Fall 2012

Professor: Dr. Robert Lynch                                                              Office: Grainger G08
Office Hours: MW 11-11:50, TR 8:30-9:20 and by appt.
Telephone: 395-2167
Email: Lynchrl

Course Description:

An examination of American satire since the late 1950s.  Students will develop an understanding of satire as a genre and how it differs from other forms of humor and comedy.  We will explore the shifting sociological and political landscape in America during the past half century and the satire this has spawned, with some special emphasis on ethnic and woman's satire. While our reading list is primarily drawn from novels and plays, we will also explore contemporary satire in a number of other forums, such as film, television, and various print media..

The course is a seminar and not a lecture course.  Thus it will be exploratory rather than a "canned" course and each individual in the course will be expected to make significant contributions to the content and direction of the course.  

Caveat:  Satire frequently challenges our beliefs and value systems targeting issues of class, gender, sexuality, nationality, politics, religion, etc.  It can, and often intentionally seeks to, offend our sensibilities.  If you are at all offended by non-political correctness, then this course may not be for you.


Upon the completion of the course, students will be able to: 

1. Demonstrate a capacity for critical and analytical thought in terms of interpreting various forms of American
literature, especially as they relate to the genre of satire. 

2. Understand the nature of satire and the devices that various authors have used in employing satire in their creative productions.

3. Understand the ways in which satire varies from other uses of humor and comedy.

4. Understand the development of this genre during the past fifty to sixty years in America.

5. Demonstrate an ability to convey their own thoughts verbally and in writing concerning the modernist and postmodernist periods in American literature. 

6. Demonstrate an understanding of the cultural background surrounding the works we read and examine. 

7. Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of this genre in relation to the rest of American Literature. 

8. Revise and edit their writing to make it more concise, effective, and correct. Write in accordance with the
conventions of standard English usage and punctuation. 

9. Demonstrate an ability to engage in the collaborative learning process. 


Reading Schedule:

   Aug. 21: Introduction to Course
            23: Albee, Edward, The Zoo Story

            28: Sociological Satire—Albee, Edward,  Whose Afraid of Virginia Woolf,  Acts 1 and 2

            30: Albee, Edward,  Whose Afraid of Virginia Woolf, Acts 2 and 3    

   Sept. 04: Political Satire--Joseph Heller
                   Heller, Joseph, Catch-22, Chaps 1-11
06: Heller, Joseph, Catch-22,  Chaps 11-22

            11: Heller, Joseph, Catch-22, Chaps 23-31
13: Heller, Joseph, Catch-22, Chaps 31-end

            18: Vonnegut, Kurt, Cat's Cradle, Chaps 1-46
            20: Vonnegut, Cat's Cradle, Chaps 47-89

            25: Vonnegut, Cat's Cradle, 90-end
27: Kesey, Ken, One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, 1-82

   Oct.  02: Kesey, Ken, One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, 83-155
04: Kesey, Ken, One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, 156-218

            09: Kesey, Ken, One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, 219-end

            11: Kozinski, Jerzy, Being There--1st half

  October 15-16: FALL BREAK
            18: Kozinski, Jerzy, Being There2nd half

            23:  Mamet, David, Glengarry Glen Ross, Act 1                   
            25:  Mamet, David, Glengarry Glen Ross, Act 2-end                     

            30: Ethnicity and Satire: Beatty, Paul.  The White Boy Shuffle, 1-75

   Nov. 01: Beatty, Paul.  The White Boy Shuffle, 76-150

            06: Beatty, Paul.  The White Boy Shuffle, 151-end         
            08: Gender and Women's Satire: Wasserman, Wendy. The Heidi Chronicles, Act 1         

            13: Wasserman, Wendy. The Heidi Chronicles, Act 2

            15: Smiley, Jane. Moo, Chapters 1-21


             20: Smiley, Jane. Moo, Chapters 21-41

            21-23:  Thanksgiving Break


            27: Smiley, Jane. Moo, Chapters, 42-59

            29: Smiley, Jane. Moo, Chapters 59-end

Course Requirements


*A=90-100% *B=80-89% *C=70-79% *D=60-69%

Class Discussion:

Establishing an active learning community is essential in a seminar.  Thus class participation, both in class and via Twitter, is essential and required in this course. There is no single interpretation of these readings; thus, discussion is essential if we are to explore the multiple and various interpretations of these texts. Participation includes active discussion in person and online via Twitter. 

