POLITICAL SCIENCE 343
AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
Spring, 2013

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Instructor: Dr. Harbour
Office: East Ruffner 228
Office telephone: 395-2219
Office hours:
MWF 10:00-11:00  TR 9:30-10:30
harbourwr@longwood.edu

Table of Contents
 Course Description
 Texts
 Course Objectives
 Class Schedule
 Course Requirements
 Grading
 Attendance Policy
 Honor Code
 Class Discussion
 Critical Thinking Writing Exercises
 Taking Exams
 Bibliography

Course Description:
A study of U.S. foreign policy with special attention to the policy making process, current problems in foreign affairs, and the development of long-range foreign policy.

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Texts:

Steven W. Hook and John Spanier.  American Foreign Policy Since World War II.

Eighteenth Edition.  CQ Press: Washington, D.C., 2009.

Glenn Hastedt.  American Foreign Policy: Past, Present, Future.  9th  Edition.  Upper Saddle River, New Jersey:  Person/Prentice Hall, 2011. 

 

Very good articles on international issues and American foreign policy may be found in Foreign Affairs published by the Council on Foreign Relations, and students may subscribe to this journal at:
https://subs.foreignaffairs.com/wes/servlet/ShowEffortKey

Students will also benefit from reading the online articles and debates on foreign policy issues by going to the online site of The National Interest: http://nationalinterest.org/articles and students may subscribe to this journal at:
http://ezsub.net/isapi/foxisapi.dll/main.sv.run?jt=starr_wc&PUBID=TNI&SOURCE=WNET&SBTYPE=QN&PGTP=S&PATH=%2F&URL=http%3A%2F%2Fnationalinterest.org%2Fsubscription%2Fcallback

Students should also follow the news coverage of international issues in the New York Times.  This can be done by going to the following website: http://www.nytimes.com/subscriptions/edu/lp1999.html?campaignId=384XU 


Being aware of current political developments is important to good citizenship.  Each exam will have at least one question requiring students to reflect on current political news and relate such developments to the material we are studying about American foreign policy.   Each exam will also have at least one question requiring students to reflect on the analysis of issues found in either Foreign Affairs or The National Interest.

 

 

Other Reading:
Students are expected to keep up with current foreign policy developments and may follow the news through the following online sites:
http://www.cnn.com/
http://www.nytimes.com/
http://www.washingtonpost.com/

http://www.gallup.com/
http://www.foxnews.com/
http://www.bbc.com/
For U.S. State Department information on current foreign policy issues go to: http://www.state.gov/
Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/ 
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues)
Students can also make use of Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs found online at:
http://www.opencrs.com/ Many of these reports are excellent reviews of foreign policy issues.

 

Click HERE  for the Study Guide which contains questions for reading and thinking about the assignments, links to useful web sties containing materials on the topics being explored, and suggestions on developing your research for the critical thinking writing assignments.

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Course Objectives:

Upon completion of the course, students will be able to:

1. Demonstrate a capacity for critical and analytical thought about issues central to
American foreign policy.

2. Demonstrate an ability to communicate their knowledge and beliefs about  American
Foreign policy both orally and in writing.

3. Describe the essential features of American foreign policy.


4.  Identify information regarding American foreign policy that is necessary for useful
and responsible citizenship.

5. Discuss important philosophical and ethical issues associated with the making and
substance of American foreign policy.

6. Discuss the major ways in which political scientists have tried to understand
American foreign policy.

7. Discuss how American foreign policy has shaped and been shaped by the dynamic
social forces contemporary society.

8. Demonstrate an awareness of the diversity of persuasions and interests regarding
various aspects of American foreign policy.

9. Discuss elements of continuity and change within American foreign policy.

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Class Schedule:

Part I     Weeks 1-4    Thinking About American Foreign Policy

Week 1 (Jan. 14-18) Sources of American Foreign Policy; Global Context – the International System
Read:  Hastedt, Preface and Chpt. 1, Chpt. 2
           Hook and Spanier, Preface and Chpt. 1
Special Topics:
T:  Introduction to the study of American Foreign Policy:  Problems, Choices, Strategies, Doctrines
R: The Global Context of American Foreign Policy: the International System, Theoretical Perspectives
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 1
Write a three page essay in which you explain the key questions any sound strategic doctrine should answer.  Then explain the challenges in trying to answer those questions.
This assignment is due on Thursday.

