THE AMERICAN PRESIDENCY
Political Science 350
Fall, 2010

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Instructor:  Dr. William Harbour                                                                         Office Phone: 395-2219
Office: East Ruffner 228                                                                                      Home Phone: 315-0352
Office Hours: MWF 11:00-12:00                                                       E-Mail: harbourwr@longwood.edu 
                        TR 9:30-10:30



Table of Contents
COURSE DESCRIPTION                                                                                    COURSE OBJECTIVES
EVALUATION METHOD                                                                                REQUIRED READINGS
GRADES                                                                                                                   CLASS DISCUSSION
CRITICAL THINKING WRITING EXERCISES

HONOR CODE                                                                                                             TAKING EXAMS
ATTENDANCE POLICY                                                                                          COURSE OUTLINE
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY



COURSE DESCRIPTION:
The modern presidency and its role in contemporary politics, emphasizing the constitutional background of the office, the evolution of presidential powers, relationships between the presidency and Congress and the bureaucracy, the presidential election process, and the role of the presidency in policy making.
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COURSE OBJECTIVES:

 Upon completion of the course, students will be able to:
1. Demonstrate a capacity for critical and analytical thought about the Presidency.

2. Demonstrate an ability to communicate their knowledge and beliefs about the Presidency both orally and in writing.

3. Describe the essential features of the American Presidency.

4. Discuss the roles played by the Presidency in the American political system.

5. Identify information regarding the Presidency that is necessary for useful and responsible citizenship.

6. Discuss important philosophical and ethical issues associated with the exercise of Presidential power and leadership.

7. Describe the major ways in which political scientists have tried to understand the Presidency.

8. Discuss how the presidency has shaped and been shaped by dynamic social forces in the 20th and 21st century.

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EVALUATION METHOD:
The attainment of the course objectives by the students will be evaluated by examining student performance in class discussion and on the essay exams and critical thinking writing exercises required for the course.

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REQUIRED READINGS:

George C. Edwards III. and Stephen J. Wayne.  Presidential Leadership: Politics and Policy Making.  8th Edition.  Boston, Mass.:  Cengage Wadsworth, 2010.   

 

James C. Pffifner and Roger H. Davidson.  Understanding the Presidency.  Sixth Edition.  New York: Longman, 2011. 

 

Sidney M. Milkis and Michael Nelson.  The American Presidency.  Fifth Edition.  Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008. 

 

Students will also be required to purchase a discounted subscription to the New York Times from the Bookstore.  Being aware of current political developments is important to good citizenship.  Each exam will have at least one essay question requiring students to reflect on current political news regarding the presidency.

 

Students are required to view all the American Experience documentaries on presidents from FDR to George H.W. Bush found at:   http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/presidents/

 

Useful Web Sites:

For information on the current president and office go to White House site at: http://www.whitehouse.gov

For information on former presidents go to the Presidential Libraries site maintained by the National  Archives at: http://www.archives.gov/presidential_libraries/addresses/addresses.html

For links to Official US Executive Branch Web Sites go to the page maintained by the Library of Congress at: http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/fedgov.html

For some useful Federal government sources on the presidency maintained by the University of Michigan Library go to: http://www.lib.umich.edu/govdocs/fedprs.html

To watch the American Experience programs on Presidents from Franklin Roosevelt to George H. W. Bush go to: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/presidents/

For very good resources on the presidency maintained by one of your textbook authors (George C.  Edwards III) at Texas A&M University go to:
http://presdata.tamu.edu/

To view many of the most well known television ads used in presidential campaigns, go to the following site: http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1952

For very useful information and data on different presidential administrations, go to the following site:  http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/

Students interested in looking at major legislation passed during different presidential administrations can start their search at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_federal_legislation#74th_United_States_Congress

A useful site for checking on the facts presented in public forums:
http://www.factcheck.org/
Many thoughtful students sometimes wonder how much they can trust information about politics they encounter when viewing political ads and reading political editorials. They also worry about the objectivity of media news reports. Both conservatives and liberals complain about the distortion of facts found in the political ads run by the other side and various websites sponsored by opposition ideological groups. Distorting the views and positions of the opposition to make them look as bad as possible is an all too typical campaign technique. As a citizen and a student you not only should consider examining many different perspectives and sources of information but also make use of above site sponsored by the Annenberg Public Policy Center. The experts at this site checks out the factual accuracy of many political speeches, ads, and news releases. They take on both the left and the right, finding errors put out by democrats and republicans. This site is especially useful when elections approach in examining current political debates over public policy.

