POLITICAL SCIENCE 394
POLITICAL LEADERSHIP
Spring, 2010

Return to Dr. Harbour's Home Page
Return to Department Syllabi Page

 Instructor: Dr. Harbour
Office: East Ruffner 228
Office telephone: 395-2219
Office hours:
MWF 10:00-11:00  TR 9:30-10:30
harbourwr@longwood.edu
Home phone:  315-0352

Table of Contents
 Course Description
 Texts
 Course Objectives
 Class Schedule
 Course Requirements
 Grading
 Attendance Policy
 Honor Code
 Class Discussion and Speaking Intensive Course
 10 Critical Thinking Essays
 Taking Exams
 Bibliography
 

Course Description:
The course investigates the diverse nature of leadership and the place of leadership in contemporary society.  While the main emphasis is on political leadership, a strong interdisciplinary approach will be employed.  Students will be required to think about the various needs, origins, moral dilemmas, requirements, and techniques of leadership in a wide variety of differing circumstances.

 Return to Table of Contents

Texts:


James MacGregor Burns.  Leadership.  Paperback. 1985  Harper Collins. ISBN 9780061319754

Warren Bennis. On Becoming a Leader.  Paperback. Basic Books. 2009.  ISBN 9780465014088

John Gardner. On Leadership. Paperback.  1993 Free Press ISBN 9780029113127

Students are also required to purchase a subscription to the New York Times from the bookstore. Great attention should be paid to the leadership challenges facing the country right now and the performance of the Obama administration.
Students should also consult, on a daily basis, the following website on leadership found at the online edition of the Washington Post: http://views.washingtonpost.com/leadership/

Supplemental Readings that can be borrowed from the Instructor:
J. Kevin Barge, Leadership
Warren Bennis, On Becoming a Leader
Warren Bennis & Burt Nanus, Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge
James MacGregor Burns, Leadership
John W. Gardner, On Leadership
Barbara Kellerman, Editor, Leadership: Multidisciplinary Perspectives
Paul Hersey, The Situational Leader
Paul Hersey & Ken Blanchard, Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources
Richard L. Hughes, Robert C. Ginnett, Gordon J. CurphyLeadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience.
Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince
George Manning & Kent Curtis.  The Art of Leadership. 
Lynne Joy McFarland, Lary E. Senn, John R. Childress, 21 Century Leadership: Dialogues with 100 Top Leaders
Walter Lippmann, The Public Philosophy
Tom Peters & Nancy Austin, A Passion for Excellence
Thomas Peters & Robert H. Waterman, Jr., In Search of Excellence
Gary YuklLeadership in Organizations 

 Return to Table of Contents
 

Course Objectives:

Upon completion of the course, students will be able to:

 1. Demonstrate a capacity for critical and analytical thought about issues central to political leadership.

2. Demonstrate an ability to communicate their knowledge and beliefs about leadership both orally and in writing.

3. Discuss the types of issues which most leaders must address.

4. Identify information about political leadership which is necessary for useful and responsible citizenship.

5. Discuss important philosophical and ethical issues associated with the exercise of political leadership.

6. Discuss the significance of leadership in contemporary society.

7. Describe the major ways in which political scientists and other social scientists have tried to understand leadership.

8. Discuss how various forms of leadership have shaped and been shaped by the dynamic social forces found in modern
    society.

 Return to Table of Contents
 
Click Here to go to the study guide for this course.

Class Schedule:

Week 1 (Jan. 11-15) Defining Leadership, Evolution of Leadership Theory
Tuesday:  Defining Leadership
Read: Gardner, Introduction and Chpt. 1 The Nature of Leadership
           Gardner, Chpt. 2 The Tasks of Leadership
The following site lists very good books and articles on leadership: http://www.leadershipnow.com/
The following site has a list of some quotes about leadership from some well known individuals: http://www.leadershipnow.com/leadershipquotes.html

Thursday:  Leadership Theory

Read: Burns, Prologue and Chpt. 1 The Power of Leadership
           Burns, Chpt. 16 Toward a General Theory of Leadership
           Burns, Chtp. 17 Political Leadership as Practical Experience
The following site has a good presentation of various leadership theories:  http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/p/leadtheories.htm
The following site has good links to presentations of major leadership theories:  http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/leadership_theories.htm
Essay # 1 Write a three page essay in which you explain what leadership is all about.  Try to define leadership and discuss its most important elements, challenges, and limitations.