Week 2 (Jan. 21-25) Societal Background; American Values, Culture, Democratic Institutions; Economic Forces

Read: Hastedt, Chpt. 3
          Hook and Spanier, Chpts. 1, 2
Read the following online version of Washington’s Farwell Address: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/washing.asp
Special Topics:
T:  The role of national values and democratic institutions in shaping foreign policy; national style
R:  The significance of economic values, institutions, and interests in shaping foreign policy; the role of ideology and presidential politics
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 2
Write a three page essay on the role played by national style and core national values in shaping American foreign policy.
This assignment is due on Thursday.

Week 3 (Jan. 28 – Feb. 1) Historical Background; The Cold War
Read: Hastedt, Chpt. 4
          Hook and Spanier, Chpts. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
          Article in National Interest: “Revising the Cold War Revisionists” by Robert Service at: http://nationalinterest.org/bookreview/revising-the-cold-war-revisionists-7890?page=show
Special Topics:
T:  The Cold War, Part I: Containment from Truman to Vietnam
R:  The Cold War, Part II: From Détente to the End of the Soviet Union
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 3
Write a three page essay in which you explain the most important lessons for American foreign policy that one should learn from the cold war.
This assignment is due on Thursday.

Week 4 (Feb. 4-8) Historical Background; After the Cold War
Read: Hastedt, Chpt. 4
          Hook and Spanier, Chpts. 8, 9, 19, 11, 12, 13, 14
Special Topics:
T:  Foreign policies issues since the end of the cold war; 9/11 and the War on Terror
R:  NOTE: You will have your first test on Thursday, Feb. 7. This test will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

Part II    Weeks 4-8    Domestic Forces; Decision Making Institutions and Players

Week 5 (Feb. 11-15) Domestic Forces Influencing Foreign Policy
Read:  Hastedt, Chpt. 5
           Article by John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt in London Review of Books Vol. 28 No. 6.23 March 2006 at: http://www.lrb.co.uk/v28/n06/john-mearsheimer/the-israel-lobby
           Selection from President Eisenhower’s Farewell Address dealing with “the military-industrial complex” found at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8y06NSBBRtY
Go to the websites for various think tanks.
Very good articles on international issues and American foreign policy may be found at the site of The Council on Foreign Relations: http://www.foreignaffairs.org/
Very good articles on international issues and America foreign policy (and links to public opinion polls on the views of ordinary Americans and elites on those issues) may be found at the Chicago Council on Global Affairs site at:
http://www.thechicagocouncil.org/
Be very sure to look at the following study: http://www.thechicagocouncil.org/UserFiles/File/POS_Topline%20Reports/POS%202010/Global%20Views%202010.pdf 
You may find useful material at the Trilateral Commission website at:
http://www.trilateral.org/
You may read studies representing contemporary liberalism by going to the online site of the Center for American Progress at:
           http://www.americanprogress.org/    and Brookings at: http://www.brookings.edu/
           You may read studies representing contemporary conservatism by going to the online site of The Heritage Foundation at:
            http://www.heritage.org/    and the American Enterprise Institute For Public Policy Research at:  http://www.aei.org/
Neoconservative views may be found at the website for the Project for a New American Century at:
http://www.newamericancentury.org/
Libertarian and neo-isolationist views may be found at the website of the Cato Institute at: http://www.cato.org/
Special Topics:

T: Public Opinion and the Media
W: Interest Groups and Think Tanks
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 4
For this assignment you are to write a three page essay in which you explain the impact of interest groups, elite organizations, and think thanks such as the Council on Foreign Relations and the Heritage Foundation to the making of American foreign policy.  Go to the web sites of these and other organizations, find out about their missions, history, and membership, and then look up the backgrounds of the key foreign policy individuals in the current and recent administrations in order to develop some ideas for this essay.
This assignment is due on Thursday.

