POSC/HMSC 345

POLITICAL SCIENCE/HOMELAND SECURITY 345
Terrorism and Homeland Security in a Global Age
Spring Semester

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 Instructor: Dr. Harbour
Office: Ruffner 228
Office telephone: 395-2219
Office hours:
MWF 10:00-11:00  TR 9:30-10:30
mailto:harbourwr@longwood.edu
Home phone: 315-0352

Table of Contents
 Course Description
 Texts
 Course Objectives
 Class Schedule
 Course Requirements
 Grading
 Attendance Policy
 Honor Code
 Class Discussion
 Essays
 Taking Exams
 Bibliography

Course Description:
Study of the forces involved in terrorism and the issues surrounding homeland security. 

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Texts:
Russell D. Howard & Reid Sawyer.  Editors.  Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Understanding the New Security Environment, Reading and Interpretations.  Second Edition.  New York: McGraw Hill, 2006. ISBN 0-07-352771-8.
Russell Howard, James Forest, Joanne Moore.  Editors.  Homeland Security and Terrorism: Reading and Interpretations.  New York: McGraw Hill, 2006.  ISBN 0-07-145282-6.
The 9/11 Commission Report.

Students will also be expected to get a subscription to the New York Times, read it daily and follow other news sources.
There may be journal articles assigned from time to time.

Students may want to read material from a number of online sites.

An excellent site for information on terrorist groups is found at the Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT):
http://www.tkb.org/Home.jsp

The Jamestown Foundation maintains a useful site on international terrorism at: http://www.jamestown.org/

Very good articles on terrorism and homeland security may be found at the site of The Council on Foreign Relations: http://www.foreignaffairs.org/

The Council has also established, in cooperation with The Markle Foundation, a new online encyclopedia on terrorism at:
http://www.terrorismanswers.com/home/

Very good articles on terrorism and homeland security (and links to public opinion polls on the views of ordinary Americans and elites on those issues) may be found at the Chicago Council on Foreign Relations site at:
http://www.ccfr.org/

The Brookings Institution (a generally liberal think tank) sponsors a number of studies on terrorism and homeland security and may be located online at: http://www.brook.edu/

The Heritage Foundation (a generally conservative think tank) sponsors a site containing studies on terrorism and homeland security at:
http://nationalsecurity.org/

Very useful information on terrorism and homeland security may be found at the CIA web site at: http://www.cia.gov/  The CIA World Fact Book is quite useful.

One may also wish to visit the homepage of the Department of Homeland Security at: http://www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/index.jsp

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Course Objectives:
Upon completion of the course, students will be able to:

1. Demonstrate a capacity for critical and analytical thought about the issues surrounding terrorism and homeland security.

2. Demonstrate an ability to communicate their knowledge and beliefs about terrorism and homeland security both orally and in writing.

3. Discuss the causes of terrorism and the effectiveness of homeland security policies.

4. Identify the principal models used by political scientists in studying terrorism and evaluating homeland security measures.

5. Discuss important political issues associated with terrorism and the measures taken to protect homeland security.

6. Identify information regarding terrorism and homeland security that is necessary and useful for responsible citizenship.

7. Discuss how terrorism and homeland security polices have been shaped by the dynamic global forces of the past half century.

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Class Schedule:

Week 1  Introduction to the Study of Terrorism and Homeland Security
Jan. 14-18
     Read:  Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Chpt. 1 
                Homeland Security and Terrorism: Chpt. 1
                Use of Online Sources
     Special Topics:                                                                                                                            
W:  What is Terrorism?                                                                                       
F:  Surveying the Threat                                                    
Essay No. 1  After explaining the conceptual problems associated with defining terrorism, advance and defend the best definition of the phenomenon.  This three page essay is due on Friday by 4:00 p.m.

Week 2  Causes, Recruitment, Organizational Issues, and Tactics
Jan. 21-25
     Read:  Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Chpts. 2, 3
                Homeland Security and Terrorism: Chpts. 5, 6
                Use of Online Sources
    Special Topics:
    M:  No classes - Martin Luther King, Jr. holiday
    W:  Making Terrorists
     F:  Organization and Tactics
Essay No. 2
Write a three page essay in which you explain the principal causes of terrorism.   This essay is due on Friday by 4:00 p.m.