Week 2 (Jan. 18-22)  Personality, Character, Traits 
Tuesday:  Leadership Traits                
Read: Gardner, Chpt. 5 Attributes
The following site has a useful description of the great man theory: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/great_man_theory.htm
The following site has a useful description of trait theory: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/trait_theory.htm
The following site has a useful description of behavioral theory: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/behavioral_theory.htm
The following site has useful description of role theory: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/role_theory.htm
The following site introduces the distinction between leaders who are oriented towards people versus those who are oriented to achieving the tasks at hand: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/managerial_grid.htm
Thursday:  Different Styles and Followers
Read: Gardner, Chpt. 5 Attributes 
         Optional:  The following is a site regarding Kurt Lewin's typology of leadership styles:  http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/a/leadstyles.htm
Essay # 2  Write a three page essay in which you discuss the strengths and limitations of tying to understand leadership in terms of traits possessed by leaders.  What are some of the most important characteristics or qualities leaders should posses?

Week 3 (Jan. 25-29) Importance of Values and Ethics
Tuesday:  Values and Leadership in a Democracy
Read:  Gardner, Chpt. 7 The Moral Dimension
           Burns, Chpt. 2 The Structure of Moral Leadership
           Burns, Chpt. 6 Intellectual Leadership: Ideas as Moral Power
Consider the idea of service to others found in Michael McKinney’s essay The Focus of Leadership: http://www.leadershipnow.com/service.html
Consider the role of values found in George Washington’s First Inaugural Address: http://www.leadershipnow.com/gwinaugural.html
Consider the following quotes about the importance of integrity: http://www.leadershipnow.com/integrityquotes.html
Thursday:  Self-Awareness and Understanding Others
Read:  Gardner, Chpt. 7 The Moral Dimension
           Burns, Chpt. 2 The Structure of Moral Leadership
           Burns, Chpt. 6 Intellectual Leadership: Ideas as Moral Power
Consider the rules of civility that were important to George Washington: http://www.foundationsmag.com/civility.html
Students should look at information about corruption found by the Transparency International web sites: http://www.transparency.org/ http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi
Also examine Lawrence Kohlberg’s typology of moral development at: http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/kohlberg.htm
Essay # 3 Write a three page essay in which you explain the importance of ethics to leadership and discuss some of the moral dilemmas leaders sometimes face.

Week 4 (Feb. 1-5)  Exercising Power
 Tuesday, Feb.6 Leadership and the Exercise of Power
Read: Gardner, Chpt. 4 Power 
Consider the five bases for power identified by French and Raven: http://changingminds.org/explanations/power/french_and_raven.htm
Consider some of the other theories about the nature of power found at: http://changingminds.org/explanations/power/power.htm
Thursday:  First Test
NOTE: You will have your first test on Thursday, Feb. 4. This test will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

Week 5 (Feb. 8-12) Contingency Theories; Situational Leadership
Tuesday:  Contingency Models
Read: Gardner, Chpt. 3 The Heart of the Matter: Leader-Constituent Interactions
          Gardner, Chpt. 4 Context
Also read the articles on the following online sites:
Contingency Theory: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/contingency_theory.htm
Fiedler’s Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Theory: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/fiedler_lpc.htm
Cognitive Resource Theory: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/cognitive_resource.htm
Strategic Contingencies Theory: http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/strategic_contingencies.htm
Situational Leadership Model: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/situational_leadership_hersey_blanchard.htm
Thursday:  Exchange and Relationship Theories 
Read: Gardner, Chpt. 3 The Heart of the Matter: Leader-Constituent Interactions
          Gardner, Chpt. 4 Context
Also read the article on Leader-Follower (LMX) Leadership Theory at: http://businessmanagement.suite101.com/article.cfm/leaderfollower_lmx_leadership_theory
Examine the article on exchange theory at: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O88-exchangetheory.html
Also examine the article on normative decision making model at: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/vroom_yetton.htm

Essay # 4  Write a three page essay in which you discuss the importance of the context in which leadership is to be exercised to the likely success or failure of different styles of leadership.  Draw upon some of the contingency models in developing your observations.

