RESEARCH PROJECT: SOURCES
The following is an annotated bibliography of the materials I have put on reserve for your research project. They are of two types: 1) collections of primary sources, and 2) reference books from the stacks. I have put them on reserve in order to provide reasonable access to primary sources and basic information for all students. In general, once you have located the documents or information you need, you should photocopy the materials in question, and then return the book or books to reserve. Many of the documentary sourcebooks have useful introductions by the editors. Use these introductions as a general orientation by all means, but don’t rely on them to replace the secondary sources you need to use for this project. These by no means exhaust the primary sources available, even at our library.
- Napoleon in Egypt: Al-Jabarti's Chronicle of the French Occupation, trans. Shmuel Moreh, 1993. An Egyptian's take on Napoleon's expedition there, with an excellent introduction, and an additional essay by Edward Said, a leading interpreter of Muslim civilization to the West before his death in 2003.
- Arnold, Jr., Eric A., ed. A Documentary Survey of Napoleonic France, 1994. An essential recent sourcebook for the period, with hard-to-find English translations of all kinds of documents relating both to domestic and international affairs. A paper on the napoleonic era without this as a source already has a problem.
- Arnold, Jr., Eric A., ed. A Documentary Survey of Napoleonic France: a Supplement, 1994. A continuation of the above volume, with more documents.
- Beik, Paul, ed., The French Revolution, 1970. This contains selections not included in the sourcebook required for the course. Make this one of the first places you look.
- Bienvenu, Richard, ed., The Ninth of Thermidor: the Fall of Robespierre, 1968. Excellent selection of documents relating to the pivotal event that ended the radical phase of the Revolution. Anyone focusing on the Terror or Robespierre should give this a look, in addition to Rudé's volume on Robespierre (listed below).
- Blanning, T. C. W., ed., The Rise and Fall of the French Revolution, 1996. This collects together a representative sampling of recent work on the Revolution, and gives an idea of the controversies now raging among historians. The excerpts are longer than the ones in Cox below.
-Blaufarb, Rafe, ed., Napoleon: Symbol for an Age. A Brief History with Documents, 2008. The text is not that great but the documents accompanying it, while brief, are useful when used in conjunction with other documentary collections on the Napoleonic period.
- Brown, Greg, Cultures in Conflict -- the French Revolution, 2003. The primary sources in this collection are brief, but Brown does a good job of putting them into context. He was one of the principal designers of the GMU website.
- Connelly, Owen, ed., Historical Dictionary of Napoleonic France, 1985. A comprehensive and easy to use reference, with much material on events and trends outside of France. Part of the same series as Scott and Rothaus below. If your paper deals with any part of Napoleon's career, any aspect of military history after 1789, or any part of history after 1799, this should be consulted for both information and bibliography.
- Cox, Marvin R., ed., The Place of the French Revolution in History, 1998. An admirably succinct presentation of works by historians, old and new, on the significance of the Revolution in various areas, like political culture, gender relations, and human rights.
- Doyle, William, The Origins of the French Revolution, Third edition, 1999. The best one-volume introduction to the debate on the Revolution's origins.
- Dubois, Laurent, and John D. Garrigus, eds., Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804: a Brief History with Documents, 2006. The best source book available on the Haitian Revolution, by two of the leading scholars on the subject. To be used with Dubois' book-length history of the revolt.
- Dwyer, Philip, and Peter McPhee, eds., The French Revolution and Napoleon: a Sourcebook, 2002. One of the few recent sourcebooks to cover both the Revolution and Napoleon, and particularly good for the legislative enactments of the period.
- Emsley, Clive, The Longman Companion to Napoleonic Europe, 1993. Like the volume on the Revolution itself (see below), a handy and unusual reference. It contains short biographies, chronologies broken down by topic, maps, lists of rulers and ministers, bibliographic guides, etc. Any paper on the napoleonic era should utilize this as a reference.
- Furet, François, and Mona Ozouf, trans. Arthur Goldhammer, A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution, 1992. Another unusual reference, consisting of short articles on select themes, ideas, political movements, leaders and historians of the Revolution. The historians who contribute to this volume, most of them French, are the leading experts in their fields. They also mostly belong to the "revisionist" school of historical thought, which makes it a good source for anyone interested in the recent historiography of the Revolution. Once you have a document, this is a great place to get a feel for the recent scholarship, and it is an excellent source for bibliography.
- Gershoy, Leo, ed., The Era of the French Revolution, 1789-1799, 1957. A compact selection of documents, preceded by a short synopsis of revolutionary events. Gershoy's introduction needs to be supplemented by more up to date scholarship, but the documents are useful. One virtue of this book is its attempt to draw parallels between the American and French revolutionary experiences.