Week 3  Terrorism, the Media, Cyberspace, and Public Opinion
Jan. 28 - February 1
    Read:  Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Chpt. 3; 6 (pp. 352-366), 7
                Homeland Security and Terrorism: Chpt. 22, 23, 27
                Use of Online Sources: http://www.cfr.org/issue/135/terrorism.html and http://www.tkb.org/Home.jsp
    Special Topics:
    M:  Terrorist Propaganda and the Media
    W:  Terrorism and Cyberspace
           Article on dealing with cyber terrorism: http://www.businessroundtable.org/pdf/20060622002CyberReconFinal6106.pdf
     F:   Terrorism and the Public 
Essay No. 3
Write a three page essay on the intersection between cyberspace and terrorism.  What problems exist in this area?  How can those problems be addressed?  This essay is due on Friday by 4:00 p.m.

Week 4  Why is America a Target?
Feb. 4-8
     Read:  Terrorism and Counterterrorism:  Chpt. 2 (pp. 67-88)
               Check out online articles on globalization and terrorism
               Check out online articles on American foreign policy and terrorism
     Special  Topics:
     M:  America blamed as the Evil Force behind Globalization, Role of Ideologies
     W:  Resisting American Foreign Policies
      F:   NOTE: Your first test will be given on Friday, Feb.8. This essay test will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

Week 5  Terrorism - Not Something New - Some Historical Perspective
Feb. 11-15
      Read: Use of Online Sources: http://www.cfr.org/issue/135/terrorism.html and http://www.tkb.org/Home.jsp
     Special Topics:
     M:  Europe and Latin America

Terrorist incidents by region:  http://www.tkb.org/IncidentRegionModule.jsp
Terrorist incidents in North America: http://www.tkb.org/IncidentRegionModule.jsp?
On ETA: http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=31
On FARC: http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=96
On Shining Path: http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=111
On Red Army Faction: http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=163
On Baader-Meinhoff Group: http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=164
On IRA: http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=55
On Red Brigades: http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=76

W:  South Asia and South East Asia

Terrorist incidents by region:  http://www.tkb.org/IncidentRegionModule.jsp
Terrorist incidents in North America: http://www.tkb.org/IncidentRegionModule.jsp?
On Liberation Tigers of Tmial Eelam (LTTE):  http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=3623  and
 http://www.cfr.org/publication/9242/
On Sri Lanka: https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ce.html  
On the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG):  http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=20 and http://www.cfr.org/publication/9235/abu_sayyaf_group_philippines_islamist_separatists.html?breadcrumb=%2Fissue%2F456%2F
On Philippines:  https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rp.html
List of Terrorist groups (with links) in Indonesia:  http://www.tkb.org/Category.jsp?catID=243
On Indonesia:  https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/id.html
List of Terrorist groups (with links) in India:  http://www.tkb.org/Category.jsp?catID=221
On India: https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/in.html
List of Terrorist groups (with links) in Pakistan:  http://www.tkb.org/Category.jsp?catID=225
On Pakistan:  https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/pk.html
List of Terrorist groups (with links) in Kashmir:  http://www.tkb.org/Category.jsp?catID=222

      F:  The Legacy of Terrorism in American History

Terrorist incidents by region:  http://www.tkb.org/IncidentRegionModule.jsp
Terrorist incidents in North America: http://www.tkb.org/IncidentRegionModule.jsp?regionid=2&pagemode=national&startDate=01/01/1968&endDate=02/14/2007&domInt=0&suiInt=0&filter=0&detail=0&setFilter=1&info1=2
A good source of information on hate groups in the United states is the Southern Poverty Law Center:  http://www.splcenter.org/
Klu Klux Klan (KKK): http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=62 and http://www.splcenter.org/intel/map/hate.jsp?T=26&m=4
Armed Forces of National Liberation (FLAN):  http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=3229
Black Panthers:  http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=3969
Al Qaeda:  http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=6
Aryan Nations (AN):  http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=29
Christian Identity Movement:  http://www.splcenter.org/intel/map/hate.jsp?T=25&m=4
Army of God:  http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=28
Earth Liberation Front (ELF):  http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=41
Jewish Defense League (JDL):  http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=183
Data on Lynching in America by Race and State: http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/shipp/lynchingsstate.html
Essay on Lynching in America:  http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1979/2/79.02.04.x.html#b

Essay No. 4
Write a three page essay in which you explain the legacy of terrorism in American history.   This essay is due on Friday by 4:00 p.m.

