for excused absences in their attendance policy. Student Health Services can provide documentation only for students hospitalized locally or absent at the direction of Student Health Services personnel.

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Honor Code:
Students are expected to live by the Longwood University Honor Code. All work done for the class must be pledged. Your instructor will not tolerate any form of cheating.

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Class Discussion:
Your instructor values class participation. Students are encouraged to ask questions and to express their knowledge and beliefs about the material and issues being dealt with in class. Students are expected to make contributions to class discussion.
Your grade in this regard (which is worth 1/6 of your semester grade)  will be based upon your daily contributions during the semester.
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Critical Thinking Writing Exercises:
There will be 10 critical thinking writing exercises. These papers will usually be 3 pages in length and be handed in at the beginning of class on the day they are due.  They are not to be sent as an email attachment.  Late papers will lose points. They will be done in Microsoft Word with a Font size 12 and double spaced. Any documentation for these exercises will be done according to the Turabian format for a research paper. Failure to cite sources properly will cost points and may result in a 0 for the paper. A shorter version of that style manual can be found on the History style manual at the following web address: <http://www.longwood.edu/history/HDPTSTS2.htm>

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Taking Exams:
All tests and exams must be taken on time. You are expected to provide proof for any legitimate reason (illness, participation in a University sponsored activity, or recognizable emergency) you have for missing a test or exam.  Critical thinking writing exercises handed in past the time they are due will lose points.

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Bibliography:

Required Texts:

Steven W. Hook. U.S. Foreign Policy: The Paradox of World Power. CQ Press: Washington, D.C.,   2005.  
Bruce W. Jentleson, American Foreign Policy: The Dynamics of Choice in the 21st Century. Second      Edition.  W.W. Norton & Company: New York, 2004. 
The 9/11 Commission Report (authorized edition) Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist   Attacks Upon the United States

Additional Material:

Graham T. Allison, Albert Carnesale & Joseph S. Nye, Jr. Editors. Hawks, Doves, and
 Owls: An agenda for avoiding nuclear war.  New York: W. W. Norton, 1985.
Graham Allison and Gregory F. Treverton. Rethinking America’s Security. Editors.
 New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1992.
Gar Alperovitz.  Atomic Diplomacy.  New York:  Vintage Books, 1967.
Richard Betts.  Conflicts After the Cold War: Arguments on the Causes of War and
 Peace.  New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1994.
Zbigniew Brzezinski.  Power and Principle.  New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1983.
Colton C. Campbell, Nicol C. Rae, John F. Stack, Jr.  Congress and the Politics of Foreign
 Policy.  Upper Saddle River, Jew Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 2003.
David Louis Cingranelli.  Ethics, American Foreign Policy, and the Third World.
 New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993.
Cecil V. Crabb, Jr. The Doctrines of American Foreign Policy.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana
 State University, 1982.
David A. Deese.  The New Politics of American Foreign Policy. New York: St. Martin’s
 Press, Inc., 1994.
From Foreign AffairsAmerica and the World: Debating the New Shape of International Politics.  Introduction by Foreign Affairs Managing Editor Gideon Rose.
William J. Fulbright. Arrogance of Power. New York: Random House, 1966.
Morton H. Halperin. Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy. Washington, D.C.:
 Brookings Institution, 1974.
Harvard Nuclear Study Group. Living with Nuclear Weapons. Cambridge Mass.:
 Harvard University Press, 1983.
Irving Janis. Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes.
 Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1983.
Bruce W. Jentleson. Editor.  Perspectives on American Foreign Policy: Readings and
 Cases.  New York:  W. W. Norton & Company, 2000.
Robert Kennedy. Thirteen Days. New York: W. W. Norton, 1971.
Henry A. Kissinger. Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy. New York: Harper &
 Brothers, 1957.
Henry A. Kissinger. The White House Years. Boston: Little, Brown, 1979.
Walter Laqueur. The Age of Terrorism. Boston: Little, Brown, 1987.
Robert J. Maddox. The New Left and the Origins of the Cold War. Princeton, N.J.:
 Princeton University Press, 1973.
Richard Nixon. RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon. New York: Grosset & Dunlap,
 1978.
Joseph S. Nye. Nuclear Ethics. New York: The Free Press, 1986
Joseph S. Nye, Jr.  The Paradox of American Power.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2003..
Richard Smoke. National Security and the Nuclear Dilemma. Third Edition, New York:
 Random House, 1993.
Donald M. Snow. National Security: Defense Policy for a New International Order.
 Third Edition. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.
John Spanier and Eric M. Uslaner. American Foreign Policy and the Democratic
 Dilemmas. Sixth Edition. Pacific Grove, California: Brooks/Cole Publishing
 Company, 1994. Richard Smoke.
Eugene R. Wittkopf and James M. McCormick.  The Domestic Sources of American
 Foreign Policy: Insights and Evidence.  Third Edition.  Lantham, MD:  1998.
 

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