- Goldstein, Marc Allan, ed., Social and Political Thought of the French Revolution, 1788-1797, 1997. A terrific compilation of various writers and political documents of the period, which gives due weight to counter-revolutionary ideas as well. This contains writings that are otherwise hard to find in English (especially by journalists, like Marat). If you're doing a topic that is at all related to politics (and how could you avoid it?), this is one of your first stops.
- Greenlaw, Ralph W., ed., The Social Origins of the French Revolution: the Debate on the Role of the Middle Classes, 1975. The debate on the "bourgeois" origins of the Revolution has since given way to other controversies, but it is still far from settled, and it is still more interesting than some of the debates that have taken its place. For that issue, this is the place to start, with excerpts from the major schools of thought.
- Hanson, Paul R., The A to Z of the French Revolution, 2007. An historical dictionary by one of the field's leading scholars. The most up to date, if not the most comprehensive, of the reference works available at the library.
- Hardman, John, ed., The French Revolution Sourcebook, 1999. One of the latest collections of primary source materials, translated from the French for your convenience. Essential for all topics. The GMU web site gets many of its documents from this source.
- Herold, J. Christopher, ed., The Mind of Napoleon: A Selection from His Written and Spoken Words, 1955. Snippets from Napoleon's correspondence and public statements, arranged by topic. This, together with the similar collection by Hutt (see below) and the documentary sources reproduced by Arnold (above) should allow you to gather the Corsican ogre's thoughts on almost any subject. Best used in conjunction with Markham and other secondary sources, because Napoleon's statements cannot always be taken at face value. Out of print, so be gentle with the spine.
- Higgins, E. L., The French Revolution, as Told by Contemporaries, 1939. A good cross-section of contemporary views, most of them unavailable otherwise in English. The selections tend to be excessively brief, but this is a good source if supplemented by other materials.
- Hunt, Lynn, ed., The French Revolution and Human Rights: A Brief Documentary History, 1996. This is a fantastic collection of writings and speeches focusing on what by any account is one of the Revolution's greatest achievements: its redefinition of the "rights of man and the citizen." Anyone tackling the issue of religious rights, the rights of minorities, property rights, slavery, the concept of citizenship, the relationship of the individual to the state, and especially, the rights of women, should consult this collection. Much of this material is translated here for the first time, and Hunt's introduction and editorial notes are exceptionally fine. If you are dealing with any issue relating to human rights, I expect you to use this volume.
- Hutt, Maurice, ed., Napoleon (Great Lives Observed), 1972. A terrific collection of sources about Napoleon: his own words, reactions both French and foreign, and the debate among historians up to 1972. This is the place to start if you want to focus on any aspect of Napoleon's career.
- Jones, Colin, ed., Longman Companion to the French Revolution, 1988. Whatever your topic, be sure to consult this unique reference. Full of numerous timelines, charts, lists, biographical sketches, a glossary of key terms, and a comprehensive index. In fact, any time you are confused about what happened when, who was who, or what was what, this is the place to look first (at least, that's what I do). By far the most interesting reference available for the revolutionary period. Part of the same series as the reference on Napoleon listed above.
- Jones, Peter, ed., The French Revolution in Social and Political Perspective, 1996. Another Dr. Jones brings you a well selected anthology of articles and excerpts from those historians still working on the social origins and repercussions of the Revolution. Essential stuff.
- Kafker, Frank, and James Laux, ed., The French Revolution: Conflicting Interpretations, Fourth edition, 1989. The best overall collection in our library on the different schools of historical interpretation up to the 1980s. If you use this, supplement it with the more recent collections, like Blanning, Kates, Cox, Jones, etc.
- Kafker, Frank, and James Laux, ed., Napoleon and His Times, 1989. The best place to find the major twentieth-century interpretations of Napoleon and his impact.
- Kaplow, Jeffry, ed., France on the Eve of Revolution, 1971. Good collection of documents and sources relating to the outbreak and causes of the Revolution. Any paper on the origins of the Revolution should utilize this source, but be aware of its age.
- Kates, Gary, ed., The French Revolution: Recent Debates and Controversies, 1998. The most up-to-date collection of articles by current historians. This is an essential supplement to any of the older collections.
- Mason, Laura, and Tracey Rizzo, eds., The French Revolution: A Document Collection, 1999. The most recent collection of primary sources, and the most diverse. One of its virtues is that it contains documents from the Consulate as well. Again, looking here should be SOP for all personnel.
- Melzer, Sara, and Leslie W. Rabine, eds., Rebel Daughters: Women and the French Revolution, 1992. A collection of articles by leading historians on the issue of women and gender. If that's your focus, you can't afford to pass this one by.