Week 6  Terrorism in the Middle East
Feb. 18-22
     Read:  Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Chpts. 4, 6
                Use of Online Sources: http://www.cfr.org/issue/135/terrorism.html and http://www.tkb.org/Home.jsp
     Special Topics:
     M:  Zionism and the creation of Israel 
Article on Zionism: http://www.mideastweb.org/zionism.htm
Israel: https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/is.html

     W:  Palestinian Groups
Palestine Liberation Organization: http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=4182                              
Al-Fatah: http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=128
Palestinian Islamic Jihad: http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=82
Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades http://www.cfr.org/publication/9127/alaqsa_martyrs_brigades_palestinian_nationalists.html   
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine: http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=85
Hamas:  http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=49  and
http://www.cfr.org/publication/8968/hamas.html?breadcrumb=%2Fissue%2Fpublication_list%3Fgroupby%3D0%26id%3D456%26filter%3D411

      F:  Hezbollah
Hezbollah: http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=3101 http://www.cfr.org/publication/9155/hezbollah_aka_hizbollah_hizbullah.html?breadcrumb=%2Fissue%2Fpublication_list%3Fgroupby%3D0%26id%3D456%26filter%3D409
Lebanon:  https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/le.html
           
Essay No. 5
Write a three page essay on opposition to the existence of Israel as a central cause advanced by many Middle Eastern Terrorist movements.   This essay is due on Friday by 4:00 p.m.

Week 7  Origins and Evolution of Al Qaeda
Feb. 25-29
     Read:  The 9/11 Commission Report, Chpts. 2, 4, 5
                Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Chpt. 4
                Use of Online Sources: http://www.cfr.org/issue/135/terrorism.html and http://www.tkb.org/Home.jsp
     Special Topics:
     M:  Religion and Terrorism: From the Muslim Brotherhood to Al Qaeda
     W:  Jihad against the Soviet Occupation of Afghanistan
     F:   Declaring War on America
Essay No. 6
Write a three page essay explaining how Al Qaeda became more powerful and why it chose to declare war on America and launch the 9/11 attacks.  
This essay is due on Friday by 4:00 p.m.

Week 8  The 9/11 Attacks
March 3-7
     Read:  The 9/11 Commission Report, Chpts. 1, 7, 8, 9, 10
              
Homeland Security and Terrorism: Chpt. 2
              
Use of Online Sources: http://www.cfr.org/issue/135/terrorism.html and http://www.tkb.org/Home.jsp
     Special Topics:
     M:  Planning and Executing the 9/11 Attacks
     W:  The Intelligence and Security Failures Leading to 9/11
      F:  NOTE:  Your second test will be given on Friday, March 7.  This essay test will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

SPRING BREAK   MARCH 8-16

Week 9  Planning to Protect the Homeland
March 17-21
     Read:   The 9/11 Commission Report, Chpts. 3, 6, 11, 12, 13
                 Homeland Security and Terrorism: Chpt. 8, 11
                 Use of Online Sources: http://www.cfr.org/issue/135/terrorism.html and http://www.tkb.org/Home.jsp
     Special Topics:
     M:  Planning and Preparedness Before 9/11
     W:  Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission and Other Reports
      F:  The Implementation and Critique of the 9/11 Commission's Recommendations
Essay No. 7
Write a three page essay in which you evaluate the most important recommendations of the 9/11 Commission.  This essay is due on Friday by 4:00 p.m.

Week 10  The Politics of Counterterrorism and Homeland Security
March 24-28
     Read: Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Chpt. 8
                Homeland Security and Terrorism: Chpts. 24, 25, 26
              
Read about the mission on structure of various U.S. intelligence agencies by going to their web sites.  Start at: http://www.dni.gov/aboutODNI/who.htm
and use links to different intelligence agencies at the bottom of that site.
              
Read about the mission and organizational structure of the Department of Homeland Security found on web site materials at:  http://www.dhs.gov/index.shtm
               
Use of Online Sources: http://www.cfr.org/issue/135/terrorism.html and http://www.tkb.org/Home.jsp
     Special Topics:
     M:  The War on Terror, The Patriot Act, and the Rule of Law
     W:  The Politics of Intelligence Reform
      F:  The Department of Homeland Security
Essay No. 8
Write a three page essay on the debate over how to balance security with the rule of law and protection of personal liberties.  This essay is due on Friday by 4:00 p.m.

Week 11  Preventing Future Attacks
March 31-April 4
     Read:  Homeland Security and Terrorism: Chpts. 7, 9, 12,
               Use of Online Sources: http://www.cfr.org/issue/135/terrorism.html and http://www.tkb.org/Home.jsp
     Special Topics:
     M:  Aviation Security
     W:  Port Security
      F:  Border Security
Essay No. 9
Write a three page essay on the challenges of securing points of entry into the United States.  This essay is due on Friday by 4:00 p.m.