Attendance Policy:

The attendance policy for this course is the same as the university policy in the University Catalog and the Student Handbook. Thus if you miss three or more times your grade may be reduced. Absences beyond 25% (excused and unexcused) will result in failure of the course as set out in Student Handbook. Tardies will count as absences unless I'm notified beforehand. No quizzes will be given out to those who come late.

Honor Code:

Students are expected to live by the Longwood University Honor Code. All work done for the class must be pledged. Your instructor will not tolerate any form of cheating. You are expected to know what constitutes plagiarism and how to avoid it. All ideas taken from sources, whether in texts or online, must be cited. Remember that your instructor also has access to these materials and they are easy to track on-line. Any student caught plagiarizing will automatically fail the course and his/her name will be forwarded to the Judicial Board.

Paper Policy:

All papers are due on the date assigned. Late papers will not be accepted. 

Office Hours:

My office hours are posted and I will be available during these times. If you need to see me and these times are not convenient, please feel free to schedule a conference for some other mutually agreeable time.

Inclement Weather or Class Cancellation:

In the event of classes being cancelled, students are expected to keep up with the reading.

Selected Bibliography

Allen, Charles A., and George D. Stephens, eds. Satire: Theory and Practice. Belmont: Wadsworth, 1962.

Arnez, Nancy Levi, and Clara B. Anthony. "Contemporary Negro Humor as Social Satire." Phylon 29 (1968): 33-46.

Auden, W. H. "Notes on the Comic." Satire: Modern Essays in Criticism. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1971; Thought 27 (1952):57-71.

Barksdale, Richard K. "Black America and the Mask of Comedy." The Comic Imagination in American Literature. Ed. Louis D. Rubin, Jr. New Brunswick: Rutgers U P, 1973. 349-60.

Barreca, Regina, ed. Last Laughs: Perspectives on Women and Comedy. New York: Gordon & Breach, 1988.

Barreca, Regina, ed. New Perspectives on Women and Comedy. Philadelphia: Gordon and Breach, 1992.

Barreca, Regina, ed. The Penguin Book of Women’s Humor.  New York: Penguin, 1996.

Barreca, Regina.  They Used to Call Me Snow White. . . but I Drifted: Women’s Strategic Use of Humor.  New York: Viking Press. 1991

Beidler, Philip D. "Satire." The Mark Twain Encyclopedia. Eds. J. R. LeMaster, and James D. Wilson. New York, NY: Garland, 1993, 654-655.

Berman, Jaye. "Women's Humor." Contemporary Literature 31.2 (1990): 251-60.

Blicksilver, Edith. "Literature as Social Criticism: The Ethnic Women Writer." Modern Language Studies 5 (1975): 46-54.

---. Humor and Social Change in the Twentieth Century. Boston: Trustees for the Public Library of the City of Boston, 1979.

Bloom, Edward A., and Lillian D. Satire's Persuasive Voice. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ Press, 1979.

Bloom, James D. Gravity fails : the comic Jewish shaping of modern America. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2003

Bodel, Bill. "Satire: As the Twentieth Century Closes." Satire 2.3 (1995): 54-56.

Boskin, Joseph. The Humor Prism in 20th-Century America (Humor in Life and Letters). Wayne State Univ P, 1997.

Boskin, Joseph, and Joseph Dorinson. "Ethnic Humor: Subversion and Survival." American Quarterly 37.1 (1985): 81-97.

Boyer, Jay. "The Schlemiezel: Black Humor and the Shtetle Tradition." Humor: International Journal of Humor Research 4.2 (1991): 165-76.

Brake, Robert. "The Lion Act Is Over: Passive/Aggressive Patterns of Communication in American Negro Humor." Journal of Popular Culture 9 (1975): 549-60.

Brooks, A. Russel. "The Comic Spirit and the Negro's New Look." CLA Journal 6(September 1962): 35-43.

Burma, J. H. "Humor as a Technique in Race Conflict." American Sociological Review 11 (1946): 710-15.