 

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GRADES:
Your grade will be based upon three tests given during the course of the semester, the combined score on ten critical thinking writing exercises, your contribution to class discussion, and a final examination. Each of these will count for 1/6 of your semester grade. All of the tests and the final examination will involve an essay format.

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CLASS DISCUSSION:
Students are expected to make contributions to class discussion. Your grade in this regard will be based upon daily participation during the semester.  Students should be prepared to relate the material being studied to current political developments.

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CRITICAL THINKING WRITING EXERCISES:
There will be 10 critical thinking writing exercises. These assignments will be three pages in length. They will be done in Microsoft Word with a Font size 12 and double spaced. Any documentation for these exercises will be done according to the Turabian format for a research paper. A shorter version of that style manual can be found on the History style manual at the following web address: <http://www.longwood.edu/history/HDPTSTS2.htmhttp://www.longwood.edu/history/HDPTSTS2.htm>
The essays must demonstrate reading beyond the class assignments and reflect knowledge of current political events. 

These assignments are found in the course outline and are due by 4:00 each Friday of the week assigned.  Later papers will lose points.

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HONOR CODE:


Students are expected to live by the Longwood University Honor Code. All work done for the class must be pledged.  Your instructor will not tolerate any form of cheating.

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TAKING EXAMS:
All tests and exams must be taken on time.
You are expected to provide proof for any legitimate reason (illness, participation in a University-sponsored activity, or recognizable emergency) you may have for missing a test or exam. Work not handed in on time will lose points.  Each exam will also have at least one question dealing with current political developments regarding the presidency.

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ATTENDANCE POLICY:


The attendance policy for the course is the same as the University policy found in the University Catalog and the Student Handbook.

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COURSE OUTLINE
CLICK HERE FOR STUDY GUIDE

Week 1 Introduction to the study of the Presidency
Aug. 23-27   The Constitution and the Presidency
Read:  Edwards & Wayne, Preface, Chpt. 1, Appendices A, B, C, D
           Pfiffner & Davidson, Section 1, Readings 1-5
           Milkis & Nelson, Preface, Chpts. 1, 2, 3 and Appendix with the Constitution and listing of Presidents
           The Constitution
Special Topics:
M: Introduction to the study of the Presidency
      What are the principal approaches to studying the Presidency?
W: Creating the Presidency
     What were the most important issues at the Constitutional Convention regarding the office of the Presidency?
F:  What does the Constitution have to say about the Presidency?
     What were the challenges faced by the first two presidents in establishing the office?

Critical Thinking Writing Exercise #1 Identify the most important debates that surrounded the creation of the Presidency.  Explain how some of today’s controversies surrounding the office reflect the concerns raised in those original debates. 

Week 2   Perspectives on Presidential Power, Leadership, and the Constitution; Public Opinion and the Presidency; The Media and the Presidency
Aug. 30 – Sept. 3  
 
Read:  Pfiffner & Davidson, Section 2, Readings 6-10;  Section 4, Readings 17-20
            Edwards & Wayne, Chpts. 4, 5
            Milkis & Nelson, Chpts. 4, 5, 9
            Study the data on the following sites:
            http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/data/popularity.php
            http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/data/initial_approval.php
            http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/data/100days_approval.php 
            http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/data/final_approval.php
            http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/data/newsconferences.php
Special Topics:
M: What have been some of the principal positions regarding the valid scope of Presidential powers?
W: What are some of the primary factors that influence Presidential popularity?  How do Presidents try to shape public opinion?
F:   Why is the relationship between the President and the press often strained?