Week 6 (Feb. 15-19) Charisma and Transformational Leadership
Tuesday:  Charisma
Read: Burns, Chpt. 8 Revolutionary Leadership
           Burns, Chpt. 9 Heroes and Ideologues
Read the following article about Max Weber’s understanding of charisma found at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charismatic_authority
The following site has a list of quotations about charisma from some well known individuals: http://www.leadershipnow.com/charismaquotes.html
Thursday, Feb. 22 Transformational Leadership
           Burns, Prologue – The Crisis of Leadership
           Burns, Chpt. 8 Revolutionary Leadership
           Burns, Chpt. 9 Heroes and Ideologues      
Also read the following online article: 
http://views.washingtonpost.com/leadership/leadership_playlist/2009/12/five-leadership-lessons-from-invictus.html 
Examine the following observations about change made by some well known individuals found at: http://www.leadershipnow.com/changequotes.html
Also consider the following observations about initiative: http://www.leadershipnow.com/initiativequotes.html
Essay # 5 Write a three page essay in which you discuss what transformational leadership is all about.  Why is this type of leadership so difficult?  What makes it possible?  What are the advantages as well as dangers of charismatic leadership?

Week 7 (Feb. 22-26) Working with People
Tuesday:  The Challenge of Human Relations, Motivating People, and Building Teams
Read: Gardner, Chpt. 16 Motivating
Read about Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs at: http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/hierarchyneeds.htm
Consider the ideas about how to build trust in organizations presented by Stephen M. R. Covey in his article, “How the Best Leaders Build Trust” found at: http://www.leadershipnow.com/CoveyOnTrust.html
Examine Kevin Daley’s article, “Communicating with Power” found at: http://www.leadershipnow.com/KevinDaley.html
Take a look at some observations about motivation made by some well known individuals found at: http://www.leadershipnow.com/motivationquotes.html
Thursday:  Leading Successful Teams
Read:  Burns, Chpt. 3 The Psychological Matrix of Leadership
            Burns, Chpt. 4 The Social Sources of Leadership
            Burns, Chpt. 5 The Crucibles of Political Leadership
The following articles on building and leading teams: http://humanresources.about.com/od/involvementteams/a/twelve_tip_team.htm
                                                                                      http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadtem.html
                                                                                      http://www.nsba.org/sbot/toolkit/LeadTeam.html
Consider the following observations about relationships: http://www.leadershipnow.com/relationshipsquotes.html

Essay # 6  Write a three page essay on the best ways to go about leading and building effective teams.  What are the key challenges here and how can they be met? 

Week 8 (March 1-5)  Sources of Leadership Failure
Tuesday 
Read:  Read the online article “Why Leaders Fail” by Mark Sanborn at: http://www.leadershipnow.com/sanborn.html
Examine the observations about “4 Key Contributors to Leadership Failure”  by Duncan Brodie at: http://ezinearticles.com/?4-Key-Contributors-to-Leadership-Failure&id=2539414
Read the article “Catastrophic Leadership Failure: An Overview” by Henry L. Thompson at: http://www.hpsys.com/Articles/Catastrophic%20Leadership%20Failure%20Overview.html
Also look at the observations about learning from failure found at: http://leadershipchallenge.typepad.com/leadership_challenge/2009/02/failure-the-secret-to-success.html
Check out information regarding ethics in government found on the following web site: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/government_ethics/introduction/
Read biographical material on Richard Nixon, his career, and Watergate

Thursday: Second Test
Note: You will have your second test on Thursday, March 4. This test will count for 1/6 of your semester grade