Bruere, Martha S. and Mary Ritter Beard. Laughing Their Way: Women's Humor in America. New York: Macmillan Co., 1934.

Briggs, Peter M. "Notes toward a Teachable Definition of Satire." Eighteenth-Century Life 5 (1979): 28-39.

Brown, Ashley, ed. Satire: An Anthology. NY: Thomas Crowell, 1977.

Bunkers, Suzanne L. "Why Are These Women Laughing? The Power and Politics of Women's Humor." Studies in American Humor 4.1-2 (1985): 82-93.

Camfield, Gregg. Necessary Madness: The Humor of Domesticity in Nineteenth Century American Literature. New York: Oxford UP, 1997.

Carlisle, Henry C., ed. American Satire in Prose and Verse. NY: Random House, 1962.

Carlson, Susan. Women and Comedy. Ann Arbor: Michigan UP, 1991.

Chapman, Antony J and Hugh C. Foot, eds. It's a Funny Thing, Humour New York: Pergamon Press, 1976

Chapman, Edgar L. "Sex, Satire, and Feminism in the Science Fiction of Suzette Haden Elgin." The Feminine Eye: Science Fiction and the Women Who Write It. Ed. Tom Staicar. New York, NY: Frederick Ungar, 1982, 89-102.

Clark, John R. The Modern Satiric Grotesque. Lexington: Univ of Kentucky, 1991

Clark, John R., ed. Satire: Language and Style. Special Issue of Thalia: Studies in Literary Humor 5.1 (1983): 1-49.

Clark, John R. "Symbolic Violence in Vile Bodies." Studies in Contemporary Satire 2 (1975): 17-27.

Clark, John R., and Anna Lydia Motto. "Anthologies of Satire in Print (1979): A Critical Bibliography." Studies in Contemporary Satire 5 (1979): 35-52.

Clark, John R., and Anna Lydia Motto. "Funny Bones: The Deadly Laughter of the Grotesque." Thalia: Studies in Literary Humor 9.2 (1987): 24-31.

Clark, John R., and Anna Lydia Motto. "Modern Gothic: The Satiric Grotesque." Studies in Contemporary Satire 13 (1986): 5-15.

Clark, John R., and Anna Motto, eds. Satire--That Blasted Art. New York, NY: Putnam and Capricorn, 1973.

Clark, William Bedford and W. Craig Turner.  Critical Essays on American Humor.  Boston: GK Hall, 1984.

Cohen. Sarah Blacher. Ed. Comic Relief: Humor in Contemporary American Literature. Ed. Urbana: Univ of Illinois Press, 1979.

Coleman, John R. ed. Six Satirists. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Inst of Tech, 1965.

Cook, William W. "Change the Joke and Slip the Yoke: Traditions of Afro-American Satire." Journal of Ethnic Studies 13.1 (1985): 109-34.

Crawford, Mary. "Just Kidding: Gender and Conversational Humor." New Perspectives on Women and Comedy. Ed. Regina Barreca. Philadelphia: Gordon and Breach, 1992. 23-38.

Dance, Daryl C. "Contemporary Militant Black Humor." Negro American Literature Forum 8 (1974): 217-22.

Dance, Daryl Cumber, ed.  Honey, hush! : an anthology of African American women's humor. New York: W.W. Norton, 1998.

Davis, Douglas M., ed. The World of Black Humor: An Introductory Anthology of Selections and Criticism. New York: Dutton, 1967.

Dickstein, Morris. "Black Humor and History: Fiction in the Sixties." Partisan Review 43.2 (1976): 185-211.

Dorinson, Joseph, and Joseph Boskin. "Racial and Ethnic Humor." Humor in America: A Research Guide to Genres and Topics. Ed. Lawrence E. Mintz. London: Greenwood, 1988. 163-94.

Dudden, Arthur Power. "The Record of Political Humor." American Quarterly 37.1 (1985): 50-70.

Dresner, Zita. "Women's Humor." Humor in America: A Research Guide to Genres and Topics. Ed. Lawrence E. Mintz. London: Greenwood, 1988. 137-62.

Dudden, Arthur Power.  American Humor. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Elliott, Robert C. "The Satirist and Society." Satire: Modern Essays in Criticism. Ed. Ronald Paulson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1971, 214.