Critical Thinking Writing Exercise #2 Explain the most important factors that shape public perceptions of the President and job approval ratings.  What can Presidents do and what should they not do in regard to building and maintaining popular support?

Week 3     The Selection Process
Sept. 6-10     Read:   Edwards & Wayne, Chpts. 2, 3
                                  Pfiffner & Davidson, Section 3, Readings 11-16
                                  Milkis & Nelson, Appendix on Presidential Elections
Exit poll data on 2004 Elections: http://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2004/pages/results/
Exit poll data on 2008 Elections: http://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2008/
Gallup data on voting by different demographic groups in presidential elections 1952-2008:
 http://www.gallup.com/poll/139880/Election-Polls-Presidential-Vote-Groups.aspx#1
Special Topics
M: No classes on Labor Day
W:  How does one go about becoming President?  How do Presidential candidates get nominated?
       What factors shape the conduct and results of Presidential elections?
F:  Case Study: What can be learned from Election 2008? 
       Is this nation served well by the manner in which it selects Presidents? Should the process be changed?

Critical Thinking Writing Exercise # 3 Explain and evaluate what you regard as the five most important criticisms of the current presidential selection process. 

Week 4  The Debate Over the Extent of Presidential Power
Sept. 13-17 
Read: Pfiffner & Davidson, Section 5, Reading 25; Section 7, Readings 32, 33; Section 9, Readings 40, 43
          Milkis & Nelson, Chpts. 5, 6, 8, 11
          Edwards & Wayne, Chpt. 10
          Watch the Frontline program, “Cheney’s Law” at:  http://video.pbs.org/video/1082073775/
          Information on presidential signing statements: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/signingstatements.php
          Information on executive orders: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/data/orders.php
Special Topics:
M:  How have Presidential powers evolved?  What dynamic social, economic, political and military forces have shaped the emergence of the modern presidency?
W:  Is there an Imperial Presidency?  What is involved in the debate over the theory of the unitary executive?

F:   Note:  Your first test for the semester will be on Friday, Sept. 17 and will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

Week 5   The President and Congress
Sept. 20-24

Read:  Pfiffner & Davidson, Section 6, Readings 26, 27; Section 7, Reading 30
           Milkis & Nelson, Chpts. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
           Edwards & Wayne, Chpt. 10
Special Topics:
M:  What forces were behind different Eras Congressional Dominance and emergence of a more Dominant Presidency?
W:  The Progressives and the Presidency; Case Studies: The Modern Presidency and FDR, LBJ
F:  What does the President have going for him in dealing with the Congress?
     What forces limit Presidential influence with Congress?

Critical Thinking Writing Exercise #4 Why are some presidents more successful in getting their domestic agenda enacted by Congress than others? What makes for Presidential success in dealing with Congress? 

Week 6   Evaluating Presidential Greatness and Leadership
Sept. 27 - 0ct. 1              

Read:  Online articles and surveys on ranking great presidents
           Milkis & Nelson, Chpt. 5, 6, 8, 11, 12, 13
           Be sure to finish by this week viewing all the American Experience documentaries on presidents from FDR to George H.W. Bush found at:
           http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/presidents/
           You may check out some rankings of presidents at: http://www.americanpresidents.org/survey/historians
                                                                                            http://www.fed-soc.org/doclib/20070308_pressurvey.PDF
                                                                                            http://www.zogby.com/news/readnews.cfm?ID=1057
Special Topics:
M:  What makes for Presidential greatness?  How do most surveys tend to rank our past presidents?  Which ones are seen as great?
W:  Case Studies:  Jackson and Lincoln
F:  Case Studies: Theodore Roosevelt, FDR

Critical Thinking Writing Exercise #5 What criteria should be used in evaluating presidential leadership and greatness?  Why are such evaluations so difficult and often controversial?