Week 6 (Feb. 18-22) Presidential Primacy versus Congress
Read: Hastedt, Chpts. 6, 7
          Go to the following online site for a Congressional Research Service Report on 
          the War Powers Act and Presidential Compliance: http://www.fas.org/man/crs/IB81050.pdf  
          Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues) where you then can do a search for the following article: Jost, K. (2006, February 24). Presidential power. CQ Researcher, 16, 169-192. From CQ Researcher Online, http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2006022401
Special Topics:

T: The Constitution and the Debate over War Making Powers:  Presidential Dominance
R: The Role of Congress
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 5
Write a three page essay in which you discuss the basic issues at stake in the debate over presidential war making powers.
This assignment is due on Thursday.

Week 7 (Feb. 25 – March 1) Institutional Forces; The Bureaucracies
Read: Hastedt, Chpt. 8
          Articles in Foreign Affairs:  “The End of the Age of Petraeus: The Rise and Fall of Counterinsurgency” by Fred Kaplan in the January/February 2013 Issue.
                                                        “The Evolution of Irregular Warfare: Insurgents and Guerrillas from Akkadia to Afghanistan” by Max Boot in the March/April 2013 Issue.
          NYT article on cyberwarfare: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/04/us/broad-powers-seen-for-obama-in-cyberstrikes.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
          To access information about the Department of Defense, go to: http://www.defense.gov/
          To access information about the Department of State, go to: http://www.state.gov/
          To access information about Central Intelligence Agency, go to: https://www.cia.gov/
          To access information about the Office of the Director of National Intelligence and agencies that are part of the United States Intelligence Community, go to: 
          http://www.dni.gov/overview.pdf        
Special Topics:
T:  The Role of the State Department; The Role of the Defense Department
R:  The Role of the Intelligence Community; The Role of Domestic Departments
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 6
Write a three page essay on the extent and limits of the State Department as an important player in the making of United States foreign policy.  Discuss the conditions under which the State Department is useful and has a good chance for having influence and the conditions under which the State Department sees it influence as diminished.
This assignment is due on Thursday.

Spring Break  March 4-8

Week 8 (March 11-15) Competing Policy Making Models
Read: Hastedt, Chpt. 9
Special Topics:

T:  Competing models that try to explain how foreign policy should or does get made
R: Second Test
Note: You will have your second test on Thursday, March 14. This test will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.  

Part III - Weeks 9-12 - Decision Making; Policy Instruments; Contemporary Issues; Alternative Futures

Week 9 (March 18-22)  Decision Making; Rational Choice and Game Theory
Read:  Hastedt, Chpt. 9
          Go to the Britannic website, search under game theory:
          http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/224893/game-theory
          There you can also search the prisoner’s dilemma: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/477240/prisoners-dilemma
Special Topics:
T:  Decision Making and the Role of Individuals
R: Introduction to Rational Choice Theory;  Applications of Game Theory to Decision Making in Foreign Policy

Week 10 (March 25-29) Policy Instruments; Debate over Humanitarian Intervention
Read: Hastedt, Chpts. 10, 11
          “Own the Goals: What the Millennium Development Goals Have Accomplished” by John W. McArthur in the March/April issue of Foreign Affairs.
          “The Mirage of the Arab Spring” by Seth G. Jones in the January/February issue of Foreign Affairs.
          “The Promise of the Arab Spring” by Sheri Berman in the January/February issue of Foreign Affairs.
Go to the Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues) where you then can do a search for the following article: “Human Rights Issues” in the October 30, 2009 Volume 19, Issue 38 at: http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2009103000
Read the following online article (“Triumph of the New Wilsonianism” by Nikolas A. Gvosdev and Ray Takeyh in the Jan-Feb Issue of The National Interest) of about humanitarian intervention in Libya: http://nationalinterest.org/article/decline-western-realism-6274?page=show 
T:  The Role of Diplomacy; Economic Statecraft
R:
 Human Rights and Humanitarian Intervention; Should American foreign policy attempt to protect human rights and promote democracy?
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 7
Write a three page essay on whether advancing human rights, the promotion of democracy, and humanitarian intervention ought to be important aspects of American foreign policy.