Euba, Femi. Archetypes, Imprecators, and Victims of Fate: Origins and Development of Satire in Black Drama. New York: Greenwood P, 1989.

Feinberg, Leonard. Introduction to Satire. Ames: Iowa State Univ Press, 1967.

Feldman, Burton. "Anatomy of Black Humor." Dissent 15 (1968): 158-60.

Finney, Gail, ed. Look Who's Laughing: Gender and Comedy. Langhorne: Gordon and Breach, 1994.

Festa, Conrad. "Vonnegut's Satire." Vonnegut in America. Eds. Jerome Klinkowitz and Donald Lawler. New York, NY: Delta, 1977, 133-149.

FitzGerald, Gregory. "The Satiric Use of Setting." Studies in Contemporary Satire 13 (1986): 2-4.

Fletcher, M. D. Contemporary Political Satire: Narrative Strategies in the Post-Modern Context. New York, NY: University Press of America, 1987.

Fletcher, M. D. "Heller's Catch-22: Satiric Political Apalogue." Contemporary Political Satire: Narrative Strategies in the Post-Modern Context. NY: Lanham, 1987, 59-82.

Fletcher, M. D. "Vidal's Duluth as 'Post-Modern' Political Satire." Thalia 9.1 (1986): 10-21.

Friedman, Bruce Jay, ed. Black Humor. NY: Bantam, 1965.

Fry, William F. "The Power of Political Humor." Journal of Popular Culture 10 (1976): 227-31.

Galloway, David. The Absurd Hero in American Fiction: Updike, Styron, Bellow, Salinger. 2nd ed. Austin: Univ of Texas Press, 1981.

Gale, Steven ed. The Encyclopedia of American Humorists, New York: Garland, 1988.

Gardner, Gerald C. All the President's Wits: The Power of Political Humor. New York: Morrow, 1986.

---. The Mocking of the President: A History of Campaign Humor from Ike to Ronnie. Detroit: Wayne State U P, 1988.

Garland, Nicholas. "Political Cartooning." Laughing Matters: A Serious Look at Humour. Ed. John Durant and Jonathan Miller. New York: Longman, 1988. 75-89. 

Gehring, Wes D. American Dark Comedy: Beyond Satire. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Gehring, Wes D. "Film Comedy." Humor in America: A Research Guide to Genres and Topics. Ed. Lawrence E. Mintz. London: Greenwood, 1988. 67-90.

George, William. "Teaching Satire and Satirists." English Journal 78.3 (1989): 38-43.

Gilooly, Eileen. "Women and Humor." Feminist Studies 17.3 (1991): 473-92.

Greenbaum, Andrea. "Women's Comic Voices: The Art and Craft of Female Humor." American Studies 38:1 (Spring 1997): 117-138.

Griffin, Alice  and John Griffin. "Satire in the New York Theatre," Satire Newsletter 2.1 (1965): 41-46

Grimm, Reinhold, and Jost Hermand, eds. Laughter Unlimited: Essays on Humor, Satire, and the Comic. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991.

Gruner, Charles. "An Experimental Study of Satire as Humor." Speech Monographs 32 (1965): 149-153.

Hall, Ernest Johnson. The Satirical Element in the American Novel. New York: Haskell House, 1969.

Harris, Charles B. Contemporary American Novelists of the Absurd. New Haven, CT; College & University Press, 1971.

Harris, Leon. The Fine Art of Political Wit. New York: Dutton, 1964.

Hassan, Ihab. "Echoes of Dark Laughter: The Comic Sense in Contemporary American Fiction." Humor in America. Ed. Enid Veron. NY: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1976, 316-21.

Hassan, Ihab. "Laughter in the Dark: The New Voice in American Fiction." American Scholar 33 (1964): 636-40.

Hauck, Richard Boyd. A Cheerful Nihilism: Confidence and 'The Absurd' in American Humorous Fiction. Bloomington: Indiana Univ Press.

Heath-Stubbs, John. The Verse Satire. New York, NY: Oxford Univ Press, 1969.

Heller, Terry. "Notes on Technique in Black Humor." Thalia: Studies in Literary Humor 2.3 (1979-80): 15-21

Highet, Gilbert. The Anatomy of Satire. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ Press, 1962.