Week 7    Domestic Policy; Making Economic and Budget Policy      
Oct. 4-8
Read:  Edwards & Wayne, Chpts. 12, 13
           Pfiffner & Davidson, Section 7, Readings 30, 31
           The following site is a useful list of major legislation enacted by Congress over the course of U.S. history: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_federal_legislation
           The following site has budget data, with deficit information, for presidents since 1930: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/data/budget.php
           Differences between presidential budget requests and final Congressional appropriations: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/data/appropriations.php
           Charts on public debt may be found at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_deficit
           For more comprehensive charts on federal spending, gross domestic product, and debt go to: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_debt_by_U.S._presidential_terms
           The following link has a study of growing income inequality in the United States: http://www.slate.com/id/2266025/entry/2266026/
           The following link has information on median household income: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Median_income
           The following link deals with the Office of Management and Budget: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb
           The following link deals with the Department of the Treasury: http://www.treasury.gov/
           The following link presents important data on the American economy over the past 100 years: http://ycharts.com/economy
           The following site allows the student to retrieve all sorts of economic data: http://www.measuringworth.com/index.php
Special Topics:
M:  What factors dominate domestic policy and economic and budget policy?
W:  What resources do Presidents have in these areas? 
F:  What limitations do they face in these areas? 

Critical Thinking Writing Exercise #6  Explain the most important forces shaping the making of economic and budget policies and the role played by the key offices and institutions involved in making those policies.

FALL BREAK   OCTOBER 11-12

Week 8      The Presidency and the Bureaucracy
Oct. 13-15  Read:  Pfiffner & Davidson, Section 5, Reading 25
                              Edwards & Wayne, Chpt. 9
Special Topics:
W: What have some recent Presidents tried to do in trying to get greater control of the federal bureaucracy? Why are Presidents so often frustrated when it comes to dealing with the federal bureaucracy?
F:  Note:  You will have your second test on Friday, Oct. 15.  It will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

Week 9     The Presidential Office, the Cabinet, and Decision Making
Oct. 18-22  Read:  Edwards & Wayne, Chpts. 6, 7
                             Pfiffner & Davidson, Section 5, Readings 21, 22, 23, 24; Section 7, Reading 34
                  Check out this link to various offices serving the president: http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration
                  The following link deals with the White House Staff: http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/staff
                  The following link deals with the Executive Office of the President: http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop
                  The following link deals with the Cabinet: http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/cabinet
                  For data on number of employees in the EOP, go to: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/data/eop.php
                  For news story on transition team questionnaire for job seekers go to: http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/11/13/transition.questionnaire/index.html?iref=allsearch
Special Topics:
M:  What are the principal offices and agencies which Presidents have at their disposal for decision making?
W:  What roles are played by the EOP, senior White House Staff, and cabinet in the Executive Branch?
F: What are the problems of coordinating the offices serving the President?

Critical Thinking Writing Exercise #7 Write a position paper in which you advise a new President on the most important principles he or she should follow in organizing the work of the White House. Also explain the main sorts of problems he should try to avoid.  

Week 10 The Presidency and Foreign Policy
Oct. 25-29    
Read:  Pfiffner & Davidson, Section 7, Reading 33; Section 8, Readings 35-38
           Edwards & Wayne, Chpt. 14
           Milkis & Nelson, Chpts. 14, 15
           The War Powers Act, 1973 at: http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/cases/nat-sec/War-Powers-r.htm  
           Optional:  CRS report on War Powers Act after 30 years: http://www.fas.org/man/crs/RL32267.html  
Special Topics:
M: What is the extent of the President’s powers in making foreign policy?
      What limits a President’s powers in making foreign policy?
W: What institutional resources do President’s have in this area?
F:  Foreign Policy in the Clinton and Bush years


Critical Thinking Writing Exercise # 8 Have presidents carried their war making powers too far?  Or are such powers necessary for the security of the country?