SPRING BREAK   MARCH 6-14

Week 9 (March 15-19) Enhancing Organizational Success  
Tuesday:  Organizational Leadership
Read:  Consider the following observations about good management made by some well known individuals found at: http://www.leadershipnow.com/managementquotes.html
Look at the following observations about good organizational leadership made by Warren Bennis at: http://views.washingtonpost.com/leadership/panelists/2010/01/five-musts-for-leaders.html
Also examine the following observations about the importance of listening: http://www.leadershipnow.com/listeningquotes.html
Read the following on Helco’s ideas regarding “a government of strangers” http://wikisum.com/w/Heclo:_A_government_of_strangers
                                                                                                                         http://www.brookings.edu/press/Books/1977/agovernmentofstrangers.aspx
Thursday:  Working Across Organizational Lines and Institutional Barriers
Read: Examine the following article about the importance of working across organizational boundaries: http://views.washingtonpost.com/leadership/leadership_playlist/2010/01/breaking-communication-barriers.html
Read the following article about “project management” and increasing the performance of government agencies at: http://views.washingtonpost.com/leadership/guestinsights/2010/01/good-medicine-for-government-projects.html
Essay #  7 Write a three page essay on what it takes to build high-performance organizations.  In developing your answer explain why people in public administration must overcome what some experts call a "government of strangers."  How does one best bring about collaboration across organizational boundaries?

Week 10 (March 22-26)  Strategic Leadership 

Tuesday:  Strategic Leadership; Building Trust
Read: On Becoming a Leader
Thursday:  Getting Ready; Global Leadership
Read:  On Becoming a Leader
Essay # 8  Discuss the training, knowledge, and characteristics American leaders will need in the future.   

Week 11 (March 29 - April 2) On Presidential Leadership; Case Studies Presented by Students
Tuesday:  Case studies on George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln
Read:  Read the following survey that tries to rank presidents in terms of greatness:  http://www.c-span.org/PresidentialSurvey/Overall-Ranking.aspx
Article about the above survey may be found at: http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/02/16/presidential.survey/index.html#cnnSTCText 
Thursday: Case studies on Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry Truman, Barack Obama
Read:  Read the following survey that tries to rank presidents in terms of greatness:  http://www.c-span.org/PresidentialSurvey/Overall-Ranking.aspx
Article about the above survey may be found at: http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/02/16/presidential.survey/index.html#cnnSTCText
Essay # 9
You are to write a three page essay in which you discuss the strengths and shortcomings of the leader you have researched for your case study.  How can one best understand this person's leadership?  Not only should you make use of appropriate biographical material for this essay, you should also draw upon the readings on leadership you have been reflecting upon all semester. 

Week 12 (April 5-9) Case Studies Presented by Students
Tuesday:   Case Studies on Joseph Stalin, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Read:
Thursday:  Third test
NOTE: You will have your third test on Thursday, April 8. This test will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

Week 13 (April 12-16) Case Studies Presented by Students
Tuesday:  Case Studies on Nelson Mandela, Malcolm X, Douglas MacArthur
Read: 
Thursday:  Case Studies on Mohandas Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., Bill Clinton
Read:  
Essay # 10  You will write a three page essay in which you discuss the most important things you have learned about leadership in this course.  

Week 14 (April 19-23) Case Studies Presented by Students
Tuesday:  Case Studies on Robert E. Lee, Erwin Rommel, Donald Trump
Read: 
Thursday:  Case studies on Susan B. Anthony, Sigmund Freud, Winston Churchill
Read: 

Classes end April 23
Reading Day:  April 24
Exam Period:  April 26-30
Final Exam: The final exam will be worth 1/6 of your semester grade.
Commencement:  May 8

 Return to Table of Contents
 

Course Requirements:
Class Discussion
Ten three page essays
Three tests
Final comprehensive examination

 Return to Table of Contents
 

Grading:
Your grade will be based upon three tests given during the course of the semester, class discussion (which includes a major oral presentation given to the class), your total score from 10 three page essays, and a comprehensive final examination.  Each of these will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.  All tests and the final exam will involve an essay format.