Hill, Hamlin. "Black Humor and the Mass Audience." American Humor. Ed. O. M. Brack, Jr. Scottsdale, AZ: Arrete Press, 1977, 1-11.

Hodgart, Matthew. Satire. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969.

Janoff, Bruce. “Black Humor: Beyond Satire." The Ohio Review. 14.1 (1972): 5-20.

Janoff, Bruce. "Black Humor, Existentialism, and Absurdity: A Generic Confusion." The Arizona Quarterly 30.4 (1974): 293-304.

Jensen, James H., and Malvin R. Zirker, Jr. eds. The Satirist's Art. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1972.

Johnson, Edgar. A Treasury of Satire. NY: Simon and Schuster, 1945.

Jones, Harry L. "Black Humor and the American Way of Life." Satire Newsletter 7.1 (1969): 1-4.

Kane, Thomas R., Jerry Suls, and James T. Tedeschi. "Humour as a Tool of Social Interaction." It's a Funny Thing, Humour. Ed. Antony J. Chapman and Hugh C. Foot. Oxford and New York: Pergamon Press, 1976. 13-16.

Kaufman, Gloria. "Introduction." Pulling Our Own Strings: Feminist Humor and Satire. Ed. Gloria Kaufman and Mary Kay Blakely. Bloomington: Indiana U P, 1980. 13-16.

Kernan, Alvin P. Modern Satire. NY: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1962.

Kernan, Alvin P. The Plot of Satire. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1965.

Kernan, Alvin P. "A Theory of Satire." Satire: Modern Essays in Criticism Ed. Ronald Paulson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1971, 253.

Kharpertian, Theodore D. A Hand to Turn the Time: The Menippean Satires of Thomas Pynchon. London, England: Associated University Press, 1990.

Klinkowitz, Jerome. "A Final Word for Black Humor." Contemporary Literature 15 (1974): 271-76.

Kiley, Frederick, and Walter McDonald. A "Catch-22" Casebook. New York, NY: Thomas Y.

Koziski, Stephanie. "The Standup Comedian as Anthropologist." Journal of Popular Culture 18.2 (Fall 1984): 57-76.

Kullman, Colby H. "Exquisite Madness: The Madhouse Motif in Popular Humorous Satire." Studies in Contemporary Satire 12 (1985): 1-5.

Lelchuk, Alan. "On Satirizing Presidents: An Interview with Philip Roth." Atlantic 228 (December, 1971): 81-88.

Levin, Harry, ed. Veins of Humor. Cambridge: Harvard U P, 1972.

Levine, Edward. "The Inflated Image: Satire and Meaning in Pop Art." Satire Newsletter 6.1 (1968): 43-49.

Levy, Barbara. Ladies Laughing: Wit as Control in Contemporary American Women Writers. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Gordon and Breach, 1997.

Loe, Thomas. "Design and Satire in Decline and Fall. Studies in Contemporary Satire 17 (1990): 31-41.

Lowe, John. “Theories of Ethnic Humor: How To Enter Laughing,” in American Quarterly, Vol. 38, No.3, 1986,  439-460.

Martin, Wendy. The Satire and Moral Vision of Mary McCarthy." Comic Relief: Humor in Contemporary American Literature. Urbana: Univ of Illinois Press, 1979, 187-206.

McCaffrey, Donald W. Assault on Society: Satirical Literature to Film. Metuchen: Scarecrow P, 1992.

McNeil, David. "A Confederacy of Dunces as Reverse Satire: The American Subgenre." Mississippi Quarterly 38.1 (1984-85): 33-47.

Merrill, Lisa. "Feminist Humor: Rebellious and Self-Affirming." Women's Studies 15: (1988): 271-280.

Mintz, Lawrence E. "Broadcast Humor." Humor in America: A Research Guide to Genres and Topics. Ed. Lawrence E. Mintz. London: Greenwood, 1988. 91-108.

---. "Ideology in the American Situation Comedy." Studies in Popular Culture 8.2 (1985): 42-51.

---. "The Standup Comedian as Social and Cultural Mediator." American Quarterly 37.1 (Spring 1985): 71-80.