- Pernoud, Georges, and Sabine Flassier, ed., The French Revolution, 1960. An older collection, but it contains many sources not found elsewhere. You'll notice that that the GMU web site often cribs from this collection as well. And if Hunt and Censer do it, shouldn't you?
- Popkin, Jeremy D., ed., Panorama of Paris, 1999. Extracts from the Tableau de Paris by Louis-Sebastien Mercier, a well-known writer at the time who chronicled life in Paris, on the eve of the revolution. It's one of the major sources for Paris life in pre-revolutionary Paris.
- Rudé, George, ed., Robespierre (Great Lives Observed), 1967. Every bit as good as the volume on Napoleon. Rudé is an unabashed admirer of "the Incorruptible," but he presents the other side as well, and, above all, the words of Robespierre himself. Anyone focusing on Robespierre who does not utilize this source will have some explaining to do.
- Scott, Samuel, and Rothaus, Barry, eds., Historical Dictionary of the French Revolution, 1789-1799, 2 vols., 1985. Solid, reasonably up to date, alphabetically arranged, with bibliographical references. This is not as adventurous as the Jones reference, but it would be foolish to write a paper without consulting it.
- Schechter, Ronald, ed., The French Revolution, 2001. An excellent collection of relatively recent articles and book excerpts analyzing the origins and nature of the Revolution. This gives a good overview of the current issues in revolutionary studies, and should at least be leafed through by everyone as part of their paper research.
- Simon, W. M., ed., French Liberalism, 1789-1848, 1972. Excerpts from liberal politicians, historians, political thinkers, some dating from the period of the Revolution. Also good for later reflections by French authors on the significance of the Revolution.
- Stewart, John Hall, ed., A Documentary Survey of the French Revolution, 1951. Despite its age, this is the best collection of the essential political documents in English. It contains items not generally excerpted in collections anymore, like the Law on Judicial Organization of 1790. Again, combing this volume for usable documents should be Standard Operating Procedure in this course.
- The Times Reports the French Revolution: Extracts from the Times, 1789-1794, ed. Neal Ascherson, 1973. Reports from England's major daily. This would be fun to use in conjunction with other sources, especially if you choose to focus on English or other foreign reactions to events in France.
- Tyson, George F., ed., Toussaint L'Ouverture (Great Lives Observed), 1973. Older but still excellent collection of documents from, and assessments of, the towering figure of the Haitian Revolution. This is not as out of date as one might think, since only now is this period getting the attention it deserves. Still, it is best to use this in conjunction with more recent work on Haiti by Laurent Dubois and David Geggus.
- Walter, Jakob, Diary of a Napoleonic Foot-Soldier, 1991. A valuable look at the life of a "grunt" (in this case, A German) in Napoleon's army during the height of the Empire. If you are using this for a paper on some aspect of the military history of the period, see me about supplementary sources.
The library has several periodicals and databases (like JSTOR) that contain frequent articles relating to the revolutionary and napoleonic periods. Each of these periodicals has annual, biannual, or quarterly indices. Check these indices and databases to see if there are any articles related to your topic. Some of the most important journals are:
American Historical Review
Eighteenth Century Studies
French Historical Studies
Journal of Contemporary History
Journal of Modern History
Past and Present
Other periodicals or past issues may be obtained through inter-library loan. In addition, the library has on-line databases of historical literature, which they tell me are under-utilized. So, utilize them, so that we can justify the cost.
Keep in mind that all these sources must be shared, so be considerate. Defacing, highlighting, underlining, hogging, stapling, folding, mutilating or otherwise abusing your reserve privileges will be dealt with severely if I find about it. Books are perishable items, and should be treated with respect, as should the students who come after you and have to use these sources too.
Of course, whole shelves full of books remain in the stacks, so don't confine yourself to the reserve and reference sections. For some topics, the circulating books may disappear fast, which means you shouldn't procrastinate on developing your topic. Please do not check out a mountain of books, and then "forget" to return the ones you don't use: someone may need the books that lay a-moldering under your bed. If Longwood doesn’t have what you need, don’t forget Hampden-Sydney, which has an equally good collection on the Revolution and Napoleon. HSC's on-line catalog is accessible through the Longwood library home page. The Longwood library’s web page contains other useful links to various library catalogs, searchable databases, and search engines for the World-Wide Web. If you click on "History" under "Research your topic", that will take you to a page with links for that discipline. Some of the pages under "art" will have high quality images from the period. Experiment, and you never know what you may find.
On questions of format (endnotes, bibliography, etc.), consult the departmental style sheet and your syllabus. In regard to proper names and words in French, I expect the correct French spelling, including accents, except for names that by tradition have become anglicized, like Napoleon. If your word processor does not support accents, do them by hand. Believe me, it is not that tough.
Oh, I almost forgot. Have a good time, and good luck.