Week 11   The Presidency and Mid-Term Congressional Elections
Nov. 1-5                            
Read:  Newspaper articles on the elections this fall – you should have been reading these all semester
           The following websites may be very useful:
            http://www.cnn.com/POLITICS/
            http://www.cnn.com/POLITICS/election.2010/the.basics/
            http://www.foxnews.com/politics/index.html 
            http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/data/mid-term_elections.php
            For information about campaign finance rules and data on campaign spending go to the Federal Election Commission site at: http://www.fec.gov/ 
            For New York Times articles about campaign finance rules and data on campaign spending go to: http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/organizations/f/federal_election_commission/index.html?inline=nyt-org
            For information on campaign spending for media ads and some of the ads themselves go to: http://www.kantarmediana.com/cmag
            Check out election results at:  http://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2010/results/main.results/#val=S
            Check out exit polls at: http://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2010/results/polls/#USH00p1
            Check out big shift in voting patterns in the 2010 election: http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2010/11/03/us/politics/election-results-house-shift.html?ref=politics
Special Topics:
M:  What are the most important things one should know about trends in Mid-Term Congressional Elections?
W:  What factors contributed to the results of this year’s elections?
F:   What do the results of this year’s elections mean for the Obama presidency?

Critical Thinking Writing Exercise #9 Explain the results of this year’s mid-term Congressional Elections.  What factors contributed to those results?  What do the results mean for the Obama Presidency?   

Week 12    Presidential Personality and Character; Scandals
Nov. 8-12  Read:  Pfiffner & Davidson, Section 9, Reading 39
                               Milkis & Nelson, Chpts. 12, 13, 14
                               Edwards & Wayne, Chpt. 8
Special Topics:
M: Case Study: Nixon and Watergate
W: Case Study: Reagan and Iran-Contra
F:  Case Study: Clinton, Lewinski and Impeachment

Critical Thinking Writing Exercise #10 What should be learned from the Iran-Contra scandal? What are the lessons about presidential leadership that should be learned from this scandal?

Week 13    The Presidency and the Courts, The Vice Presidency, Leadership and Democracy
Nov. 15-19
Read: Pfiffner & Davidson, Section 6, Readings 28, 29
          Milkis & Nelson, Chpt.16
          Edwards & Wayne, Chpt. 11
Special Topics:
M: What is the impact of the Presidency upon the courts? What impact have the courts had on the Presidency?
W:  How has the office of the Vice President evolved in the past half century?
F:  Are strong presidential leadership and democracy compatible?

Week 14    Test and Thanksgiving Vacation
Nov. 22-23  
M: Note:  You will have your third test on Monday, November 22.  It will count for 1/6 of your semester grade.

Thanksgiving Vacation   November 24-28

Week 15    Recent Presidents
Nov. 29 -Dec. 3    Read:  Milkis & Nelson, Chpts. 14, 15
                              Pfiffner & Davidson, Section 7, Readings 31, 34; Section 8, Reading 37; Section 9, Readings 41, 42
Special Topics:
M: Case Study: Bill Clinton
W:  Case Study: George W. Bush
F:   Case Study: Barack Obama

Dec. 4            Last Day of Classes
Dec. 6            Reading Day
Dec. 6-10       Final Examinations
                       Your final examination will be a comprehensive essay exam.  It will count for 1/6 of your semester
                       grade.  It will be given on Wednesday, Dec. 8 at 3:00 P.M. – 5:30 P.M.

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SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR THE AMERICAN PRESIDENCY
POSC 350
Class Texts:
George C. Edwards III. and Stephen J. Wayne.  Presidential Leadership: Politics and Policy Making.  8th Edition.  Boston, Mass.:  Cengage Wadsworth, 2010.   

 

James C. Pffifner and Roger H. Davidson.  Understanding the Presidency.  Sixth Edition.  New York: Longman, 2011. 

 

Sidney M. Milkis and Michael Nelson.  The American Presidency.  Fifth Edition.  Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2008. 

 

Students will also be required to purchase a discounted subscription to the New York Times from the Bookstore.  Being aware of current political developments is important to good citizenship.  Each exam will have at least one essay question requiring students to reflect on current political news regarding the presidency.