Week 11 (April 1-5) The United States and the Middle East; Afghanistan and Pakistan
Read:  Hook and Spanier, Chpts. 11, 12, 13
          “The Evolution of Irregular Warfare” by Max Boot in March/April 2013 Issue of Foreign Affairs.
          “A Sadly Simplistic Afghan Debate” by Robert W. Merry in the April 2, 2013 issue of The National Interest at: http://nationalinterest.org/article/sadly-simplistic-afghan-debate-8139 
          “Afghanistan Dilemma” by Thomas J. Billitteri in online CQ Researcher article found in August 7, 2009 Volume 19, Issue 28.
           Go to http://library.cqpress.com/ and access article at:  http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2009080700
The following article involves a debate on American policy in Afghanistan: http://nationalinterest.org/greatdebate/debating-afghanistan-3795
“Understanding Islam” CQ Researcher, 16, 913-936.  From CQ Researcher Online, http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2006110301  
Katel, P. (2006, October 27).
           
T: The United States and the Israeli/Palestinian Conflict
R: The United States, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Pakistan
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 8
Write a three page essay on the problems the Obama administration faces in trying to wind down American involvement in Afghanistan.
This assignment is due on Thursday.

Week 12 (April 8-12) Competing Visions of the Future
Read:  Hastedt, Chpt. 14
The following is an article by John J. Mearsheimer about alternative “grand strategies”:
http://nationalinterest.org/article/imperial-by-design-4576 
Take note of his critique of American foreign policy and his advocacy of an “offshore balancing” strategy.
Special Issues:
T:  Alternative visions of the direction American foreign policy should take in the future.
R:  NOTE: You will have your third test on Thursday, April 11. This test will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

Part IV    Weeks 13-14   Contemporary Issues

Week 13 (April 15-19) Globalization, Economics, and the Environment: China
Read:  Hook and Spanier Chpt. 14; Hastedt, Chpt. 11
           Article in Foreign Affairs: “The New Power Map” by Aviezer Tucker – January 9, 2013 at: http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/138597/aviezer-tucker/the-new-power-map?page=show
           Articles in National Interest: “The Power of Moore’s Law in a World of Geotechnology” by Marc Goodman and Parag Khanna – January 2, 2013 at:
                                                           http://nationalinterest.org/article/the-power-moores-law-world-geotechnology-7888?page=show
                                                           “China’s Nationalist Heritage” by Jacqueline Newmyer Deal – January 2, 2013 at:
                                                           http://nationalinterest.org/article/chinas-nationalist-heritage-7885
Below are links to two competing articles debating what the rise of China means for the United States:
http://nationalinterest.org/greatdebate/dragons/menace-3818?page=show
http://nationalinterest.org/greatdebate/dragons/myth-3819?page=show
http://nationalinterest.org/topic/security/rising-powers
Also read the following online article (“Why are the Republican Candidates Bashing China?” by Jacob Heilbrunn) in The National Interest:
 http://nationalinterest.org/blog/jacob-heilbrunn/why-are-the-republican-candidates-bashing-china-6349
Congressional Quarterly Library online at: http://library.cqpress.com/
After you login, click on The CQ Researcher (which is a valuable source for articles on current political issues) where you then can do a search for the following articles:  “U.S. – China Relations” by Roland Flamini in the May 7, 2010 Volume 20, Issue 18 at: http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2010050700
Special Issues:
T: Globalization, Economics, and the Environment
R: China
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 9
Write a three page essay on the principal problems facing American foreign policy in dealing with China.
Explain how you would advise President Obama, if asked, as to what policies we should have regarding China.
This assignment is due on Thursday.

Week 14 (April 22-26) Military Doctrines and the Use of Force; Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction
Read:  Hastedt, Chpts. 12, 13
           Spanier and Hook, Chpts. 13, 14
           Materials on the Iranian nuclear program: http://www.choices.edu/resources/twtn/twtn_iran.php  and http://www.choices.edu/resources/twtn/documents/choices-twtn-iran-options.pdf
Special Topics:        
T:  Military Doctrines, Application of Power, the Use of Force
R:  Iran and North Korea
Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 10
Write a three page essay on the issues at stake as the United States tries to deal with the Iranian nuclear program.  What are the problems facing the various options being discussed?
This assignment is due on Thursday.