Mitchell, Dolores. "Humor in California Underground Women's Comix." Women's Culture: The Women's Renaissance of the Seventies. Ed. Gayle Kimball. Metuchen: Scarecrow, 1981. 72-90.

Morris, Linda. American Women Humorists: Critical Essays. New York: Garland Pub., 1994.

Nadel, Alan. "True Wit and Mere Vulgarity, or the Art of Being the Student in Paul Fussell's Class." Humor: International Journal of Humor Research 2.1 (1989): 31-42.

Nagel, James. "Catch-22 and Angry Humor: A Study of the Normative Values of Satire." Studies in American Humor 1.2 (October, 1974): 91-98.

Nelson, William. "The Comic Grotesque in Recent Fiction." Thalia: Studies in Literary Humor 5.2 (1983): 36-40.

Nichols, Charles H. "Comic Modes in Black America (A Ramble through Afro-American Humor)." Comic Relief: Humor in Contemporary American Literature. Ed. Cohen Sarah Blacher. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1978. 105-25.

Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen. "Satire." Encyclopedia of Humor and Comedy. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 2000, 258-260.

Nilsen Don. L.F. Humor in American Literature: A Selected Annotated Bibliography.  New York: Garland, 1992.

Nilsen, Don L. F. "The Shadows and Shades of Black Humor." Satire 4.1 (1997): 37-44.

Olsen, Lance. Circus of the Mind in Motion: Postmodernism and the Comic Vision. Detroit: Wayne State Univ Press, 1990.

Olsen, Lance. "Making Stew with What you Got: Postmodern Humor in Barth, Nabokov, and Everybody Else." Thalia: Studies in Literary Humor 10.1 (1988): 23-29.

Paulson, Ronald ed. Satire: Modern Essays in Criticism. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1971.

Pearce, Richard. "Nabokov's Black (Hole) Humor: Lolita and Pale Fire. Comic Relief: Humor in Contemporary American Literature. Ed. Sarah Blacher Cohen. Urbana: Univ of Illinois Press, 1979, 28-44.

Peavy, Charles D. "Satire and Contemporary Black Drama." Satire Newsletter 7.1 (1969): 40-49.

Pinsker, Sanford. "The Graying of Black Humor." Studies in the Twentieth Century 9 (1972): 15-33.

Poirier, Richard. "The Politics of Self Parody." Partisan Review 35 (1968): 339-53.

Radway, Janice, Ed. "Special Issue: American Humor." American Quarterly 37.1.

Rebolledo, Tey Diana. "Walking the Thin Line: Humor in Chicana Literature." Beyond Stereotypes: The Critical Analysis of Chicana Literature. Ed. Maria Harrera-Sobek. NY: Bilingual Press, 1985. 91-107.

Reincke, Nancy. "Antidote to Dominance: Women's Laughter as Counteraction." Journal of Popular Culture 24.4 (1991): 27-37.

Rubin, Louis.  The Comic Imagination In American Literature.  New Brunswlsk, NJ: Rutgers Univ Press, 1983.

Schafer, William J. "Irony from Underground--Satiric Elements in Invisible Man." Satire Newsletter 7 (1969): 22-29.

Schechter, William. The History of Negro Humor in America. New York: Fleet Press, 1970.

Schmitz, Neil. "Donald Barthelme and the Emergence of Modern Satire." Minnesota Review 1 (1971): 109-118.

Schulman, N. M. "Laughing across the Color Barrier: In Living Color--Satirizing the Stereotypes--Racial Generalization as a Basis for Comedy." Journal of Popular Film and Television 20.1 (1992): 2-7.

Schultz, Max F. Black Humor: Fiction of the Sixties. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1973.

Schulz, Max F. "Toward a Definition of Black Humor." Comic Relief: Humor in Contemporary American Literature. Ed. Sarah Blacher Cohen. Urbana: Univ of Illinois Press, 1978, 14 27.

Seidel, Michael. "The Satiric Plots of Gravity's Rainbow." Pynchon: A Collection of Critical Essays. Ed. Edward Mendelson. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1978.

Sheffey, Ruth. "Wit and Irony in Militant Black Poetry." Black World 22(June 1973): 14-21.