Week 12  The WMD Nightmare
April 7-11
Read:  Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Chpt. 5 
           Homeland Security and Terrorism: Chpts. 3, 4, 12, 14, 28, 29, 30
           Use of Online Sources: http://www.cfr.org/issue/135/terrorism.html and http://www.tkb.org/Home.jsp
      Special Topics:
      M:  The Technological Issues and Impact
      W:  Proposed Solutions to the Threat
      F:   NOTE: You will have your third test on Friday, April 11.  This essay test will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

Week 13  First Responders
April 14-18
Read:  Homeland Security and Terrorism: Chpts. 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20
          Use of Online Sources: http://www.cfr.org/issue/135/terrorism.html and http://www.tkb.org/Home.jsp
     Special Topics:
     M:  Getting Ready for Attacks
     W:  First Responders
     F:   Recovering from Attacks
Essay No. 10
Write a three page essay explaining the most important challenges facing first responders.  This essay is due on Friday by 4:00 p.m.

Week 14  Ethical Issues
April 21-25
Read:  Use of Online Materials: http://www.cfr.org/issue/135/terrorism.html and http://www.tkb.org/Home.jsp
     Special Topics:
     M:  Ethical Issues Surrounding Terrorism
     W:  Ethical Issues Surrounding Counterterrorism
      F:  Review   

April 25   Last day of Classes
April 26   Reading Day
April 3-May 4  Final Exam Period

                Your final exam will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.  It will be a comprehensive essay examination.
                Your final exam will be given at 3:00 - 5:30 p.m. on Wednesday, April 30.
May 10   Commencement

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Course Requirements:
Three Essay Tests
Ten essays written during the semester
Contribution to class discussion
Final comprehensive exam

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Grading:
Your grade will be based upon three tests given during the course of the semester, your total score on ten three page essays, your contribution to class discussion, and a final exam.  Each of these will count for 1/6 of your grade.  Each of the exams will involve an essay format.  The final examination will be comprehensive.

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Attendance Policy:
The attendance policy for this course is the University policy found in the University Catalog and Student Handbook.

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Honor Code:
Students are expected to live by the Longwood University Honor Code. All work done for the class must be pledged. Your instructor will not tolerate any form of cheating.

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Class Discussion:
Students are expected to make contributions to class discussion.  Your grade in this regard will be based upon participation during the semester.

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Ten Essays: You will write 10 three page essays during the course of the semester. The topics for these short essays are listed in the course outline.  Each paper is worth 10 points and is due on the Friday of each week for which a paper is due. Late papers will lose points.
 The papers will follow the Turabian format.
 A shorter version of that style manual can be found on the History style manual at the following web address: <http://www.longwood.edu/history/HDPTSTS2.htm>

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Taking Exams:
Exams must be taken on time.  You are expected to provide proof for any legitimate reason (illness, participation in a University-sponsored activity, or recognizable emergency) you have for missing an exam.  Having another test on the dame day or having problems with the person you are dating are not valid reasons for missing a test.

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Bibliography:
Required Reading:
Russell D. Howard & Reid Sawyer.  Editors.  Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Understanding the New Security Environment, Reading and Interpretations.  Second Edition.  New York: McGraw Hill, 2006. ISBN 0-07-352771-8.
Russell Howard, James Forest, Joanne Moore.  Editiors.  Homeland Security and Terrorism: Reading and Interpretations.  New York: McGraw Hill, 2006.  ISBN 0-07-145282-6.
The 9/11 Commission Report.

Suggested Reading or Reference:

Students may make use of the excellent and very extensive bibliographies provided in the texts.

Here is a list of e-books available through the Greenwood Library:

AMATEUR SOLDIERS, GLOBAL WARS [ELECTRONIC RESOURCE] : INSURGENCY AND MODERN CONFLICT / MICHAEL C. FOWLER.   Internet Resource.

CYBER-THREATS, INFORMATION WARFARE, AND CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION [ELECTRONIC RESOURCE] : DEFENDING THE U.S. HOMELAND / ANTHONY H. CORDESMAN WITH JUSTIN G. CORDESMAN.   Internet Resource.

FROM SECULARISM TO JIHAD [ELECTRONIC RESOURCE] : SAYYID QUTB AND THE FOUNDATIONS OF RADICAL ISLAMISM / ADNAN A. MUSALLAM. Internet Resource.

HANDBOOK OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AND TERRORISM [ELECTRONIC RESOURCE] / STEVEN L. HOENIG.   Internet Resource.

HOLIEST WARS [ELECTRONIC RESOURCE] : ISLAMIC MAHDIS, THEIR JIHADS, AND OSAMA BIN LADEN / TIMOTHY R. FURNISH ; FOREWORD BY MICHAEL RUBIN.  Internet Resource.

INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM IN THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD [ELECTRONIC RESOURCE] / EDITED BY MARIUS H. LIVINGSTON WITH LEE BRUCE KRESS AND MARIE G. WANEK.   Internet Resource.

MARTYRDOM [ELECTRONIC RESOURCE] : THE PSYCHOLOGY, THEOLOGY, AND POLITICS OF SELF -SACRIFICE / EDITED BY RONA M. FIELDS ... [ET AL.]  Internet Resource.

MODERNIZATION, DEMOCRACY, AND ISLAM [ELECTRONIC RESOURCE] / EDITED BY SHIREEN T. HUNTER AND HUMA MALIK ; FOREWORD BY AHMEDOU OULD-ABDALLAH.   Internet Resource.

ON TERRORISM AND COMBATING TERRORISM [ELECTRONIC RESOURCE] : PROCEEDINGS OF AN INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR, TEL-AVIV, 1979 / EDITED BY ARIEL MERARI.   Internet Resource.

REVOLUTIONARY APOCALYPSE [ELECTRONIC RESOURCE] : IDEOLOGICAL ROOTS OF TERRORISM / LUCIANO PELLICANI.   Internet Resource.

THE AGE OF TOTAL WAR, 1860-1945 [ELECTRONIC RESOURCE] / JEREMY BLACK.   Internet Resource.

THE DEADLY SIN OF TERRORISM [ELECTRONIC RESOURCE] : ITS EFFECT ON DEMOCRACY AND CIVIL LIBERTY IN SIX COUNTRIES / EDITED BY DAVID A. CHARTERS.   Internet Resource.

THE FUTURE OF ISLAM IN THE MIDDLE EAST [ELECTRONIC RESOURCE] : FUNDAMENTALISM IN EGYPT , ALGERIA , AND SAUDI ARABIA / MAHMUD A. FAKSH.   Internet Resource.

THE GATHERING BIOLOGICAL WARFARE STORM [ELECTRONIC RESOURCE] / EDITED BY JIM A. DAVIS AND BARRY R. SCHNEIDER.   Internet Resource.

  Other Materials:

William C. Banks, Renee de Nevers, Mitchel B. Wallerstein.  Combating Terrorism:  Strategies and Approaches.  Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008.
Thomas J. Bradley.  Editor.  Homeland Security.  Annual Editions. Second Edition. Dubuque, Iowa: McGraw-Hill, 2008.
Vincent Burns and Kate Dempsey Peterson.  Terrorism: A Documentary and Reference Guide.  Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Security International, 2005.
William M. Evan.  War & Peace in an Age of Terrorism: A Reader.  New York: Pearson/Longman, 2006.
James A. Fagan.  When Terrorism Strikes Home: Defending the United States.  New York: Pearson/Longman, 2006.
James J. F. Forest. Editor.  Homeland Security: Protecting America's Targets.  Three Volumes.  Volume I:  Borders and Points of Entry; Volume II:  Public Spaces and Social Institutions; Volume III: Critical Infrastructures.  Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Security International, 2006
James J. F. Forest.  Editor.  The Making of a Terrorist: Recruitment, Training, and Root Causes.  Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Security International, 2005.
Fawaz A. Gerges.  The Far Enemy: Why Jihad Went Global.  New York: Cambridge University Press. 2005.
Daniel Goldstein.  Securing America's Future.  National Strategy in the Information Age.  Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Security International, 2005.
Christopher Hewitt.  Political Violence and Terror in Modern America: A Chronology.  Connecticut: Praeger Security International, 2005.
Russell D. Howard, James J. Forest.  Editors.  Weapons of Mass Destruction and Terrorism.  New York: McGraw Hill, 2008. 
Richard J. Kilroy, Jr., Editior.  Threats to Homeland Security: An All-Hazards Perspective.  Wiley & Sons, 2008.
Bernard Lewis.  What Went Wrong: The Clash Between Islam and Modernity in the Middle East.  New York: Haper/Collins, 2003.
Brigitte L. Nacos.  Terrorism and Counterterrorism:  Understanding Threats and Responses in the Post - 9/11 World.  Second Edition.  New York:
Pearson/Longman, 2008.
Dennis Okerstrom.  Peace, War, and Terrorism.  New York: Pearson/Longman, 2006.
Richard A. Posner.  Preventing Surprise Attacks: Intelligence Reform in the Wake of 9/11.  Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2005
Barry R. Schneider and Jim A. Davis.  Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction: Avoiding the Abyss.  Connecticut: Praeger Security International, 2006.
Jessica Stern.  Terrorism in the Name of God:  Why Religious Militants Kill.  New York: Harper/Collins Publisher, 2004.

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