  Return to Table of Contents
 

Attendance Policy:
The attendance policy for this course is the University policy found in the University Catalog and Student Handbook:
 Students are expected to attend all classes. Failure to attend class regularly impairs academic performance. Absences are disruptive to the educational process for others. This is especially true when absences cause interruptions for clarification of material previously covered, failure to assume assigned responsibilities for class presentations, or failure to adjust to changes in assigned material or due dates.  It is the responsibility of each instructor to give students a copy of his or her attendance policy in the course syllabus. Instructors may assign a grade of “0” or “F” on work missed because of unexcused absences. Instructors have the right to lower a student's course grade, but no more than one letter grade, if the student misses 10 percent of the scheduled class meeting times for unexcused absences.  Instructors have the right to assign a course grade of “F” when the student has missed a total (excused and unexcused) of 25 percent of the scheduled class meeting times. Students must assume full responsibility for any loss incurred because of absence, whether excused or unexcused. Instructors should permit students to make up work when the absence is excused. Excused absences are those resulting from the student's participation in a University sponsored activity, from recognizable emergencies, or from serious illness. Faculty may require documentation for excused absences in their attendance policy. Student Health Services can provide documentation only for students hospitalized locally or absent at the direction of Student Health Services personnel.

 Return to Table of Contents
 

Honor Code:
Students are expected to live by the Longwood University Honor Code. All work done for the class must be pledged. Your instructor will not tolerate any form of cheating.

 Return to Table of Contents
 

Class Discussion:
Your instructor values class participation. Remember that 1/6 of your semester grade is based on your contribution to class discussion.  The class discussion grade is based upon daily participation in class and the major case study you will present to the class during the last part of the semester. This is a speaking intensive course and that major presentation is very important. Students are encouraged to ask questions and to express their knowledge and beliefs about the material and issues being dealt with in class. 

 Return to Table of Contents
 

Ten Critical Thinking Essays:
There will be 10 critical thinking writing exercises. These papers will usually be 3 pages in length and be handed in at the beginning of class on the day they are due.  They are not to be sent as an email attachment.  Late papers will lose points. They will be done in Microsoft Word with a Font size 12 and double spaced. Any documentation for these exercises will be done according to the Turabian format for a research paper. Failure to cite sources properly will cost points and may result in a 0 for the paper.
 A shorter version of that style manual can be found on the History style manual at the following web address: <http://www.longwood.edu/history/HDPTSTS2.htm>

  Return to Table of Contents
 

Taking Exams:
All tests and exams must be taken on time.
You are expected to provide proof for any legitimate reason (illness, participation in a University-sponsored activity, or recognizable emergency) you have for missing a test or exam.

  Return to Table of Contents
 

Bibliography:
Required Reading:
James MacGregor Burns.  Leadership.  Paperback. 1985  Harper Collins. ISBN 9780061319754

Warren Bennis. On Becoming a Leader.  Paperback. Basic Books. 2009.  ISBN 9780465014088

John Gardner. On Leadership. Paperback.  1993 Free Press ISBN 9780029113127

Supplemental Readings That May Be Borrowed From The Instructor:
J. Kevin Barge, Leadership
Warren Bennis, On Becoming a Leader
Warren Bennis & Burt Nanus, Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge
James MacGregor Burns. Transforming Leadership
John W. Gardner, On Leadership
Fred I. Greenstein.
  Presidential Difference: Leadership Style from FDR to George W. Bush.  2nd Edition
Barbara Kellerman, Editor, Leadership: Multidisciplinary Perspectives
Paul Hersey, The Situational Leader
Paul Hersey & Ken Blanchard, Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources
Richard L. Hughes, Robert C. Ginnett, Gordon J. CurphyLeadership: Enhancing the Lessons of  
Experience
.
Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince
Lynne Joy McFarland, Lary E. Senn, John R. Childress, 21 Century Leadership: Dialogues with 100 Top   Leaders
Walter Lippmann, The Public Philosophy
George Manning & Kent Curtis.  The Art of Leadership
Afsaneh Nahavandi.
  The Art and Science of Leadership.  3rd Edition
Tom Peters & Nancy Austin, A Passion for Excellence
Thomas Peters & Robert H. Waterman, Jr., In Search of Excellence
Gary YuklLeadership in Organizations 

Academic Journals:
American Political Science Review
Presidential Studies Quarterly
Journal of Politics

 Return to Table of Contents



 Return to Department Course Syllabi
 Return to Department of History and Political Science Homepage