Sheppard, Alice. "Social Cognition, Gender Roles, and Women's Humor." Women's Comic Visions. Ed. June Sochen. Detroit: Wayne State U P, 1991. 33-56.

Sloane, David E.E. New directions in American humor. Tuscaloosa : University of Alabama Press, 1998.

Sochen, June. Women's Comic Visions. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1991.

Stoddard, Karen M. "'Women Have No Sense of Humor' and Other Myths: A Consideration of Female Stand-Up Comics." American Humor: An Interdisciplinary Newsletter 4.2Fall (1977): 11-14.

Stowe, William, and David Grimstead. "Review Essay: Black-White Humor." Journal of Ethnic History 3 (1975): 78-96.

Sutton, Walter. "Satire in Modern Poetry." English Record. 11 (1960): 57-62.

Theisz, R. D. "Social Control and Identity in American Indian Humor." Studies in Contemporary Satire 16 (1989): 12-31.

Thompson, William R. "The American Indians' Attempt to Get the Last Laugh." Studies in Contemporary Satire 16 (1989): 1-10.

Tilton, John W.  Cosmic Satire in the Contemporary Novel, (Lewisburg: Bucknell U P, 1977)

Toth, Emily. "A Laughter of their Own: Women's Humor in the United States." Critical Essays on American Humor. Eds. William Bedford Clark and W. Craig Turner. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1984. 199-215.

Trachtenberg, Stanley. "Berger and Barth: The Comedy of Decomposition." Comic Relief: Humor in Contemporary American Literature. Ed. Sarah Blacher Cohen. Urbana: Univ of Illinois Press, 1979, 45-69.

Vidmar, N., and M. Rokeach. "Archie Bunker's Bigotry: A Study in Selective Perception and Exposure." Journal of Communication 24 (1974): 36-42.

Walker, Nancy A. "Agelaste or Eiron: American Women Writers and the Sense of Humor." Studies in American Humor 4.1-2 (1985): 105-25.

---. "Do Feminists Ever Laugh? Women's Humor and Women's Rights." International Journal of Women's Studies 4.1 (Jan.-Feb. 1981): 1-9.

---. A Feminist Alternative: Irony and Fantasy in the Contemporary Novel by Women. Jackson: U P of Mississippi, 1990.

---. "Humor and Gender Roles: The 'Funny' Feminism of the Post World War II Suburbs." American Quarterly 37.1 (1985): 98-113.

---. The Tradition of Women's Humor in America. Huntington Beach: American Studies Publishing, 1984.

Walker, Nancy. A Very Serious Thing: Women's Humor and American Culture. Minneapolis: Minnessota UP, 1988.

Walker, Nancy and Michael Barton, eds. What's So Funny: Humor in American Culture. Wilmington, De: Scholarly Resources; 1998.

Walker, Nancy and Zita Dresner, ed. Redressing the Balance: American Women's Literary Humor from Colonial Times to the 1980s. Univ Pr of Mississippi, 1996

Walz, Eugene P. "Recent Film Satire." Satire Newsletter 10.1 (1972): 85-95. Films 1961-71.

Weber, Brom. "The Mode of 'Black Humor.'" The Comic Imagination in American Literature. Ed. Louis D.Rubin Jr. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ Press, 1983, 361-71.

Weinstein, Sharon. "Don't Women Have a Sense of Humor They Can Call Their Own?" American Humor 2.1 (1975): 9-12.

Whitfield, Stephen J. "Political Humor." Humor in America: A Research Guide to Genres and Topics. Ed. Lawrence E. Mintz. London: Greenwood, 1988. 195-212.

Winston, Matthew. "Humor noir and Black Humor." Veins of Humor. Ed. Harry Levin. Cambridge: Harvard U P, 1972. 269-84.

Wilmut, Roger. From Fringe to Flying Circus: Celebrating a Unique Generation of Comedy 1960-1980. London: Eyre Methuen, 1980.

Winston, Mathew. "Humour Noir and Black Humor." Veins of Humor. Ed. Harry Levin. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP: 1972, 269-84.

Worcester, David. The Art of Satire. NY: Norton, 1969.

Wright, Austin, ed. Six Satirists. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Institute of Technology, 1965, 64-84.