Classes end April 26

Reading Day:  April 27
Exam Period:  April 29 – May 3
Final Exam: The final exam will be on Monday, April 29 at 8:00-10:30 a.m. The final exam will be worth 1/6 of your semester grade.

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Course Requirements:
Three tests
Ten Critical Thinking Writing Exercises
Final comprehensive examination
Class discussion

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Grading:
Your grade will be based upon three tests given during the course of the semester, combined score on 10 critical thinking writing exercises, your contributions to class discussion, and a final exam. Each of these will count for 1/6 of your semester grade. All tests will involve an essay format. The final examination will be comprehensive.
Grading: This course uses the + and – grading scale.

            The total possible number of points to earn for the course is 600.  Grades will be assigned according to the following percentages: 

A+ = 98-100%

A = 92-97%

A-    = 90-91%

B+ = 88-89%

B = 82-87%

B-    = 80-81%

C+ = 78-79%

C = 72-77%

C-    = 70-71%

D+ = 68-69%

D = 62-67%

D- = 60-61%

F = 59% and below

 

Students with Disabilities:

            If you have a documented disability and require accommodations to obtain equal access in this course, please let me know at the beginning of the semester or when given an assignment for which an accommodation is required.  The Director of Disability Support Services can be reached at x2391. 

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Attendance Policy:
The attendance policy for this course is the University policy found in the University Catalog and Student Handbook:
 Students are expected to attend all classes. Failure to attend class regularly impairs academic performance. Absences are disruptive to the educational process for others. This is especially true when absences cause interruptions for clarification of material previously covered, failure to assume assigned responsibilities for class presentations, or failure to adjust to changes in assigned material or due dates.  It is the responsibility of each instructor to give students a copy of his or her attendance policy in the course syllabus. Instructors may assign a grade of “0” or “F” on work missed because of unexcused absences. Instructors have the right to lower a student's course grade, but no more than one letter grade, if the student misses 10 percent of the scheduled class meeting times for unexcused absences.  Instructors have the right to assign a course grade of “F” when the student has missed a total (excused and unexcused) of 25 percent of the scheduled class meeting times. Students must assume full responsibility for any loss incurred because of absence, whether excused or unexcused. Instructors should permit students to make up work when the absence is excused. Excused absences are those resulting from the student's participation in a University sponsored activity, from recognizable emergencies, or from serious illness. Faculty may require documentation for excused absences in their attendance policy. Student Health Services can provide documentation only for students hospitalized locally or absent at the direction of Student Health Services personnel.

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Honor Code:
Students are expected to live by the Longwood University Honor Code. All work done for the class must be pledged. Your instructor will not tolerate any form of cheating.

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Class Discussion:
Your instructor values class participation. Students are encouraged to ask questions and to express their knowledge and beliefs about the material and issues being dealt with in class. Students are expected to make contributions to class discussion.
Your grade in this regard (which is worth 1/6 of your semester grade) will be based upon your daily contributions during the semester.
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Critical Thinking Writing Exercises:
There will be 10 critical thinking writing exercises. These assignments will be three pages in length. They will be done in Microsoft Word with a Font size 12 and double spaced.  For students majoring in either history or political science, documentation for these exercises will be done according to the Turabian format for a research paper. A shorter version of that style manual can be found on the History style manual at the following web address: http://www.longwood.edu/philpolhist/resources.htm
Students majoring in other disciplines may follow the documentation style they are use to employing in their disciplines.  All of these essays will also be turned in at: http://www.turnitin.com/  When you go to this site you must first establish your own identification and password.  You then go to this course entitled American Foreign Policy, use the course ID 5942710 and the course password posc343
Students will turn in a hard copy of the essay on the day the essays are due, and must also submit an electronic copy to the turnitin.com site or receive a 0 on the assignment.
Your essays also must demonstrate reading beyond what is required for class assignments and must reflect knowledge of current political events.  Each essay is worth 10 points.  There are 10 essays due during the semester.
Late papers will lose points.