 

Suggested Readings:

Colin Campbell & Bert A. Rockman.  Editors.  The Clinton Legacy.  New York: Chatham House Publishers, 2000.
James David Barber. The Presidential Character. 4th Edition. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1992. 
James MacGregor Burns. Presidential Government. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1965.
James MacGregor Burns. Roosevelt: The Lion and the Fox. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1956.
Lou Cannon. Reagan. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1982.
Jimmy Carter. Keeping the Faith: Memoirs of a President. New York: Bantam Books, 1982.
Jeffrey Cohen & David Nice.  The Presidency.  New York:  McGraw Hill, 2003.
Jeffrey Cohen & David Nice.  The Presidency: Classics and Contemporary Readings.  New York:  McGraw Hill, 2003.
Byron W. Daynes & Glen Sussman.  The American Presidency and the Social Agenda.  Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2001.
Robert E. DiClericoThe American President.  Fifth Edition.  Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2000.
George C. Edwards III & Philip John Davies.  New Challenges for the American Presidency.  New York: Longman, 2004.                                                                     
George C. Edwards III & Stephen J. Wayne. Presidential Leadership. Sixth Edition. Belmont, California: Thomson Wadsworth, 2003.
Edward Paul Fuchs. Presidents, Management, and Regulation. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1988.
Alexander L. George and Juliette L. George. Woodrow Wison and Colonel House: A Personality Study. New York: Dover Publications, 1956, 1964.
John Hart. The Presidential Branch: From Washington to Clinton. Second Edition. Chatham, New Jersey: Chatham House, 1995.
John S. Jackson III & William Crotty.  The Politics of Presidential Selection. Second Edition.  New York:  Longman, 2001.
Irving L. Janis. Victims of Groupthink. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972.
Doris Kearns. Lyndon Johnson and the American Dream. New York: Harper & Row, 1976.
Louis K. Koenig. The Chief Executive. 5th edition. New York: Harcourt Brace Jonavich Publishers, 1986.
William W. Lammers & Michael A. Genovese. The Presidency and Domestic Policy. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2000.
Lance T. LeLoup & Steven A. Shull. Congress and the President: The Policy Connection. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Pub., 1993.
Richard Neustadt. Presidential Power. 2nd edition. New York: Wiley, 1980.
Richard Nixon. The Memoirs of Richard Nixon. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1978.
Willard M. Oliver The Law & Order Presidency.  Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2003.
Gerald M. Pomper  et. al. The Election of 2000.  New York: Chatham House Publishers, 2001.
George Reedy. The Twilight of the Presidency. New York: New American Library, 1970.
Clinton Rossiter. The American Presidency. New York: New American Library, 1956.
Larry SabatoEditor.  Overtime: The 2000 Election Thriller.  New York: Longman, 2002.
Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. The Imperial Presidency. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1973.
Lester G. Seligman and Cary R. Covington. The Coalitional Presidency. Chicago: The Dorsey Press, 1989.
Robert J. Spitzer. President and Congress: Executive Hegemony at the Crossroads of American Government. New York: Mc-Graw Hill, Inc., 1993.
Tower Commission. Report of the President's Special Review Board. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987.
Shirley Anne Warshaw. The Domestic Presidency: Policy Making in the White House. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1997.
Shirley Anne Warshaw.  The Keys to Power: Managing the Presidency.  New York: Longwman, 2000.
Stephen P. Wayne. The Road to the White House 1996: The Politics of Presidential Elections. New York: St. Martins’s Press,1997.
Theodore White. Breach of Faith. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1975.
Theodore White. The Making of the President 1960. New York: New American Library, 1961.
Marcia Lynn Wicker and Raymond A. Moore. When Presidents Are Great. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1988.
Aaron Wildavsky. Editor. Perspectives on The Presidency. Boston: Little,Brown, and Company, 1975.

Academic Journals:
American Political Science Review
Presidential Studies Quarterly

Video Series: The American Experience (view films on 20th century presidents)
                       Speech by Robert Kennedy on the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr

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