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Taking Exams:
All tests and exams must be taken on time.
You are expected to provide proof for any legitimate reason (illness, participation in a University sponsored activity, or recognizable emergency) you have for missing a test or exam.  Critical thinking writing exercises handed in past the time they are due will lose points.

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Bibliography:

Required Texts:

Steven W. Hook and John Spanier.  American Foreign Policy Since World War II.

Eighteenth Edition.  CQ Press: Washington, D.C., 2009. ISBN 978-0-87289-969-8

 

G. John Ikenberry. Editor.  American Foreign Policy: Theoretical Essays. Boston, Mass.:

Wadsworth Cenage Learning, 2011.  ISBN 13:978-0-547-192828-6 or 10:0-547-19828-0 whichever is cheaper

Glenn Hastedt.  American Foreign Policy: Past, Present, Future.  8th  Edition.  Upper Saddle River, New Jersey:  Person/Prentice Hall, 2011.  Paperback. 

ISBN 13:978-0-205-79122-4 or 10:0-205-791222-0 whichever is cheaper

Additional Material:

Graham T. Allison, Albert Carnesale & Joseph S. Nye, Jr. Editors. Hawks, Doves, and
 Owls: An agenda for avoiding nuclear war.  New York: W. W. Norton, 1985.
Graham Allison and Gregory F. Treverton. Rethinking America’s Security. Editors.
 New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1992.
Gar AlperovitzAtomic Diplomacy.  New York:  Vintage Books, 1967.
Richard Betts.  Conflicts After the Cold War: Arguments on the Causes of War and
 Peace.  New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1994.
Zbigniew Brzezinski.  Power and Principle.  New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1983.
Colton C. Campbell, Nicol C. Rae, John F. Stack, Jr.  Congress and the Politics of Foreign
 Policy.
  Upper Saddle River, Jew Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 2003.
David Louis CingranelliEthics, American Foreign Policy, and the Third World.
 New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993.
Cecil V. Crabb, Jr. The Doctrines of American Foreign Policy.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana
 State University, 1982.
David A. DeeseThe New Politics of American Foreign Policy. New York: St. Martin’s
 Press, Inc., 1994.
From Foreign AffairsAmerica and the World: Debating the New Shape of International PoliticsIntroduction by Foreign Affairs Managing Editor Gideon Rose.
William J. Fulbright. Arrogance of Power. New York: Random House, 1966.
Morton H. Halperin. Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy. Washington, D.C.:
 Brookings Institution, 1974.
Harvard Nuclear Study Group. Living with Nuclear Weapons. Cambridge Mass.:
 Harvard University Press, 1983.
Irving Janis. Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes.
 Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1983.
Bruce W. Jentleson. Editor.  Perspectives on American Foreign Policy: Readings and
 Cases.  New York:  W. W. Norton & Company, 2000.
Robert Kennedy. Thirteen Days. New York: W. W. Norton, 1971.
Henry A. Kissinger. Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy. New York: Harper &
 Brothers, 1957.
Henry A. Kissinger. The White House Years. Boston: Little, Brown, 1979.
Walter Laqueur. The Age of Terrorism. Boston: Little, Brown, 1987.
Robert J. Maddox. The New Left and the Origins of the Cold War. Princeton, N.J.:
 Princeton University Press, 1973.
Richard Nixon. RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon. New York: Grosset & Dunlap,
 1978.
Joseph S. Nye. Nuclear Ethics. New York: The Free Press, 1986
Joseph S. Nye, Jr.  The Paradox of American Power.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2003..
Richard Smoke. National Security and the Nuclear Dilemma. Third Edition, New York:
 Random House, 1993.
Donald M. Snow. National Security: Defense Policy for a New International Order.
 Third Edition. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.
John Spanier and Eric M. Uslaner. American Foreign Policy and the Democratic
 Dilemmas.
Sixth Edition. Pacific Grove, California: Brooks/Cole Publishing
 Company, 1994. Richard Smoke.
Eugene R. Wittkopf and James M. McCormick.  The Domestic Sources of American
 Foreign Policy: Insights and EvidenceThird Edition.  Lantham, MD:  1998.
 
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